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R. BRAITHWAITE, M.D., F.L.S., &c. 

VOL. I. 


' The means therefore which unto us are lent, 
Him to behold, is on His workes to looke, 
Which He hath made in beautie excellent: 
And in the same, as in a brazen booke, 
To read enregister'd in every nooke 

His goodnesse." 



All Rights Reserved. 


Steam Printing Works, 



VOL. I. 



R. BRAITHWAITE, M.D., F.L.S., &c., 



















THE great want of a guide to our recently much-extended Moss- 
Flora, and the solicitation of numerous friends, have induced the Author 
to commence a work which he trusts will meet the requirements of all 
who study these interesting plants. 

The cell structure of the leaves, so important in the distinction of 
genera and species, will receive due attention both in the figures and 
descriptions, and the bibliography, while not attempting to be exhaustive, 
will be ampler than has hitherto appeared in any British work ; the 
records of localities for all but common species will also be numerous, 
the mark ! after any of these indicates that the specimen has been 
examined, and ! ! that it is also in the Author's herbarium. 

In the nomenclature, the oldest published name has been adopted 
when there were no sound reasons to the contrary, and it is greatly to 
be deplored that so little attention has been paid to the laws drawn up 
for our guidance, for an author is not at liberty to change a specific name 
on transferring it to a new genus, nor to supersede by a new name, one 
previously published, even by himself. 

The term peristome is restricted to the outer or parietal series of 
appendages, when this organ is double, the inner, proceeding from the 
spore-sac, being distinguished as the endostome, and the adjective termination 
to specific names in honour of individuals is also altered to the genitive 
of the noun, as Brownii for Brownianum (see Lindley's Introduction to 
Botany, 2 ed. p. 458). 

The arrangement of the families and genera is principally in accord- 
ance with Professor Lindberg's admirable program, " Utkast till en natiirlig 
gruppering af Europas lladmossor med toppsittande frukt " (1878), the most 
natural which has yet appeared ; in this the cleistocarpous mosses as 
in Mr. Mitten's system are regarded as imperfectly developed forms of 
various stegocarpous families, with which they agree in everything but 
a separable operculum, and the genera are framed on a broader and more 
rational basis, just as our best botanists now deal with phaenogamous 

Professor Lindberg's terms for the position of the reproductive organs 
are also adopted, as being more precise than those ordinarily used. Kis 
definition of these is as follows : 

( <? and ? on the same plant.) 

1. Synoicous = S and ? mixed together in the same inflorescence 

(Perichatinm}. Ex. Bryum bimnm. 

2. Paroicous = 3 and ? in the same inflorescence, $ naked and 

axillary to the lower bracts, ? covered by the uppermost 
bracts. Ex. Bryum ntttans. 

3. Autoicous = $ and ? each in a separate inflorescence (andrcecitim 

and perichatium}. Ex. By. uliginosum. 

4. Heteroicous = synoicous + autoicous. Ex. Br. pendulum. 


(<? and ? on different plants.) 

5. Dioicous = androecium and perichaetium on different plants. Ex. 

BY. capillave. 

(<? and ? both on the same plant and on different plants). 

6. Polyoicous, under three forms: 

a. Synoicous + dioicous. Ex. Br. cnidum. 

b. Autoicous + dioicous. Ex. Dicranum scoparitmi. 

c. Heteroicous + dioicous. Ex. Br. pallescens. 

To the same kind friend I am indebted for many suggestions and 
specimens, and also to various correspondents at home, to whom as also 
to Mr. Baker, at Kew, and to Mr. Carruthers at the British Museum, 
for greatly facilitating my studies, and to Mr. Blair, F.L.S., for his careful 
reproduction of the drawings I here offer my warmest thanks, and trust 
that by their valuable assistance the work will prove acceptable to all 
students in Bryology. 



Acaulis, stemless. 

Accrescent, increasing in size. 

Acicular, needle shaped. 

Acinaciform, scimitar shaped. 

Acrocarpous, fruit terminating the stem or axis. 

Acrogenous, increasing at apex. 

Acuminate, tapering gradually to a point. 

Acuminulate, with a diminutive taper point. 

Acutate, slightly pointed. 

Acute, terminating at once in a point. 

Adnate, joined together, adhering to the face of 


Adventitious, in an unusual position. 
Mruginose, verdigris green. 
Agglomerated, clustered together. 
Aggregate, crowded. 
Ala, a wing. 

Alar cells, those at the basal angle of a leaf. 
Albescens, albicans, albidus, whitish. 
Alternate, one after another, but not opposite. 
Amentula, the catkins of male inflorescence in 


Amorphous, without definite form. 
Amplexicaul, clasping the stem. 
Andrcecium, the male inflorescence. 
Androgynous, male and female organs on the 

same receptacle. 

Annotinous, having annual shoots. 
Annulus, a ring of vesicular cells between the 

lid and mouth of capsule. 
Antheridia, the male reproductive organs. 
Antherozoids, the fertilizing elements in the 

Anthoid, like a flower, as the male inflorescence 

in Polytrichum. 
Anticus, inward. 
Antidromous, applied to the attachment of 

leaves when the spirals run in opposite 


Apical, belonging to the apex or point. 
Apiculus, an abrupt very short point continued 

from the lamina. 
Apiculate, having an apiculus. 
Apophysis, more correctly hypophysis. 
Appendiculate , having appendages or additional 


Appressed, applied closely to the stem. 
Archegonia, the female organs or rudimentary 


Arcuate, bent like a bow. 
Areolation, the network formed by the outline 

of cells. 

Aristate, awned, ending in a small bristly point. 
Articulated, jointed. 
Ascending, directed upward. 
Asperulous, slightly rough with little points. 
Assurgent, ascending upwards. 
Astomous, without a mouth. 
Asymmetric, irregular in outline. 
Attenuate, narrowing gradually. 
Auriculatc, having auricles or small lobes at 

Autoicous, male and female inflorescence on 

the same plant ; 3 forms : 

1. Cladautoicous, the male on a proper branch. 

2. Gonioautoicous, the male budlike and 
axillary on a female branch. 

3. Rhizautoicous, male branch very short, 
cohering to the female by the rhizome. 

Axillary, in the axil or basal hollow of a leaf or 

Badious, dull brown. 

Basal or basilar, at the base or lowest part. 

Bifarious, in two ranks. 

Bigeminate, in two pairs. 

Binate, in pairs. 

Bipartite, divided nearly to base into two parts. 

Bracts, the leaves enclosing the reproductive 

Byssaceous, divided into fine threads like wool. 

Caducous, soon falling off. 

Ccesious, glaucous green. 

Ccespitose, forming matted tufts. 

Ccespitulose, in very small tufts. 

Calcicolous, growing on limestone. 

Callose, hard and thick. 

Calyptra, the membranous veil covering the lid. 

Campanulate, bell shaped. 

Canaliculate, channelled. 

Cancscent, rather hoary. 

Capillary, hair-like. 

Capitate, forming a head. 

Capituliform, shaped like a capitulum or round 


Carinate, keeled. 
Carneous, flesh coloured. 
Carnosc, fleshy. 
Cartilaginous, hard and tough. 
Castaneous, chesnut coloured. 
Catenulate, chain-like. 
Catiline, belonging to the stem. 
Ccrnuous, drooping, inclining a little. 
Cervine, dark tawny. 
Chartaceous, papery. 

Chlorophyl, the green colouring matter of leaves. 
Cilia, hair-like processes. 
Ciliate, fringed with cilia. 
Cinereous, ashy grey. 
Circinate, bent circularly. 
Cirrhate, curled. 
Cirrhose, with a wavy hair-point. 
Cladocarpous, the fruit terminating a lateral 


Clavate, club shaped. 

Cleistocarpous, the capsule not opening by a lid. 
Coarctate, narrowed, squeezed up. 
Cochleariform, round and concave like a spoon. 
Collum, the neck or tapering base of the capsule. 
Columella, the central pillar in the capsule. 
Coma, the leaves or branches which form the 

crown of the stem. 
Comose, ending in hairs. 
Complanate, flattened. 
Complicate, folded together. 
Concave, hollow. 

Concolorous, of one uniform colour. 
Conduplicate, folded face to face. 
Confertus, crowded together. 
Confervoid, formed of fine threads. 
Confluent, running together. 
Congested, heaped together. 
Connate, joined together. 
Connivent, meeting in one point. 
Conoid, like a cone. 
Constricted, suddenly narrowed. 
Continuous, uninterrupted. 
Contorted, twisted like a rope. 
Convolute, rolled up. 
Cordate, heart shaped. 
Coriaceous, leathery. 
Corneous, horny. 

Corniculate, with a horn-like appendage. 
Cortical, belonging to the bark. 
Costate, having a nerve. 
Crenate, having convex teeth. 
Crenulate, minutely crenate. 


Cribrose, perforated like a sieve. 
Crinitus tipped with long, weak hairs. 
Crisped; crhpate, frizzled, curled and twisted in 

ted, or having an elevated notched 


Croceus, orange-yellow. 
Cruciate, arranged like a cross. 

CSSooded,the apex curved inward like 

a slipper. 

Cultriform, knife shaped. 
Cnncate, wedge shaped. _ 

Cuspidate, tapering gradually into a rigid point. 
Cuticular, belonging to the cuticle or outer skin. 
Cyathiform, cup shaped. 
Cycle, the turn of a spiral in leaf order. 
Cygneous, curved like a swan's neck. 
Cymbiform, boat shaped. 
Dcalbatus, whitened. 
Decimate, descending in an arched form. 
Decumbent, reclining on the ground and rising 

D^rrent, appHed to leaves when the lamina 

runs down the stem below the point of at. 

tachment. , 

Deflexed, bent downward through the whole 


Dehiscence, mode of bursting. 
Deltoid, triangular. 
Dendroid, tree-like. 
Dentate, toothed, having sharp teeth with con- 

cave edges. 

Denticulate, minutely toothed. 
Denudate, bared of leaves. 
Deopcrctilate, freed from the lid. 
Depauperate, starved or imperfectly developed. 
Dependent, hanging down. 
Depressed, flattened horizontally. 
Descending, directed gradually downward. 
Diaphanous, transparent. 
Diaphragm, a partition. 
Dichotomous, forked, divisions in pairs. 
Diffuse, spreading widely. 
Digitate, divided like fingers. 
Dimidiate, split on one side. 
Dimorphous, of two forms. 
Dioicous, male and female infl. on separate 


Diplo, in comp. double. 
Discoid, like a flat plate. 

Dispositio, arrangement of leaves in spirals on 
the stem, e.g. disp. % means that three com- 
plete turns will pass through 8 leaves. 

Distichous, in two opposite rows. 

Divaricate, straggling, spreading widely apart. 

Divisural line, the line down the teeth of a 
peristome, through which they split. 

Divergent, spreading outward from the centre. 

Dorsal, on the back or posterior. 

Echinate, with rigid bristles. 

Echlorophyllose, without chlorophyl. 

Ecostate, without a nerve. 

Edentate, without teeth. 

Elatcrs, spiral threads with the spores in 

Elliptic, long oval, equally rounded at both ends. 

Emarginate, notched at end. 

Emersed, protruding upward. 

Endostome, the internal peristome. 

Endothecium, endothecal membrane, the internal 
lining of the capsule. 

Enervis, without a nerve. 

Ensiform, sword shaped. 

Entire, free from any marginal division. 

Epidermis, the cuticular or outer layer of cells. 

Epiphragm, the dilated top of the columella in 
the Polytrichace*. 

Efiifihvllous, growing on leaves. 
Ffjual the two sides symmetric. 
Eqldtant^m two rows, with the bases sheathing 

those above. 

Erase, irregularly notched as if gnawed. 
Exannulate, without an annulus. 
Exasperate, roughened. 
Excttrrent, running out beyond the lamina. 
Exospore, the investing cell of the spore. 
Exostome, the outer peristome. 
Exothecium, the outer membrane of the capsule. 
Exsertcd, elevated above the surrounding parts. 

Falcate, sickle shaped. 

Fascicle, a bunch of leaves on a very short 


Fasciculate, collected in small bundles. 
Fastigiate, all the branches reaching an equal 


Fenestrated, perforated. 
Fertile, bearing fruit. 

fid, in comp: cleft. 

FibrillcB, fine threads. 

Filiform, thread-like. 

Fimbriate, fringed with processes. 

Fissile, tending to split. 

Flabelliform, fan shaped. 

Flaccid, flabby. 

Flagelliform, like the thong of a whip. 

Flavescent, becoming yellow. 

Flexuose, bending inward and outward. 

Foramen, a small hole. 

Forcipate, curved in like nippers. 

Fornicate, arched. 

Foveolate, pitted. 

Fugacious, disappearing quickly. 

Fulvous, tawny. 

Funiform, like a rope. 

Furcate, forked. 

Furfuraceous, scurfy with little scales. 

Fuscescent, tending to fuscous. 

Fuscotts, brown tinged with blackish. 

Fusiform, spindle shaped. 

Gamopkyllous, having united leaves. 

Geminate, in pairs. 

Gcmmaceous, like a small bud. 

Gemma, budlike bodies capable of becoming 


Geniculate, bent like a knee. 
Gibbous, very convex or tumid. 
Glabrous, smooth. 
Glaucescent, faintly glaucous. 
Glaucous, covered with bluish white bloom. 
Gonidia, cells filled with green granules. 
Granulated, rough on the surface, 
Gregarious, growing associated but not matted 


Gymnostomous, without a peristome. 
Gyncecium, the female inflorescence. 
Gyrate, circinate. 

Habit, general aspect of a plant. 

Habitat, situation where a plant grows. 

Hamate, hamulose, curved like a hook. 

Hastate, halbert shaped. 

Helicoid, twisted spirally. 

Heteromallous, the leaves or branches turned in 

different directions. 
Heter amorphous, of different forms. 
Hirtus, covered with weak hairs. 
'Hispid, covered with rigid hairs. 
Histology, the study of tissues. 
Homodromous, when the leaf spirals run in a 

uniform direction. 
Homomallous, the leaves or branches turned to 

one side. 

Homomorphous, of like form. 
Hyaline, clear as glass. 


Hygromctric, moving by influence of moisture, 

applied to the setae or teeth of peristome. 
Hypogynous, below the female. 
T ypophysis, an inflated part under the capsule. 


Imbricated, overlapping like tiles. 

Immarginate, not margined. 

Immersed, covered by the surrounding parts. 

Incanus, hoary. 

Included, not extending beyond the surrounding 


Incrassate, thickened by internal deposit. 
Incumbent, lying upon. 
Indthisccnt, not opening spontaneously. 
Indumentum, clothing or covering. 
Inflcxed, bent inward. 

Innovation, an annual shoot or extension of stem. 
Insertion, mode of attachment. 
Integerrimus, quite entire. 
Intcrnodes, spaces between the joints. 
Involute, rolled inward. 
Irregular, unsymmetric. 

?ugci, pairs of opposite leaves. 
ulaceous, smooth slender and cylindric. 

Lacinice, small shreds. 

Laciniate, cut or slashed. 

Lacunce, hollows. 

Lcete-virens, bright green. 

Lcevigatus, polished. 

Lamella, small plates. 

Lamina, the expansion of a leaf exclusive of 

Lanceolate, narrowly elliptic and tapering to 

each end. 

Lateral, attached to the side. 
Lamtginose, woolly. 
Lenticular, compressed like a double convex 

Leptodermous, thin coated, applied to capsules 

when soft and pliable. 
Ligulate, strap shaped. 

Limbatus, bordered by a part of another colour. 
Linear, narrow, with the margins parallel. 
Ungulate, tongue shaped. 
Loricate, equally narrow throughout. 
Lumen, the internal space or cavity of a cell. 
Lunulate, crescent shaped. 
Luridus, dirty brown. 
Lutescent, pale yellow. 

Mammillar, hemispherical with a projecting 


Marginal, at the edge. 
Marginatus, having a border of cells different 

in form or colour. 
Median, in the middle. 
Membranaceous, thin and semi-transparent. 
Mitriform, torn equally at base. 
Moniliform, like a necklace of beads. 
Monoicous, male and female infl. separate but 

on the same plant. 
Mucro, a short, abrupt point continued from the 


Mucronate, provided with a mucro. 
Mucronulate, with a very small mucro. 
Multijugous, having many pairs of leaves. 
Muricate, rough with sharp prominences. 
Muticous, pointless. 

Naked, without any appendages. 
Navicular, boat shaped. 
Neck, see collum. 
Nerve, the midrib of a leaf. 
Nidulant, nestling loosely. 
Nitidus, smooth and polished. 
Nodose, knobbed. 

Nodulose, thickened into little knobs. 
Nutant, nodding, hanging with the apex down- 

Ob , in comp. inversely, as obovate, in. 

versely ovate. 
Oblong, elliptic, obtuse at each end, with the 

longitudinal diameter 3 4 times the trans. 


Obsolete, scarcely apparent. 
Obtuse, terminating gradually in a rounded end. 
Obtusiusculus, rather obtuse. 
Ochraceous, brov^ish yellow. 
Ochrea, a thin sheath round the seta, terminating 

the vaginula. 
oid or oides, in comp. like, as mnioid, 

like the genus Mnium. 

Oosphere, the central cell of the archegonium. 
Operculum, the lid which closes the capsule. 
Orbicular, circular. 

Oval, elliptic and about twice as long as broad. 
Ovate, elliptic with the lower end broader. 

Pachydermous, thick coated, applied to the 

walls of capsules or to cells when firm and 


Pagina, the expanded surface of the leaf. 
Pallescent, palish. 
Palmate, 5-lobed from a centre. 
Pandurate or panduriform,- fiddle shaped, obo- 
vate with a sinus at each side. 
Papilla, small rounded prominences. 
Paraphylla, small foliaceous organs between 

the leaves, sometimes much cut or branched. 
Paraphyses, succulent jointed threads growing 

with the reproductive organs. 
Parenchymatous, cells with transverse ends. 
Parietal, attached to the wall. 
Paroicous, g and J in the same infl. ^ 

naked in the axils of lower bracts. 
Patent, spreading at an angle of 26 45 
Patulous, 46 90 

Pectinate, comb-like. 
Peduncle or pedicel, the fruit stalk. 
Penicillate, like a hair pencil. 
Percurrent, running through the entire length. 
Periandra, the bracts of male inflorescence. 
Pericarp, the wall of the capsule. 
Perichcetium, the involucre surrounding the base 

of the fruit stalk, the separate leaves are 

perichaetial bracts. 

Perigonium, the involucre of male inflorescence. 
Perigynium, the involucre of female in- 


Peristome, the teeth round the mouth of capsule. 
Persistent, remaining a long time. 
Phyllotaxis, the order of arrangement of leaves. 
Piliferous, ending in a fine weak point or hair. 
Pinnate, having branches on two opposite sides, 
Pistillidia, same as archegonia. 
Plane, flat. 
Pleurocarpous, producing fruit from the side of 


Plicate, plaited. 
Plumose, feathery. 
Polymorphous, of many form$. 
Pore, a small aperture. 
Posticus, outward or behind. 
Predominant, very conspicuous. 
Primordial utricle, the first layer deposited 

within the cell. 
Processes, divisions. 
Procumbent, spreading on the ground. 
Proembryo, the first growth from the spore. 
Proliferous, bearing an excessive development 

of parts. 
Prosenchymatous, composed of cells with pointed 


ProthaUium, an expanded frondiform proembryo. 
Protonema, a branched filamentous proembryo. 
Protoplasm, the formative material in living 



Prulnose, with minute elevations as if frosted. 

Pscudannulus, an apparent annulus of non- 
vesicular cells. 

Pseudopodium, an altered innovation, leafless, 
and often gemmiferous at apex. 

Ptigioniform, dagger shaped. 

Pulvinate, like a cushion. 

Punctate, with opake dots. 

Pungent, ending gradually in a hard sharp 

Pyriform, pear shaped. 

Quadrate, square. 

Rachis, the main axis. 

Radical, at the root. 

Radicles, root fibrils. 

Radiculose, covered with radicles. 

Ramenta, thin membranous scales. 

Ramulus, a small branch. 

Receptacle, the apex of stem in which the repro- 

ductive organs are fixed. 
Reclinate, bending back. 
Recurved, curved back. 
Reflcxed, suddenly bent back. 
Regular, symmetrical. 
Repand, slightly sinuous. 
Repent, creeping. 
Resupinate, inverted in position by twisting of 

the stalk. 

Reticulate, netted with projecting lines. 
Refuse, round at end with the centre depressed. 
Revolute, rolled back. 
Rhizina, hair-like radicles on the stem, also 

termed adventitious radicles. 
Rhizome, a creeping subterranean stem. 
Rimose, gaping in a chink. 
Rostellate, with a little short beak. 
Rostrate, beaked, terminating gradually in a 

long hard point. 

Rosulate, arranged like a rosette. 
Rubiginose, rusty red. 
Rufescent, reddish brown. 
Rugose, wrinkled. 
Rugulose, slightly wrinkled. 

Sanguineous, blood colour, 
Saxicolous, growing on stones. 
Scalpelliform, like the blade of a penknife. 
Scabrous, rough with minute warts. 
Scaberulus, slightly scabrous. 
Scariose, dry thin and semi-transparent. 
Secund, turned to one side. 
Semiamplexicaul, half clasping the stem. 
Semiterete, half cylindric. 
Septate, having partitions. 

Sericeous, with a silky gloss. 

Serrate, with sharp straight-edged teeth point. 

ing forward. 

Serrulate, with small serrations. 
Sessile, without evident pedicel. 
Seta, the fruit-stalk. 
Setaceous, bristle shaped. 
Sigmoid, curved like the letter S. 
Sinuose or sinuate, having the margin with 

alternate concavities and convexities. 
Spadiceus, a clear brown colour. 
Spathulate, from a lineal base gradually obovate. 
Spinulose, with minute prickles. 
Sporangium, the sac holding the spores. 
Spores, seeds. 
Sporogoniutn, the capsule. 
Squamose, scaly. 

Squarrosc, spreading out at right angles. 

Stegocarpous, the capsule having a lid. 

Stellate, radiating like a star. 

Stipitate, attached to a stipes or foot-stalk. 

Stolons, horizontal or descending shoots from 
the base of stem, with minute leaves. 

Stomata, air pores in the wall of capsule. 

Stramincus, straw coloured. 

Striate, marked with stride or slight furrows. 

Strigose, covered with sharp stiff hairs, stiff 
and pointed. 

Strumose, wich a swelling on one side at base. 

Stylidium, the upper end of the archegonium. 

Sub , in comp. somewhat, as subacute 

rather pointed. 

Subulate, awl shaped. 

Sulcate, furrowed with longitudinal channels. 

Surculus, a leafy upright shoot from the root. 

Suture, line of junction of two parts. 

Synoicous, antheridia and archegonia in one in- 

Systylius, the lid continuing fixed to the 
columella, and thus elevated above the cap- 
sule when dry. 

Terete, cylindric and tapering. 

Teretiusculus, very slightly terete. 

Terminal, at the end. 

Theca, the capsule. 

Tomentose, covered with tomentum or woolly 


Tortuose, irregularly bending and turning. 
Trabeculate, with transverse bars on the teeth 

of peristome. 
Triquetrous, triangular. 
Truncate, cut off abruptly. 
Tuberculate, covered with minute knobs. 
Turgid, slightly swollen. 
Turbinate, top shaped. 
Tympanum, see epiphragm. 

Umbonate, round with a projecting point in 
the centre. 

Umbraculiform, umbrella shaped. 

Uncinate, hooked, curved back at point. 

Undulate, with an alternately convex and con- 
cave margin. 

Unequal, the two sides not symmetric. 

Unguiculate, ending in a point like a claw. 

Urceolate, pitcher shaped. 

Utricles, oblong, somewhat inflated cells in 

Vaginant, sheathing. 

Vaginula, a sheath round the base of the seta 

where it joins the receptacle. 
Vaguely, without any definite direction. 
Valves, parts which separate in a definite 


Vascular, having vessels. 
Veil, the calyptra. 
Ventral, in front or anterior. 
Ventricosc, bulging on one side. 
Vermicular, thick cylindric, and bent at certain 


Verrucose, covered with prominences. 
Vesicular, inflated like a bladder. 
Villi, branched processes on the stem. 
Villose, covered with villi. 
Vittate, striped. 

cT , male. ? , female. 

, between, as 3 6, between 3 and 6. 

!, examined by the author. 
! !, in the author's herbarium, 
p.p., partly. 







tt Eleutherophyllete. 










15. BRYACE.^. 



18. MNIACE^E. 



MAY IST, 1880. 


1. A. petrophila. EHRH. 

2. alpina. (DILL.) SM. 
8. crassinervis. BRUCH. 

4. Rothii. WEB. MOHR. 

5. nivalis. HOOK. 


Fruit terminating the axis of stem, or becoming apparently lateral 
through being pushed aside by a new shoot. 

Capsule splitting vertically into valves united at base and apex. 

Fam. i. ANDRE^ACE^E. 

Mosses with the habit of the genus Grimmia, always growing on 
quartzose rocks, attached by a few radicles, and forming small, dense, 
very fragile, fuscous, rufous or black tufts. Stems rigid, slender, 
dichotomous or fasciculate. Leaves in 5 or 8 ranks, patent, secund 
or falcato-secund ; smooth or papillose, nerved or nerveless, ovate, 
lanceolate or subulate ; the cells minute, incrassate, rectangular at 
base, punctiform or angular above. 

Fruit terminal, solitary, enclosed in the large perichaetium up to 
maturity, then exserted on the elongated vaginula. Capsule ovate- 
oblong, without operculum, splitting into 4, or rarely 6 8 valves, 
united at apex, closed when moist, gaping widely and depressed when 
dry ; the wall of five cell-strata, without a distinct sporangial membrane ; 
columella cylindric, extending from base to apex. Calyptra campanu- 
late, closely adhering to capsule, mitriform, torn irregularly. Spores 
smooth. Male inflorescence gemmiform, terminal, or lateral by arrest 
of development. 

The species of Andnaa were united by the early authors with Jungev- 
mannia, but they agree with the true mosses in all points of structure, the 
only aberrant character being the valvate dehiscence of the capsule, giving 
them a superficial resemblance to that genus of Hepatica, to which also they 
slightly approximate in the form of their prothallium. Their true place 
appears to be between the Sphagnacea and frondose mosses, since they 
present certain points of agreement with the former, in the capsule being at 
first enclosed in a similar large saccate calyptra, and then elevated on an 
elongated pseudopodium, and also in the prothallium partaking somewhat of 
the lobate form seen in Sphagnum. 

The plants entirely agree with the genus Grimmia in habit, mode of 
growth, and structure of leaves, but they deviate so widely from it in the 
fruit, that I prefer to follow Bridel in retaining them in a separate section. 
My friend Lindberg places them as the lowest family of the acrocarpous 
mosses, and next after the Grimmiacete. 

The Andreaacete are entirely confined to granite or slate rocks and 
boulders, and to mountains, stony regions, or the high latitudes of the arctic 
and antarctic zones, and this no doubt accounts for the great uniformity in 
their structure and habit. The pachydermous nature of their cells gives the 
leaves an almost cartilaginous texture, and thus enables them to resist the 
pelting storms which harass the elevated districts they inhabit, and produce 
that debris of their tissues and of the adjacent rocks, which always more or 
less infiltrates the tufts. This thickened cell tissue, combined with the dark 
color, greatly obscures the definition of the nerve and cells under the 
microscope, and a preparatory treatment with Liq. Soda? or Potassae will be 
found of the greatest assistance in their examination ; by placing a moistened 
branch in a few drops of the caustic alkali on a slide, heating it over a 
spirit lamp, and then soaking well in clean water, the leaves become soft 
and flaccid, and every cell clearly defined. 

The family includes but a single genus of about 50 species, which may 
be arranged in three sections. 

1. Euandreaea. LINDB. Marked by its distinct convolute perichaetium, 
and deeply 4-fid capsule. 

2. Chasmocalyx. LINDB. Without any evident perichaetium, and deeply 
4-8 valved capsule ; includes only A . nivalis HOOK, and australis 

3. Acroschisma. HOOK. WILS. Having the capsule cleft only at the 
upper end into 4-8 valves; comprising A. Wilsoni HOOK, and densi- 
folia MITT. 

The greatest number of species is found in the islands of the antarctic 
regions, but a fair proportion is also met with on the elevated mountains of 
South America, while Northern India and Australia also possess certain 
endemic forms ; in Europe the Scandinavian peninsula is the head-quarters 
of the family. 

Several minute branched lichens Ephebe pubescens, Leptogium muscicola, &c., 
occasionally infest the leaves, but in the S. American A . arachnoidea C. Mull ; 
the leaves are overrun with minute filaments, truly produced by the plant 
itself. For an exhaustive account of the development and structure of these 
plants, we may refer to the admirable paper of Kiihn " Entwickelungsgeschichte 
der Andreaaceen" (Leipzic, 1870), and an equally valuable one by Berggren 
" Studierofver Mossornas byggnadochutveckling" in Act. univ. Lund. IV. n. 12 
(1867) ; both of which are illustrated by excellent plates. 


Hannov. Mag. 1778, 101 Stuck, p. 1601 ; et Beitr. i. pp. 15 e t 180 (1787). 

Acrocarpous mosses of a reddish, brown or black color, growing in 
small dense fragile tufts. Capsule sessile on the elongated vaginula, 
splitting into 4 rarely 6 or 8 valves, united at base and apex. 
Calyptra thin, adherent, mitriform, torn irregularly. 

Dillenius was the first author who recognized any species of the present 
genus, and he described and figured two in his Historia Muscorum, under 
the names Ltchenastrum alpinum atrorubens tens, calycibus squamosis " (A. alpina), 

and " L ichenastrtim alpinum nigricans, foliis capillaceis reflexis" (A. falcata). 
Linnaeus also had two species to which he referred the Dillenian mosses, 
and placed under Jungermannia as J. alpina and J. mpestris, but he evidently 
had no correct idea of them, as the specimens in his herbarium belong as 
regards the former to A. petrophila EHRH., and the latter to A. obovata THED. 

The genus was first established by Ehrhart in honor of his friend 
J. G. R. Andreas, an apothecary of Hanover, and his excellent character of 
it stands as follows : " Perichaetium squamosum ; squama? lanceolatae, carinatae, 
imbricatae. Anthophorum longitudine perichaetii. Calyptra conica brevissima. 
Stylopodium nullum. Conioecium oblongum, subtetragonum, 4 sulcatum. 
Apophysis turbinata. Valvulae 4 carinatae, angulares, basi apophysi apicibus 
conjunctorio adnatae. Suturae laterales ex medio sursum deorsumque 
versus dehiscentes. Conjunctorium obtusiusculum. Dissepimentum nullum. 
Styliscus cylindricus. Sporae subtilissimae." 

Ehrhart knew only one species A . petropltila, and confusion at once crept 
in, for this was universally regarded as identical with our A. alpina, due no 
doubt to the curious fact, that this common British species is almost entirely 
absent from the continent of Europe ; then Hedwig defined the 4 valves of 
the capsule as peristomial teeth united to a persistent operculum, and the 
confusion was complete when he and Mohr made A. petrophila EHRH. into two 
species, A . alpina and mpestris, which they considered to be synonymous with 
those of Dillenius, and in this error were followed by nearly all subsequent 
writers down to our own day, until Thedenius cleared matters up in his 
classical paper," Observationes de enervibns Scandinavia speciebus generis Andrew," 
and Schimper finally settled the genus in his exquisite monograph in the last 
part of the Bryologia Europoea. It may be noted that the British authors 
who possessed the true A . alpina still retained the name mpestris for A . petrophila 
EHRH., which had been given to that form of it with secund leaves, the 
var. homomalla. 

That Mohr, however, was not altogether satisfied with his determi- 
nation is evident from what he says under A. mpestris, HEDW. ? (Bot. 
Taschenb, p. 384) as follows : " It is not to be denied that the leaves of 
A . alpina and rupestris do not differ, except that in the latter the apex of the leaf 
is laterally curved, from which the leaves become remarkably homomallous. 
Hedwig incorrectly ascribes to A . alpina, leaves smooth at back ; to A . mpestris, 
leaves muricate or papillose at back; both are truly very lightly papillose at 
back under a high power." Bridel was evidently of opinion that they were 
not distinct, for he states that he considers these forms so similar that they 
can with difficulty be regarded as proper species. It is also clear that 
Hedwig had specimens of the true A. alpina, but failed to distinguish them, 
for that species has smooth cells, but A . petrophila has them distinctly and 
coarsely papillose. With respect to this important character of smoothness 
or papillosity of the cell walls, it may be well to refer to a paper by 
Schliephacke, " Ueber das genus Andretea," in Verhandl. Zool. Bot. Gerfsells. 
Wien XV., p. 423 (1865), where these characters are contrasted, both in the 
natural state and after treatment with caustic alkali. 

The other European Andreczas not found in Britain are, A. papillosa 
LINDB., an excellent species from Spitzbergen and Mt. Tjidtjak, in Lapland; 
A. obovata THED., A. Hartmani THED., and A. Blyttii SCHIMP., all three 

confined to Scandinavia. I agree with Lindberg in regarding A. Thedenii 
SCHIMP., as a var. of A. Hartmani, and A. sparsifolia ZETTERST., as a var. of 
A.petrophila, very near to alpestris. 

nceolate, papillose, entire 
Leaves obovate-spathulate, apiculate, smooth, serrate at basal margin. 

Leaves nerveless. 

Leaves ovato-lanceolate, papillose, entire 



S "Leaves oblong at base, subulate, smooth ; nerve toward apex without any 



Leaves ovate at base, lanceolate, smooth ; nerve flattened, the lamina narrowed 
but distinct to apex. 


Leaves oblongo-lanceolate, papillose, laxly areolate ; nerve narrow, the lamina 
broad and distinct to apex. 



Leaves and perichaetial bracts different in form, the latter erect and 
convolute, nerveless, or scarcely nerved. 

* Leaves nerveless. 

i. A. PETROPHILA. Ehrh. 

Autoicous ; in small, fragile, olive green or fuscous tufts. Leaves 
nerveless, crowded, from an erect base, divergent, sometimes secund, 
entire, papillose at back, ovate or ovato-lanceolate, the apex muticous 
and somewhat obliquate ; areolation incrassate, punctiform and 
orbicular at apex, sinuoso-rectangular at base. Perichsetial bracts 
large, convolute. (T. IA.) 

Svm.yungcrmannia alpina L. Sp. PI. 1135, n. 22 (1753) ; et 2 ed. ii, 1601 (1763), p.p. et herb. 
WEB. Spic. Fl. Gott. 152, excl. syn. (1778). RETZ. Fl. Scand. Prod. 221, excl. syn. (1779). 

ROTH Fl. Germ, i, 485 (1788). .Fl. Dan. t. 1002, f. i (1790). LILJEBL. Svensk Fl. 323 
{1792). SCHRAD. Spic. Fl. Germ. 76 (1794). HUEB. Hepat. Germ. 301, excl. syn. pi. 

Andr. petrophila EHRH. in Hann. Mag. 1784, 9 Stuck, 140; Beitr. i, 192 (1787), excl. syn. 
et Dec. Crypt, n. 67 (1786). HOFFM. Deutsch. Fl. ii, 80 (1796). STURM Deutsch. Fl. 
fasc. 2, 3, f. b. C. D. (1799). THEDEN. in Nya Bot. Not. 1849, p. 78, f. 37-44. HARTM. 
Skand. Fl. 6 ed. 437 (1854). ZETTERST. Mon. Andr. Scand. 42 (1855). SCHIMP. Bry. 
Eur. vi, Mon. 13, T. i (1855) 5 Syn. Muse. Eur. 660 (1860) et 2 ed. 812 (1876). SULL. 
Moss. Unit. St. 13 (1856). HOOK. FIL. Fl. Tasm. ii, 161 (1860) ; Handb. N. Zeal. Fl. 
400 (1867). BERK. Handb. Br. M. 309 (1863). MITT. Jour. Lin. Soc. xii, Bot. 628 
(1869). MILDE Bry. Siles. 256 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. Briol. Ital. 746 (1869). HOBK. 
Syn. Br. M. 21 (1873). 

A. petrophila, a. alpina et ft. rupestris WALLROTH Fl. Crypt. Germ. 92, excl. syn. plur. 

A. rupestris HEDW. Sp. Muse. 47, T. 7, f. 2, excl. syn. (1801). SMITH Fl. Brit. 1178, excl. 
syn. (1804) ; Eng. Bot. t. 1277, excl. syn. plur. (1804). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 42 (1805). 
BRID. Muse. Rec. ii, P. i, 44 (1806). WEB. MOHR. Bot. Tasch. 384, t. u, f. 5, 6 (1807). 
HOOK. Trans. Lin. Soc. X, 391, T. 31, f. 2, excl. syn. plur. (1810). SCHWAEGR. Supp. I, 
P. i, 42 (1811). HOOK. TAY. Muse. Br. 2, t. 8 (1818). SMITH Comp. Fl. Br. 3 ed. 163 
(1818). HOOK. Fl. Scot. P. 2, 121 (1821). GRAY Nat. Arr. Br. PI. i, 709, 2 (1821). BRID. 

Bry. Un. ii, 726 (1827). SPRENG. Syst. Veg. iv, 216 (1827). SWARTZ Adnot. Bot. 181, 
excl. syn. L. et DILL. (1829). HOOK. Br. Fl. ii, 5 (1833). Fl. Dan. Tab. 2125, f. 2, excl. 
syn. plur. (1834). MACKAY Fl. Hib. P. 2, 7 (1836). HARTM. Skand. Fl. 3 ed. 315 (1838). 

GAROV. Bry. Austr. exc. 10 (1840). ANGST. Disp. Muse. 23 (1842) ; et in FRIES Summa 
Veg. Sc. 97 (1846). RABENH. Deutsch. Krypt. Fl. ii, P. 3, 71 (1848). C. MUELL. Syn. 
Muse, i, 6, excl. syn. L. et DILL. (1849). WILS. Bry. Brit. 12, t. 8 (1855). 
A. alpina TURN. Muse. Hib. 13 (1804). BRID. Muse. Rec. ii, P. 1,45 (1806); et Mant. 
Muse. 207 (1819). WEB. MOHR. Bot. Tasch. 383, t. n, .3,4(1807). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, 
P. i, 42 (1811). VOIT Muse. Herbip. 130 (1812). WAHLEN. Fl. Lapp. 306, excl. syn. 
L. DILL, et Eng. Bot. (1812) ; Fl. Carpat. 334, excl. syn. L. et. Eng. Bot. (1814) ; et Fl. 
Upsal. 392 (1820). SWARTZ Summ. Veg. Scand. 38 (1814). LILJEBL. Svensk Fl. 3 ed. 

569 (1816). ASPEGREN Blek. Fl. 74 (1823). FRIES Stirp. Agr. Femsjon. 29 (1825). 
BRID. Bry. univ. ii, 728, p.p. (1827). SWARTZ Adnot. Bot. 180, excl. syn. L. et DILL. 
(1829). HARTM. Skand. Fl. 2 ed. 354 (1832). WAHLEN. Fl. Suec. 2 ed. ii, 809 (1833). 

DE NOT. Syll. Muse. n. 480 (1838). GAROVAGL. Bry. Austr. exc. 10 (1840). ANGSTR. 

Disp. Muse. 23 (1842) ; et in FRIES Summ. Veg. Sc. 97 (1846). RABENH. Deutsch. 

Krypt. Fl. ii, P. 3, 71 (1848). 
A. alpina /3 subsccunda WAHLEN. Fl. Lapp. 306 (1812); et Fl. Suec. 2 ed. 809 (1833). 

SWARTZ Summ. Veg. 38 (1814). LILJEBL. Sv. Fl. 3 ed. 569 (1816). HARTM. Sk. Fl. 

380 (1820). FRIES Stirp. Agr. Femsjon. 29 (1825). 
Jungerm. rupestris HUEB. Hepat. Germ. 303, excl. syn. plur. (1834). 

Autoicous ; rufescent, olivaceous or blackish. Stems caespitose, 
-1 in. high, nearly erect, simple or dichotomous. Leaves crowded, 
nerveless, varying much in form, direction, and texture, from an erect 
base, suberect and laxly appressed when dry, patent and divaricate when 
moist ; straight or a little incurved at apex, often secund on the young 
surculi ; ovato or oblongo-lanceolate, muticous or with a minute apiculus, 
concave, generally obliquate at apex and hence slightly asymmetric, the 
margin entire, subinflexed, the point often with a hyaline border and 
crenulate. Areolation dense, sinuoso-linear at base, dot-like and 
orbicular at apex, the cells strongly and obtusely papillose at back, 
especially in the upper part of leaf. 

Perichsetium large, outer bracts imbricated, inner convolute, very 
broad, oblong, smooth, soft, and yellowish. Capsules small, pale at 
base, rufo-fuscous. Male infl. on distinct branches (cladautoicous) , bracts 
three, very concave, broadly ovate, pointed ; antheridia 5-7. 
HAB. Mountain rocks ; common. Fr. 6-8. 

A green obtuse leaved form on The Cobbler, Arrochar (George 1879) ! ! 

It is only in mountainous districts that this little moss forms a con- 
spicuous object on the rocks, which are dotted over with its beautiful brown 
or black cushions, so slightly attached at the root that it is but seldom good 
herbarium specimens can be procured. The number of varieties quoted 
under this species are evidence of the varied aspects it presents to us, but 
however much the leaves may differ in color, form, or direction, their cell 
structure exhibits great uniformity, and indicates that sound characters for 
the distinction of species must chiefly be based on this feature. The pale 
color of the base and neck of the capsule in this plant is very marked. 

Var. ft. Homomalla. THEDEN. 

Stems short, laxly pulvinate, olivaceous, green above, fuscous below. 
Leaves ovate or oblongo-lanceolate, more or less falcato-secund, obtuse. 

SYN. Andr. rupestris WEB. & MOHR, SMITH, HOOK., C. MUELL. et plur. auct. cit. sub forma 


Andr. petrophila Var. y. homomalla THEDEN. in Nya. Bot. Not. 1849, P- 79> fig- 48-54. 
SCHIMP. Syn. Muse. 661, et 2 ed. 813. ZETTERST. Mon. Andr. Scand. 43. 

HAB. Glen Callater, Braemar (Hunt) ! ! Castel-y-Gwynt, Carnarvon at 3000 ft. (Beckett 
1880) ! ! 

This appears to be a form rather than a variety, as the secund dis- 
position of the foliage is found more or less developed in varieties differing 
widely in other respects. The obtuse, obliquate apex of the leaf and large 
size of the upper cells may prove more characteristic. It seems to be only 
sparingly distributed both here and on the continent. 

Var. y. Acuminata. SCHIMP. 

Plants more robust, olive green or blackish. Leaves spreading, longer 
and more acuminate, with longer papillae. 

SYN. A.petrophila Var. ft. acuminata SCHIMP. B. E. vi, Mon. 13, t. II, ft', Synops. Muse. 
661, et 2 ed. 813. 

HAB. Rocks on the higher mountains. 

Glen Callater, Braemar (Fergusson 1868) ! ! Ben Macdhui (Hunt 1871) ! ! Cader Idris 
(Pearson 1876) ! ! Strachan, Kincardine, and Rona's hill, Shetland (Sim 1878) ! ! 
Slack of Birnie, Fourdoun (Sim) \ ! Ben Nevis, at 4000 ft. abundant (George 1879) ! ! 
Abergynalwyn (Whitehead 1879) ! ! 

Closely allied to the varieties robusta, flaccida and sylvicola, and perhaps 
with them only constituting one good variety characterized by the taper- 
pointed leaves. 

Var. 8. Flaccida. SCHIMP. 

In soft, black tufts, with branched, flexuose stems. Leaves squarroso- 
patent, lanceolate, pointed, rather obtuse. 

SYN. A. petrophila Var. y. flaccida SCHIMP. B. E. vi, Mon. 13, t. II, yj Syn. Muse. 661, et 
2 ed. 813. 

HAB. Rocks in Glen Callater, Braemar (Hunt 1871) ! ! Canlochan (Hunt 1868) ! ! 

This is a more robust plant than the Var. alpestvis, which it somewhat 
resembles in the form and direction of the leaves, but these in the dry state 
are widely divergent or even subsquarrose, and also of a larger size. 

Var. e. Sylvicola. SCHIMP. 

In small, lax tufts, short, slender, decumbent at base. Leaves small, 
partly secund, rather distant, longly lanceolate-acuminate, acute. 
SYN. A.petrophila\M. c. sylvicola SCHIMP. E. E. vi, Mon. 13, t. II, e; Syn. Muse. 661, et 

HAB. Ben Macdhui, Glen Callater and Loch Kandor (Hunt 1871) ! 1 

Var. . Gracilis. SCHIMP. 

Stems slender, branched, rufescent ; surculi straight, elongated ; leaves 
more distant, suberect, broadly oblongo-lanceolate ; perichaetium narrow, 

SYN. A. petrophila Var. . gracilis SCHIMP. B. E. vi, Mon. 13, t. II, ; Syn. Muse. 661 ; et 
2 ed. 813. 

HAB. Elevated mountain districts. 

Stye-head pass, Borrowdale (Hunt 1871) ! ! Cader Idris (Pearson 1874) ! !, 
Braemar (Sim 1876) ! ! Ben Nevis, near summit (George 1879) ! ! 

Two forms of this variety occur, one rufous brown, to which the 
Braemar plant belongs, the other, more slender and of a beautiful rosy 
purple tint, represented by Mr. George's specimens. The first is identical 
with Stockholm specimens from Lindberg, and readily distinguished by its. 
straight branches and suberect leaves. 

Var. >;. Alpestris. THEDEN. 

In densely cushioned black-brown tufts. Stems very slender, much 
branched. Leaves small, crowded, closely imbricated when dry, obtuse, 
laxly areolate, less distinctly papillose. 

SYN. And. petrophila Var. alpcstris THED. in Nya Bot. Not. 1849, p. 79, fig. 45-47. HARTM. 
Skand. Fl. 6 ed. 437. ZETTERST. Mon. Andr. Scand. 43. 

Andr. alpina DE NOT. Syll. Muse. p.p. 

Andr. alpcstris SCHIMP. Bry. Eur. vi, Mon. 16, T. IV., Syn. Muse. Eur. 662 ; et 2 ed. 814. 
DE NOT. Epil. Briol. Ital. 747. HARTM. Skand. Fl. 7 ed. HOBK. Syn. Br. M. 21. 

HAB. Wet rocks on the higher mountains of Scotland ; rare. 

Glen Callater, Braemar (Croall 1853) ! ! Morone, Braemar (Hunt 1871) ! ! Ben Challum, 
Perthshire (McKinlay 1866) ! ! Uam Mhor, Perthshire (McKinlay 1865) ! 

This variety appears to stand midway between A. petrophila and 
A . obovata, but agrees entirely with the first in the form and areolation of the 
leaf, though differing remarkably in aspect, by its very slender, branching 
stems, and smaller, closely imbricated leaves. None of our specimens come 
quite up to the standard of the Scandinavian plant, being thicker and more 
stunted and thus as it were intermediate between ordinary A . petrophila and 
the type of the variety ; this is especially the case with the Perthshire 

Var. . Sparsifolia. (ZETT.) LINDB. 

In small, lax tufts; olivaceous or rufescent; stems very slender and 
fragile, fiexuose, with few branches. Leaves small, distant, spreading, the 
uppermost secund or subfalcate, lanceolate, gradually acuminate, acute, less 
distinctly papillose. 

SYN. Andr. sparsifolia ZETTERST. Mon. Andr. Scand. 32. SCHIMP. Synops. 665 ; et 2 ed. 817. 
DE NOT. Epil. Briol. ital. 746. HARTM. Sk. Fl. 

HAB. Near the summits of the higher mountains. Very rare. 
Summit of Ben More, Perthshire (George 1875). 


Although smaller in all its parts than Norwegian specimens, for which 
I am indebted to the kindness of Prof. Lindberg, the Scotch plant is 
unquestionably the same, and it is equally certain that it must take its place 
in the long series of forms referable to Andr. petrophila, of which it is the most 
marked variety, a position we prefer to that of establishing intermediate 
subspecies. The areolation is also less completely circular than in the Scandi- 
navian plant, which, it may be mentioned, grows associated -with Andr. obovata 
and Hartmani, two species still desiderata in the British Flora. 

2. A. ALPINA. (Dill.) Sm. 

Autoicous ; tall, erect, in soft, glossy, chocolate brown tufts. 
Leaves nerveless, spathulato-obovate, subpanduriform, imbricated when 
dry, abruptly acuminate, with an acute apex, smooth, the margin 
obtusely denticulate at base ; perichaetial bracts ovate-oblong, convolute. 

SYN. Lichenastrnm alphttim atrorubens tercs, calyclbus squamosis DILLEN. Hist. Muse. 506, 
n- 39. t- 73. f - 39 A - D (!74 J ) ; et herbar. 

Jungermannia alpina L. Sp. PI. 1135, n. 22 (1753) ; et 2 ed. ii, 1601, n. 23 (1763), p.p. non 
herbar. HUDS. Fl. Angl. 436, n. 24 (1762), et 2 ed. ii, 517 (1778). WITHER. Bot. Arr. 
Br. Veg. ii, 698, n. 30 (1776). LIGHTF. Fl. Scot, ii, 787, n. 22 (1777). LAICHARD. Veg. 
Eur. ii, 657 (1791). MURRAY Syst. Veg. 803 (1798). HULL Br. Fl. P. 2, 281 (1799). 
DICKS. Hort. sice. fasc. 3, n. 23. 

Andreaa alpina SMITH Fl. Brit. 1179, excl. syn. nonnull. et Eng. Bot. 1. 1278 (1804) ; et herbar. 
HOOK. Trans. Lin. Soc. X, 388, excl. syn. plur. T. 31, f. i (1810). SMITH Comp. Fl. Br. 3 ed. 
163 (1818). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. Biit. i, t. 8 (1818). HOOK. Fl. Scot. P. 2, 120 (1821). 
GRAY Nat. Arr. Br. PI. i, 709, i (1821). GREV. ARM. Mem. Wern. Soc. IV, t. 7, f. 1-4 
(1822). SPRENG. Syst. Veg. iv, 216 (1827). BRID. Bry. univ. ii, 728, p.p. (1827). HOOK. 
Br. Fl. ii, 5, excl. syn. plur. (1833). MACKAY Fl. Hib. P. 2, 7 (1836). C. MUELL. Syn. 
Muse, i, 7 (1849). THED. in Bot. Not. 1849, p. 77. HARTM. Skand. Fl. 6 ed. 437 (1854). 
WILS. Bry. Brit, ii, t. 8 (1855). ZETTERST. Mon. Andr. Scand. 37 (1855). SCHIMP. 
Bry. Eur. vi, Mon. 19, t. VI (1855) ; Syn. Muse. 666 (1860), et 2 ed. 818 (1876). BERK. 
Handb. Br. M. 309, t. 2, f. 6 (1863). HOBK. Syn. Br. M. 21 (1873). 

Andr. rupcstris Var. gigantea SWARTZ in Herb. Turner. 

Autoicous; in dense, blackish-red, glossy tufts. Stems erect, 
1-3 in. high, fastigiate, much branched, filiform and naked at base. 
Leaves nerveless, densely crowded, closely appressed at base when dry, 
with the apices patent : erecto-patent when moist, with the apices 
straight or subincurved, smooth, glossy, obovate, contracted a little 
below the middle, or from an oblong base, spathulate, with a short 
acumen at apex ; the margin obtusely serrate above the base, entire in 
upper part. Areolation flexuoso-linear at base, minute and rounded 
above, in parallel rows. 

Perichcetium large, of 6-7 leaves, bracts resembling the comal 
leaves, apex with a hyaline border, innermost convolute, gradually 
acuminate; capsule oblong-ovate, black-brown, on a dark pseudo- 

Male infl. obtusely gemmiform, paraphyses very long, flexuose, 
clavate, bracts broadly ovate. (T. IB.) 

HAB. Mountain rocks, not uncommon. Fr. 6-7. 

Very fine in the Lake district as in Ennerdale and Easdale (Baker) I ! Teesdale (Spruce) ! ! 
Cader Idris (Whitehead) ! ! Llyn-y-Cwm (Baker) ! ! Twll-du (Holmes) \ \ Scotland 
Ben Lomond and Ben Lawers (Braithwaite) \ \ Braemar (Hunt) \ \ Broad-leaved form, 
The Cobbler, Arrochar (George 1879) ! ! Flaccid dwarf form, rocks in stream, Glen 
Croe, Arrochar (George 1879) ! ! Small form sent as A. obovata, Glen Callater 
(Fergusson 1868) ! ! Ireland. Kerry, Wicklow and Galway (Moore). 

Common as this beautiful moss is with us, it is utterly unknown on the 
continent, with the exception of a few stations in Norway, and has thus led 
to great confusion in the synonymy of the older authors. In the Linnean 
herbarium it is represented by A . petrophila, and in Sweden by A . obovata, a 
species having leaves gradually lanceolate in the upper half, the basal 
margin quite entire, and the apical cells much larger and more angular. 

Var. /?. Compacta. HOOK. 

In densely cushioned tufts of a lurid blackish purple color ; the branches 
straight, equal and fastigiate ; the leaves closely imbricated. 

SYN. Andr. alpina Var. y compacta HOOK, in Trans. Lin. Soc. X, 389 (1810). BRID. Bry. 
univ. ii, 730. 

HAB. Elevated mountains in Scotland and Wales. 

Ben Nevis (Hooker and Borrer 1806) ! On the ground, summit of Great Glyder, Carnarvon 
(Holmes and George 1878) ! ! 

Var. y. Flavicans. HOOK. 

Stems elongated, filiform, the leaves more distant, laxly imbricated, 

SVN. Andr. alpina Var. ft. flavicans HOOK, in Trans. Lin. Soc. X, 389 (1810). BRID. Bry. 
univ. ii, 730. 

HAB. Scotland, summit of Ben Nevis (Hooker and Borrer 1806) ! 

This marked variety has a strong superficial resemblance to A . Hartmani, 
but is readily distinguished by its more acute leaves, and much more minute 

* * Leaves nerved. 


Autoicous ; in brown-black tufts. Leaves patent or falcato-secund, 
from an oblong base, subulate, nerve strong, flattened below, passing 
into the terete sub-papillose subula. (T. Ic.) 

SYN. A. crassincrvia BRUCH in Denkschr. Akad. Munch. 1828, p. 279, n. i, t. 10. RABENH. 
Deutsch. Krypt. Fl. ii, P. 3, 72 (1848). C. MUELL. Syn. Muse. i,io (1849). SCHIMP. Bry. 
Eur. vi, Mon. 23, t. XI (1855) ; Syn. Muse. Eur. 668 (1860), et 2 ed.82o (1876). HARTM. 
Skand. Fl. SULL. Moss. Un. St. 13 (1856). LINDB. in Journ. Lin. Soc. xi, 460 (1870). 
HOBK. Syn. Br. M. 22 (1873). 

Autoicous ; in rigid depressed dark brown or black, slightly glossy 
tufts. Stems sparingly subfastigiate-branched -f in. high, very fragile. 
Leaves crowded, divaricate, usually falcato-secund, from an oblong very 

concave base, subulate, smooth, quite entire at margin, nerve semiterete, 
faint at base, running out into a terete papillose subula. Areolation at 
apex very small, hexagono-quadrangular, larger at base, rectangular in 
the middle, quadrate at margin. 

Perichsetium convolute, outer bracts oblongo-lanceolate, erecto- 
patent, nerveless at base, broadly nerved at apex, inner convolute, 
nerveless, elongate-oblong, shortly apiculate. Capsule oblong, brown, 
short-necked. Male infl. an ovate bud, inner bracts broadly ovate, 
HAS. Alpine rocks. Fr. 7-8. 

Dewerstone rocks, Dartmoor (Holmes) ! ! Falcon clints, Teesdale (Slater 1853) ! ! Hebden 
bridge (Hunt 1864) ! ! Soccoth hill, Arrochar (McKinlay 1866) ! ! Grisedale, Cumber, 
land (Baker 1867) ! ! Near Buttermere (Hunt) ! ! Pen-y-Ghent, Yorks.,and Tintwistle, 
Cheshire (Whitehcad 1868) ! ! Pont Aberglaslyn (Wilson 1869) ! ! Caderldris (Pearson 
1876) ! ! Tyn-y-Gros, Snowdon (Wild 1877) ! ! Dumyat, Stirling (Croall 1877) ! ! 
Upper Lough Bray, Ireland (Moore).- Abergynalwyn (Whitehead 1879) ! ! 

Close as this stands to the next species it may readily be recognized by 
the subulate point, composed apparently of the excurrent nerve, but which, 
after treatment with caustic alkali, will be seen to have a border of a single 
row of cells, which observed in the dry state by reflected light stand out as 

4. A. ROTHII. Web. Mohr. 

Autoicous; in black tufts. Leaves divergent or secund, from an 
ovate base, lanceolate, nerved ; the nerve flattened, thin, vanishing at 
apex, with a more or less evident lamina quite to the point. (T. HA.) 

Sim.yuHgermannia rufcstris HUDS. Fl. Angl. 436, n. 22 (1762) ; et 2 ed. ii, 516, n. 23 (1778). 
WITHER. Bot. Arr. Br. Veg. ii, 698, n. 28 (1776). LIGHTF. Fl. Scot, ii, 787, n. 21 (1777). 
WEB. Spic. Fl. Gott. 154, n. 217 (1778). RETZ. Fl. Scand. Prod. 221 (1779). ROTH Fl. 
Germ, i, 485, n. 28 (1788). LAICHARD. Veg. Eur. ii, 657 (1791). LILJEBL. Svensk. 
Fl. 323 (1792). SCHRAD. Spic. Fl. Germ. 75 (1794). MURR. Syst. Veg. 803 (1798). 
Andr. rupestris ROTH Neue Beytr. i, 234, excl. syn. (1802). WEB. f. in WEB. MOHR 
Archiv. i, P. I, 125, t. IV, f. 2 (1804). WAHLENB. Fl. Lapp. 306, excl. syn. Eng. B. 
(1812) ; et Fl. Suec. 2 ed. ii, 810 (1833). SWARTZ Summ. Veg. Scand. 58 (1814). Sw. 
in LILJEBL. Svensk. Fl. 3 ed. 569 (1816). BRID. Mant. Muse. 206 (1819). WAHLB. Fl. 
Oot 5, ob - " 2 ( I82 4)- FRIES St. Agr. Femsjon. 29 (1825). SCHIMP. Bry. Eur. vi, Mon. 
21, 1. IX (1855) ; Syn. Muse. Eur. 667 (1869), et 2 ed. 819 (1876). SULL. Moss. Un. St. 
S 3 n Br M HAR ' Skand ' FL 7 ed. (1858). MILDE Bry. Siles. 257 (1869). HOBK. 

Andr. RothiiWEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 386, t. n, f. 7.9 (1807). HOOK. Tr. Lin. Soc. X, 

393, t. 31, f. 3 (1810). Eng. Bot. t. 2162 excl. syn. Smithii (1810). SCHW^LG. Suppl. I, 

i, 43, et II P. i, 19, t . 106 (1811-23). SMITH Comp. Fl. Brit. 3 ed. 163 (1818). 

[OOK. TAYL. Muse. Brit. 2, t. 8 (1818). HARTM. Skand. Fl. 380 (1820). HOOK. Fl. 


. - _ " RID - ar y- Univ. n, 730 (1827). SWARTZ Adnot. Bot. 182 (1829); 

Dan t. 2125, f. i (1834). HOOK. Br. Fl. ii, 5 (1833). MACKAY Fl. Hib. P. 2, 7 
(1836) GAROVAG Bry Austr. exc. 10 (1840). ANGSTR. Disp. Muse. 23 (1842). 
FRIES Summ. Veg Scand. 97 (1846). RABENH. Deutsch. Krypt. Fl. ii, P. 3, 72 (1848). 
C. MUELL. Syn. Muse, i 9 (1849). THEDEN. in Nya Bot. Not. 1849, 80. ZETTERST. 
Mon Andr. Sc 29 (1855) BERK. Handb. Br. M. 310, t. 2, f. 7 (1863). DE NOT. Epil. 
Bnol. Ital. 748 (1869). LINDB. in Journ. Lin. Soc. xi, 460 (1870). 
Jungerm. Rothii HUEB. Hepat. Germ. 304 (1834). 


Autoicous ; in opake rufescent or blackish fastigiate tufts. Stems 
^-i in. high, rigid, dichotomous, denuded at base. Leaves patent, 
curved upward at apex or falcato-secund, nerved, from an ovate base, 
lineal-lanceolate, smooth, entire at margin ; nerve semiterete, prominent 
at back, vanishing at apex ; lamina gradually narrowed to apex, where 
it consists of about five rows of cells ; areolation minute and punctiform 
above, at base minute, subquadrate towards margin, lineal-rectangular 
in the middle. Perichsetium but slightly exserted, three outer bracts 
erect, oblong with an acuminate point, nerved, inner convolute, 
nerveless. Capsule oblong-ovate, black-brown, pale at base. 

Male infl. gemmiform, outer bracts erecto-patent, nerved only at 
apex, inner nerveless ; paraphyses long, thickened. 
HAB. Mountain rocks, not rare. Fr. 6-7. 

England Kerris moor, Penzance (Curnow 1864) ! ! Madron and Mulfra hill, Penzance 
(Ralfs) ! ! Dartmoor (Brent) ! ! Lampford Tor, Great Mis Tor and Lydford, Devon 
(Holmes) ! ! Micklefell and Mazebeck Scars, Yorkshire (Baker) ! ! Buttermere 
(Hunt) \ \ Bird's crag, Abergynalwyn (Whitchcad) \ \ Capel Curig (Whalley) \ ! 
Carned Llewellyn (Wilson) \ Scotland Loch Esk (Dr. Hooker 1837) ! Loch Kandor 
(Croall 1856) ! ! Glen Callater (Hunt) ! ! Mt. Shade, Strachan (Sim) ! ! Ireland 
Cromaglown (Lindberg) ! ! 

Although Schimper refers this species to the Jung, rupestris of Linnaeus, 
the plant in his herbarium is the Scandinavian Andy, obovata, a nerveless 
species, having very little in common with the plant of Dillenius which 
should be the true type of the species. Seeing then how much the name 
rupestris has been misapplied, it would seem to be most convenient to adopt 
one about which there can be no mistake, and this we find in Weber and 
Mohr's A . Rothii. The plant varies in size, and is generally of an opake 
black color, but sometimes it is rufous or olivaceous green, and is generally 
less rigid than most of our species. 

Var. ft. Frigida. (HUEBEN.) LINDB. 

Plants more robust, flexuose, prostrate in flat tufts, black, rufescent or 
purplish. Leaves broader, more solid, falcato-secund. Bracts of male infl. 
broadly ovate. 
SYN. Jungermannia frigida HUEBEN. Hepat. Germ. 305, n. 4 (1834). 

Andr. grimsulana BRUCH MSS. DE NOT. Epil. Briol. Ital. 748 (1869). HOBK. Syn. Br. 

M. 2.2. 

Andr. Rothii Var. alpina BRUCH MSS. 
Andr. Rothii Var. grimsulana HOOK. WILS. in Lond. Journ. Bot. 1844, 537. C. MUELL. 

Syn. Muse, i, 9. 
Andr. nivalis Var. ft. frigida RABENH. Deutsch. Krypt. Fl. ii, P. 3, 72 (1848). REINSCH 

Muse. Eur. exsicc. c. fig. 
Andr. rupestris Var. ft. grimsulana SCHIMP. Bry. Eur. vi, Mon. 22, t. X, ft. Syn. Muse. 

667; et 2 ed. 819. 
Andr. Rothii Var. ft. frigida. LINDB. in lit. 

HAB. Wet rocks at considerable elevations. 

Ben-mac-dhui, Braemar ; on rocks in a stream near the summit on the east side (A. Croall 
1854) ! ! Beamsley Fell near Ilkley, Yorkshire (Baker 1858) ! ! 


This beautiful plant is larger than the typical form, and has quite the 
aspect of a distinct species, but the differences are too slight to afford 
satisfactory characters. The Scotch specimens have a fine rosy purple tint, 
and are much more robust than those from Yorkshire. 

Var. y. Hamata. LINDB. in lit. 

Leaves rather lax, somewhat glossy, fuscous, green on the young shoots, 
strongly falcate, gradually narrowed upward from the base. 

HAB. Luggielaw, Wicklow (Lindberg 1873) ! ! Wet rocks at Carfury, Madron near Penzance 
(Curnow and Marquand 1879) ! ! 

This variety forms the transition between the type and var. falcata, 
agreeing with the latter in habit and falcate leaves, but with the former in 
the base of the leaf, and in the lamina being distinct to apex, as well as in 
the softer texture. 

Var. 8. Falcata. (SCHIMP.) LINDB. 

More slender, black, leaves falcato-secund, from a broadly obovate base, 
suddenly lanceolate-subulate ; nerve flattened, vanishing at apex, lamina 
very narrow above, faintly eroso-emarginate just below point. 

SYN. Lichenastrum alpinum nlgricans, foliis capillacels re/lexis DILL. Hist. Muse. 507, n. 40 

t. 73, f. 40 A. and B. (1741), et Herbar. 

Jungermannia surculosa, erectinscula, foliis undique imbricatis acuminatis hinc rcflexis L. 
Fl. Suec. 336, n. 920 (1745). 
"fungermannia rupestris L. Sp. PI. 1135, n. 20 (1753) ; et Fl. Suec. 2 ed. 402, n. 1045, p.p. 

( 1 755) > non Herbar. 

Andr. falcata SCHIMP. in Herb. Hampe. Bry. Eur. vi, Mon. 24, t. XII. Syn. Muse. 669, 
et 2 ed. 821. MILDE Bry. Siles. 257. DE NOT. Epil. Briol. Ital. 749. HOBK. Syn. Br. 
M. 22. LINDB. in Journ. Lin. Soc. xi, 460. 
Andr. Rothii Var. ft. papillosa C. MUELL. Syn. Muse, i, 9. 
Andr. Rothii Var. 8. falcata LINDB. in lit. 
HAB. Alpine rortcs ; not uncommon. 

England Crib-y.Ddescil, Snowdon (Schimper 1865) ! ! Stye-barrow crag and Scawfell 
Pikes (Baker 1867) ! ! Grasmere (Boswell 1876) ! ! Sheep's Tor, Shaugh Bridge and 
Cad Valley, Devon (Holmes and George] ! ! Cader Idris (Pearson 1876) ! ! Tyn-y-gros 
and Glyder Vach (Wild 1877) ! ! Llyn Elsie and Llyn Bodlyn (George) \ \ Scotland 
Ben Lawers (Braithwaite 1862) 1 ! Ben Voirlich, Loch Kandor and Bach-na-gairn 
(Hunt 1868) ! ! Cobbler, Arrochar (George 1879) ! ! 

Although at first sight, the sudden narrowing of the leaf above the base 
would seem to indicate that this is a good species, a careful examination of 
many specimens from all parts has satisfied me that it must sink to the rank 
of a variety, an opinion to which Prof. Lindberg has also arrived ; for this 
character is not constant, as other leaves on the same plants will be found 
o approach much nearer in outline to those of A. Rothii, and the notching 
in the apical margin is equally liable to variation, being sometimes hardly 
perceptible, or altogether absent. The series of cells in the apical lamina 
appear to afford some distinctive characters, their relative proportions being 
5 in A . Rothii and 3 in A . falcata, but we have only to compare young leaves 
from the coma with older ones from the lower part of the stem, to find that 
they are variable, and that it is scarcely possible to draw a line sharply 
between them. 


Neither is the falcate direction of the leaves a character to be depended 
on, for Prof. Lindberg sends specimens collected by Hartman, at Varstien, 
in the Dovrefjeld, in which the leaves spread out equally on all sides, though 
with the abruptly dilated, concave base of typical A . falcata. We believe 
that Wilson until his death maintained that A . Rothii, falcata and crassinervis 
only constituted a single species. A low mammillar papillosity is also 
observable on the cells of the upper part of the leaf in the var. falcata, but 
this will also be distinguished in A. Rothii, after treatment with caustic 


Leaves and perichsetial bracts alike in form, the latter patent, 
distinctly nerved. Capsule deeply cleft into 4, 6 or 8 valves. 

5. A. NIVALIS. Hooker. 

Dioicous ; stem elongated, leaves laxly imbricated, papillose on 
both sides, falcato-secund, lanceolate, nerved to apex ; perichaetial 
bracts resembling the leaves. (7\ 

SYN. Andr. nivalis HOOK. Trans. Lin. Soc. X, 395, t. 31, f. 4 (1810) ; Eng. Bot. t. 2334 (1811). 

HOOK. TAY. Muse. Brit. 2, t. 8 (1818). GRAY Nat. Arr. Br. PI. 1,709,0.4(1821). HOOK. 

Fl. Scot. P. 2, 121 (1821). BRID. Bry. Univ. ii, 732 (1827). SCHWAEG. Suppl. Ill, P. I, 

t. 248 (1828). HARTM. Skand. Fl. 5 ed. 404 (1849). C. MUELL. Syn. Muse, i, 9 (1849). 

WILS. Bry. Brit. 13, t. 8 (1855). SCHIMP. Bry. Eur. vi, Mon. 25, t. XIV (1855) ; Syn. 

Muse. 670 (1860), et 2 ed., 822 (1876). BERK. Handb. Br. M. 310 (1863). DE NOT. Epil. 

Briol. Ital. 750 (1869). HOBK. Syn. Br. M. 22 (1873). 
A. nivalis Var. (3. ZETTERST. Mon. Andr. Scand. 23 (1855). 
A. nivalis Var. ft. Zetterstedtii HARTM. Skand. Fl. 7 ed. 400 (1858). 
Jungerm. nivalis HUEBEN. Hep. Germ. 306 (1834). 

Dioicous ; in soft, blackish-green, rufescent or fuscous, widely 
spreading tufts. Stems 3-4 in. high, slender, elongated, reddish, 
decumbent at base, ascending, flexuose, dichotomously branched. 
Leaves patent, rather distant, secund ; soft, the lower smaller, ovato- 
lanceolate, the upper falcato-secund, from an oblong base, gradually 
lanceolate, acute, densely papillose on both sides ; the nerve narrow, 
subterete, lost in the apex, fuscous, prominent at back ; areolation 
laxer, soft, rotundato-quadrate above, elongato-quadrate at base. 
Perichsetial bracts divergent, precisely resembling the leaves ; capsule a 
little exserted, oblong, cleft to base into 6, or more rarely 4, narrow 
valves. Calyptra very small, conical. 

Male plants in distinct tufts, the infl. lateral by innovation, distinct, 
gemmiform ; bracts numerous, ovato-lanceolate, inner roundish, acumi- 
nate nerveless ; antheridia 4-6, paraphyses numerous, longer. 


HAB. Higher mountains of Scotland, on dripping rocks. Fr. 7-8. 

Ben Nevis (Hooker and Borrer 1808) ! Ben Cruachan, Argyleshire (Borrer 1810) ! Ben 
Macdhui and Cairngorm (Croall) ! ! 

This fine species appears to attain its fullest development on the 
Grampian range ; although it is found in Scandinavia, and on the higher 
peaks of the Pyrenees, Switzerland, the Tyrol, and eastward to Salzburg and 
Carinthia, we have not seen any specimens to equal those of native growth. 

Var. (3. Fuscescens. HOOK. 

Stems more flexuose and flaccid, with strongly falcate leaves of a brown 
SvH.A.nivalis ft. fuscescens HOOK, in Trans. Lin. Soc. X, 395 (1810). 

A. nivalis HOOK. ZETTERST. Mon. Andr. Scand. 23 (1855). HARTM. Skand. Fl. 7 ed. 
400 (1858). 

HAB. With the typical form on Ben Nevis and Ben Macdhui (Hooker] \ \ 

This form is described as the type by Zetterstedt, because as he says, 
it is the common form in Scandinavia and assumed to be therefore more 
typical. There does not seem any reason to disturb Hooker's original 
arrangement, although it is certain the variety more frequently bears fruit, 
while the type is richer in male inflorescence. 

TAB. I. 

A. Andreaa petrophila. 

a. typical form (Ben Lawers, Braithwaite). ft- Var. homomalla (Braemar, Hunt}. 
y. Var. acuminata (Ben Nevis, George). 8. Var. flaccida (Braemar, Hunt). Var. 
sylvicola (Ben Macdhui, Hunt). . Var. gracills (Loch-na-Gar, Sim). *]- Var. alpcstris 
(Braemar, Croall). $. Var. sparsifolia (Ben More, George). 

B. Andrea a alpina. 

a. typical form (Ennerdale, Baker), y. V&r.Jlavicans (Ben Nevis, Hooker). 

C. Andreaa crassinervis (Hebden bridge, Hunt}. 


A. Andreaa Rothii. 

a. typical form (Dartmoor, Holmes), ft. Var. frlglda (Ben Macdhui, Croall). y. Var. 
hamata (Luggielaw, Lindberg). 8. V&r.falcata (Snowdon, Schimper). 

B. Andreaa nivalis. 

a. typical form <? (Ben Macdhui, Hunt), ft. Var. fuscescens ? (Ben Nevis, George). 

i. Branch in a moist state. 2. Leaf x 25. 2 a. Apex of leaf dry. 2 aa. Areolation of 
apex moist, aab. Ditto of base x 180. 2x. Transverse section of leaf. 3. Perichatial 
bract. 4. Male inflorescence with bract, antheridium and paraplwses. 5. Capsule dry. 
6. Calyptra. 

Br. Moss. 





R BrcxiUiwoofce cttl cuinolxD. Blair Itilt, 

B U X B A U M I A C E 

JULY IST, 1880. 


1. B. aphylla. L. 

2. iudusiata. BRID. 


Capsule dehiscing transversely by a lid ; or in a few lower forms 
the lid is absent, and the capsule ruptures only by decay of its walls. 


Peristome consisting of solid teeth not transversely jointed, often 
attached at the apex to the discoidal dilated extremity of the columella ; 
sometimes ciliiform ; very rarely none. 


Plants very small, stemless, growing on the ground or on rotten 
wood. Leaves obsolete- Capsules large, oblique, flattened, on stout 
pedicels ; calyptra minute conical ; peristome of one or several series 
of linear teeth ; endostome a 32-plicate membrane in form of a twisted 
truncate cone ; spores very small. 

The extremely curious plant on which the solitary genus in this 
family is founded, was first discovered by Buxbaum in 1712, near 
Astracan, on the banks of the Volga, and he says, " I wished to 
follow the example of Marchanti, and make it into a new genus 
and name it after my father, but called to mind the fox, who was 
derided by the others, because he begged the grapes, not for himself, 
but for his sick mother." 

It was for some time regarded as a fungus ; but Dillenius 
correctly referred it to the mosses, and indeed terms it regina 
muscorum; Schmidel submitted it to a minute investigation and 
published the result in 1758, in a most beautifully illustrated Dis- 
sertation, and Linnaeus also treated on it in several places ; in our 
own day Zukal has gathered together much of what is known on 
the subject in an admirable paper in Verh. k. k. zool. bot. Gesells. 
Wien xiii, p. 1149 (1863). 

The sporadic character of its distribution and the scanty numbers 
in which it is found have invested it with rarity, and its discovery 
is generally hailed with acclamation by collectors, while its peculiar 
structure will always render it an object of interest to the bryologist. 

The first appearance of Buxbaumia aphylla is manifested by the 
surface of the ground being colored in patches of a peculiar greenish 


black, this is a felted web of minute branched filaments of protonema, 
from which young plants bud off as in other mosses; these are at 
first globose and extremely minute. The almost invisible leaves are 
rather to be looked upon as perichaetial bracts, and are peculiar in 
the flagelliform prolongations of the marginal cells, which give them 
a lacerated appearance, and long before the calyptra is cast off they 
become brown and dead. The reason of this is explained by Zukal 
thus: "Their activity probably consists in the transmission of 
moisture, and along with the adventitious radicles they first form 
a protection to the young archegonium, and then in the act of 
impregnation serve as a sponge, to take up fluid swarming with 
antherozoids, and convey them to the waiting archegonia, this 
function ended, they wither and die." 

Taking a single plant, we observe at the base a bulb-like swelling 
covered with a close felt of proembryo filaments and minute leaves, 
this by vertical section we find is a cup-like sheath, embracing the 
base of the seta, the outer cells of which are large, quadrate, with 
thick walls and colorless contents, and become the cuticle of the seta, 
the cells internal to this layer being long and thin walled, constitute 
the bundle of vascular cells forming the centre of the seta, while the 
cup-like sheath is all we find to represent the parenchyma of the 
stem. In the free seta the first two elements are more fully developed, 
the outer cuticular cells being still further thickened into warts. 
Where the seta joins the capsule an elegant neck is formed, through 
the centre of which the vascular bundle is continued as the pedicel 
of the spore sac, and then enlarges into the columella and passes 
on to the apex of the operculum. Around the columella is the spore 
sac composed of three cell-layers, the cavity between it and the 
capsular wall being traversed by numerous jointed confervoid filaments. 
A transverse section through the lid, before maturity, shows us a 
circle of large triangular cells, the two lateral sides being equal, and 
the shorter base turned alternately inward and outward, thus forming 
a wavy zigzag round the central bundle of vascular cells. In course 
of growth the short bases become entirely resorbed, while the lateral 
sides of the triangles grow together and become thickened into a 
membrane, and their outward angles further strengthened by a stout 
ridge of cellulose. It thus forms an enduring, rigid, tubular, tent-like 
endostome, the function of which is thus remarked on by Zukal : 
" In many mosses the peristome only serves to prevent the spores 
passing out of the capsule in unfavorable weather; if the spores 
require warm, dry air as a necessary condition for germination, then 
the peristome is so adapted that in wet, rainy weather it completely 
closes the mouth, and on the contrary, if moisture be the condition 
needed, then in dry weather the peristome closes the mouth of the 
capsule. The spores of many mosses are first set free by the falling 
in pieces of the capsule by decay, and until this occurs they must be 


ripening; in the cleistocarpous mosses this is provided for by the 
absence of a lid, and in the Polytrichaceae by the discoidally expanded 
summit of the columella closing the mouth. In Buxbaumia the lid 
remains long attached to the mouth, while it is firmly joined to the 
columella by the vascular bundle running through it, and only becomes 
loosened by the rotting of the fruit ; the endostome also forms a high, 
firm, conical membrane, with a small aperture at the apex, formed by 
the falling away of the vascular bundle ; through this narrow opening, 
however, the spores cannot escape, even if the erect position of the 
fruit would allow it, and thus they are forced to remain in the capsule. 
In time, the upper half of the capsule separates at the lateral seam, 
like a bivalve fruit, as it was described by old authors, and thus a 
free exit is made for the spores." 

I follow C. Miiller, Zukal, and Lindberg in excluding Webera EHRH. 
(Diphyscium MOHR.) from this family, for the two genera have nothing 
in common but the external form of the capsule, while the highly 
developed seta, absence of stem and degraded leaves of Buxbaumia 
are totally opposed to the absence of a pedicel, distinct stem, and 
highly-developed leaves seen in Webera. 

Besides the European species of Buxbaumia, the only others 
recorded are B. Javanica C. MUELL. and B. Tasmanica MITT., the 
former very close to B. aphylla, the latter equally near to B. indiisiata, 
and probably not specifically distinct from them. 

By the depressed asymmetric capsule, so unusual in mosses, we 
have some indications of affinity with the exotic genus Dawsonia, 
and a further support to the position of the family among the 
Polytrichoidea, though it must be admitted that the cilia of the 
peristome of Buxbaumia do present a few transverse articulations. 

(Enum. Stirp. Helv. i, p. 10 (1742).) 

Plants very small, scattered. Leaves extremely minute, broadly 
ovate or oblong, coarsely serrated, laxly areolate with oblongo- 
hexagonal echlorophyllose cells, or palmato-laciniate, the lacinise and 
basal cells becoming altered by age into long filaments, and finally 
into dense radicular tomentum. Inflorescence dioicous. Male plants 
very minute, few-leaved, the bracts not laciniate, antheridia one or 
two, subglobose, with few paraphyses. Female plants presenting 
10-12 perichaetial bracts which after impregnation develop cilia. 
Calyptra very small conico-cylindric, generally cleft at the side ; 
capsule on a thick verrucose seta, with a short, erect neck, oblique, 
ventricose, ovate, depressed above, with a conico-cylindric operculum. 

Cuticle at margin of the mouth of capsule splitting into about 16 scale- 
like fragments which roll back and reveal the pseud-annulus, com- 
posed of several layers of cells, and forming the thickened mouth of 
capsule ; peristome rudimentary and adhering to the pseud-annulus, 
or consisting of one or several rows of irregular filamentous teeth ; 
endostome a conical tubular 32-plicate membrane, thickened along 
the angles of the folds, and slightly twisted to the right. Spores 
very small, spherical. 

Small as this genus is, the remarkable variation in the peristome has 
led to its division into two sections Eubuxbaumia for B. aphylla, Polyodon 
for B. indusiata the difference in the form and texture of the capsules also 
affording an additional distinction. 

The actual presence of leaves was first noticed by Robert Brown 
(Linn. Trans, xii, p. 583). 


Capsule depressed on upper surface, firm, with a thickened margin ; peristome one row of 
short imperfect cilia. 

B. aphylla. 

Capsule ovate-oblong, thin, the cuticle loose and splitting up beneath ; peristome of four 
rows of cilia. 

B. indusiata. 


Capsule pachydermous, glossy, depressed on the upper surface, 
with a thickened margin. Peristome a single row of short, imperfect 
teeth adhering to the inside of the margin of mouth (T. Ill A). 

SYN. Muscus capillacens aphyllos, capitulo crasso bivalvi BUXB. PI. min. cogn. cent. II, 8, 

tab. 4, f. 2 (1728). DILL. Hist. muse. 477, n. 5, et 554, tab. 68, f. 5 (1741), et Herb. 
Buxbaumla HALL. Enum. stirp. Helv. i, 10 (1742). 

Hippopodlum FABRIC. Prim. fl. butisbac. 31 (1743). EHRH. Phytoph. n. 10 ; Beitr. IV, 
146 (1789). 

Buxb. aphylla L. Diss. Buxb. II, 10, et VII, 15 (1757) ; et Amcen. acad. V, 83 et go 
(1760). OEDER Fl. Dan. 1.44 (1761), et t. 2752, fig. i. WEB. Spic. Fl. Gott. 130 
(1778). RETZ. Fl. Scand. Pr. n. 1188 (1779). EHRH. Hann. Mag. 1780, p. 235. 
L. FIL. Meth. Muse. 362 (1781). HEDW. Fund. muse. P. II, 96, tab 3, f. 10 et t. 9, f. 52 
(1782); Sp. muse. 166 (1801). VILL. PI. Dauph. iii, 919 (1786). TIMM Fl. Megap. n. 
858 (1788). ROTH Fl. Germ, i, 466 (1788) ; et iii, P. I, 343 (1800). JACQ. Collect, iii, 
213(1790). HOFFM. Deutschl. Fl. ii, 21 (1795). STURM Deutsch. Fl. ii, tab. 3 (1798). 
SWARTZ Muse. Suec. 74 (1799). BRID. Muse. rec. ii, P. Ill, 147 (1803) ; Sp. muse. Ill, 
114 (1806) ; Mant muse. 123 (1819). TURN. Muse. Hib. 104 (1804). LAM. et CAND. Fl. 
fr. 3 ed. i, 513 (1805) ; et Syn. Fl. Gall. 106. SCHULTZ Fl. Starg. 255 (1806) ; Eng. Bot. 
t. 1596 (1806). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 381 (1807) VOIT Muse. Herb. 126 (1812). 
WAHL. Fl. Lap. 350 (1812). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. II, 26 (1816). HOOK. Fl. Lond. n. 
s. I, T. 23 (1815). MART. Fl. crypt. Erl. 84 (1817). HOOK. TAY. Muse. brit. 84, T. 22 
(1818). HOOK. Fl. Scot. P. 2, 139 (1821) ; Brit. Fl. ii,68 (1833). GREV. in Mem. Wern. 
Soc. iii, 442(1821); etV, 79, PI. Ill, fig. 13-23 (1824). FUNCK Moostasch. 38, t. 24 
(1821). HUEB. Bry. germ. 539 (1833). BR. SCHIMP. Mem. Soc. mus. Strasb. ii, Mon. 4, 
t. i (1835) ; Bry. Eur. iv, Mon. 5, t. i, et Suppl. t. i ; Syn. Muse. 453 (1860) ; et 2 ed. 


549 (1876). RABEN. Deutsch. Krypt.-FI. ii, P. Ill, 240 (1848). C. MUELL. Syn. i, 151 

(1848) ; et Deutsch. moose 144 (1853). WILS. Bry. brit. igg, T. 22 (1855). JENS. Bry. 

dan. 59 (1856). KLINGGR. Crypt. Preus. 15 (1858). HARTM. Skand Fl. g ed. ii,45 (1864). 

LIND. in Not. ur Sallsk. Fn. et Fl. fenn. ix, 155 (1867). BERK. Hand. br. m. 215, t. ig, 

fig. 6 (1869). DE NOT. Ep. Briol. ital-346 (1869). MILDE Bry. siles. 255 (1869). HOBK. 

Syn. Br. M. 99 (1873). 
Buxb. caulescens SCHMID. Diss. Buxb. 25, tab. i (1758). SCHRANK Baiers. Fl. ii, 485 


Buxb. caulescens aphylla HALL. Hist, stirp. Helv. iii, 25 (1768). 
Saccophoms aphyllus P. BEAUV. Prodr. 30 (1805). 
Hippopodium aphyllum ROHL. Deutschl. Fl. 2 ed. iii, 120 (1813). 
Buxb. curiosa GRAY Nat. Arr. Br. pi. i, 750 (1821). 
Buxb. vulgaris BRID. Bry. univ. i, 329 (1826). 

Stem none. Vaginula thick, covered with fuscous radicles. 
Bracts minute, brownish, the lower ovate, deeply toothed, the upper 
broader, fimbriato-ciliate, areolation lax, the cells 5-6 angled. Seta 
rigid, erect, straight, | to i in. high, deep purple, very scabrous. 
Capsule with a short neck, inclined and subhorizontal, depressed, 
semiovate and somewhat boat-shaped above, ventricose below, 
smooth, greenish brown, the cuticle thicker, glossy, and closely 
adherent, rolling back at the mouth in about 16 segments, and 
forming a coroniform border ; operculum short, conoid, obtuse, falling 
with the columella attached ; peristome indistinct, united to the 
pseud-annulus or abortive. Spores very small. 
HAB. On the earth or on decayed wood, especially in fir-woods. Fr. 4-7. 

Engl. Sprowston, Norfolk (Hooker, Dec., 1806) ! Sawley moor, near Ripon, Yorkshire 
(Mclycr 1845) ! Ogden Clough, Tintwistle, Cheshire (Scholefield 1867) ! ! Near 
Virginia Water, hedge bank, on mud taken from the ditch below (Prof. Lawson, 
Apr., 1868) ! ! 

Scot. Rosslin (Maughan 1808). Aberdeen (Jackson 1809). Hill of Dungloe, Kinross, 
and Cleish Hills (Grevillc). Waddenhope rigg, near Peebles (Stewart 1818). George- 
town hill, Fife (Arnotf). Campsie Glen, Glasgow, and Ben Ledi (Lyon 1841).! Sidlaw 
hills (Gardiner 1844) ! ! Ochil hills. Bowling Bay. Sinnaboth, Towie, near Aberdeen 
(Coutts 1860). Glen Prosen (Fergnsson 1867). Brockhole's plantations, near the Tweed 
(Jerdon), and barren places on the Bizzle (Boyd 1867). Clough. na-ben and Sculty 
hill, Banchory (Sim 1869) ! ! 

Irel. Purple mountain, Killarney (Wade in R. Dubl. Soc. Trans, iv. 1804), not found 

This strange plant has an annoying habit of disappearing from the 
stations it occupies, probably due to some change in the constituents of 
the substratum on which it is produced, and thus we can never rely upon 
finding it a second time in the same locality. 


Capsule leptodermous, not glossy, not depressed nor margined. 
Peristome of four series of solid, slender, papillose teeth ; each series 
increasing in length. (T. Ill B). 

SYN. Buxbaumia viridis BRID. in litt. LINDB. Muse. Scand. 13 (1880). 

Buxb. aphylla Var. /?. viridis Move, in DE CAN. Fl. fr. 3 ed. V, 227 (1815). MOUG. NEST. 
Stirp. Cr. Vog. R. n. 720 (1823). MYRIN in W. Ak. Handl. 1831, p. 253. 


Buxb. indusiata BRID. Br. univ. i, 331 (1826) ; et ii, Suppl. 741, t. 2, fig. 1-8 (1827). 
WALLR. Fl. cryp. Germ, i, 116 (1831). HARTM. Sk. Fl. 2 ed. HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 
540 (1833). BR. SCHIMP. in Mem. Soc. Mus. Strasb. ii, Mon. p. 4, t. 2 (1835) ; Bry. Eur. 
iv, Mon. 6, t. 2 et suppl. t. i ; Syn. Muse. 454 (1860) et 2 ed. 550 (1876). DE NOT. Syll. 
muse. Ital. 146 (1838) ; Epil. Briol. Ital. 347 (1869). C. MUELL. Syn. i, 151 (1848) et 
Deutsch. Moos. 147 (1853). RABEN. Deutsch. Krypt. Fl. ii, P. Ill, 240 (1848) et Krypt. 
Fl. Saehs. i, 522 (1863). JENSEN Bry. dan. 59, t. 8, f. 41 (1856). KLINGGR. Crypt. Preuss. 
15 (1858). LANGE Fl. dan. t. 2752, f. 2. HARTM. Sk. Fl. 9 ed. ii, p. 45 (1854). LINDB. 
in Not. ur Sallsk. Fn. et Fl. fenn. ix, 156 (1867). MILDE Bry. Siles. 256 (1869). HOBK. 
Syn. Br. M. p. 99 (1873). 

Buxb. aphylla SCHW^GR in L. Sp. PI. 5 ed. V, P. II, fasc. i, p. 24, p. p. (1830). 
B. aphylla Var. ft. indusiata WAHLENB. Fl. suec. 2 ed. ii, p. 760 (1833). HAMPE in Reg. 
bot. Zeit. 1837, P- 2 79- 

Stem none. Vaginula thick, covered with rufescent tomentum. 
Bracts minute, rufescent, ovate or oblongate, obtuse, the lower 
obsoletely crenulate at margin, the upper fimbriato-ciliate, areolation 
lax, 5-6 angled. Seta rigid, erect or flexuose, shorter, rufo-fuscous, 
less scabrous ; capsule suberect, ventricose, ovate-oblong, pale greyish- 
green, the cuticle thin, loose, after the fall of the operculum splitting 
up beneath and rolling back towards the sides; operculum larger, 
more conic, obtuse, peristome in four rows, teeth subtriquetro-linear, 
the outermost very short, the others gradually increasing in length, 
more or less evidently articulated, fuscescent. Spores larger, greenish. 
HAB. On rotten branches in pine woods. 6-7. 

Paftnanich, near Ballater, (Cruickshank 1847). North face of Craigendinnie hill, near 
Aboyne, at 500 ft. (Dickie and Roy, June, 1867). Reported also from Rosshire. 

Lindberg suspects this species to be synoicous, as he has frequently 
found empty antheridia among the vaginular tomentum, but never male 


A. Buxbaumia aphylla (Virginia Water, Prof. Lawson). 

B. Buxbaumia indusiata (Craigendinnie, Prof. Dickie). 
a. Perfect plants, b. Young plant, nat. size and magnified. 

i. Plant magnified. 2. Antheridium. 3. Perichjetial bracts. 33. Same, more magnified, 
showing the areolation. 4. Calyptra. 5. Operculum and part of columella. 6. Trans- 
verse section through the middle of capsule. 7. Filament connecting the spore-sac with 
the lining of the capsule. 8. Transverse section through the operculum and endostome, 
showing the plies and thickened ridges of the latter. 9. Mouth of capsule after removal 
t operculum. 10. Vertical section of part of same. a. Cuticular stratum, b. Pseud- 
annulus. c. Cilia of peristome. d. Tubular endostome. ii. Pedicellate spore-sac, 
the walls of capsule dissected away. 





1. G. pellucida (L). RABENH. 

2. Brownii (DICKS). C. MUELL. 


Plants caespitose or very small and gregarious ; the leaves in 
3-5 rows, smooth, ovate, or lanceolate with a thin nerve, areolation 
hexagono-rotundate, sparingly chlorophyllose. Inflorescence gemmi- 
form. Calyptra mitriform, lobed at base, longitudinally plicate, 
covering most of capsule, which is erect, cylindric or oval, regular, 
smooth. Annulus none. Operculum conical ; peristome of 4 triquetro- 
pyramidal teeth, composed externally of pachydermous, elongato- 
prosenchymatous, colored cells, internally of lax hyaline cells ; rarely 
wanting. Inhabiting damp, shady rocks, rotten trunks of trees, or 
turfy soil. 

Mr. Mitten constitutes of this family his section Elasmodontes, but 
the teeth are not lamellar, for the peristome truly consists of a conical 
mass, composed of the whole parenchyma within the operculum, or the 
upper end of the columella united to the teeth, which splits into four 
triangular pyramids formed of elongated incrassate cells. 

Ehrhart founded the genus Georgia in honor of our George the 3rd (to 
whom also Hedwig dedicated his great work " Descr. et adumb. Muse, 
frond."), and he says in his Beitnige iii, p. 126, " Hedwig's Tetraphis is .no 
other than my Georgia. If botanists deserve a memorial of their names in 
botany, equally worthy of the honor are great patrons of the science, as 
my friend Hedwig must admit. I propose to give to my new genera the 
names of such distinguished men, and thus the present bears the name of 
one of the greatest supporters of botany." Ehrhart's Catharinea, Swartzia, 
Weissia and Weberd must equally be retained, instead of the more modern 
names which have displaced them, and of the same names subsequently 
applied by other botanists to very different genera. Tetrodontium was 
established by Schwaegrichen, no doubt from its different habit, but it 
possesses no essential character of sufficient importance to separate it 
from Georgia. Berggren, in an admirable paper, " Studier ofver Mossornas 
byggnad och utveckling. 2, Tetraphidea" in Act. Univ. Lund, vii, n. 8 (1870), 
points out that the frondiform leaves also occur in G. pelhicida, developed 
from gemmules, but they appear in the protonemal stage preceding the 
ordinary state of the plant, and disappear with its further development ; 
a sketch of one of these spathulate fronds, reduced from Berggren's figure, 
is given at T. IV, A. Fig. 9. 

The genus Georgia appears to touch various widely different families 
without having much relation with any of them, thus the sulcate calyptra 
forcibly reminds us of Zygodon and Orthotnchum, while the areolation of the 
leaves is mnioid, and again the peristome is quite peculiar in the structure 
of the teeth ; we may thus notice that a genus is not to be characterised 
by any single organ, but rather by the sum of the differences found in all 
its parts. 


The second genus in this small but natural family of 4 species is the 
monotypic Calomnium from New Zealand, which, although gymnostomous, 
and with a dimidiate calyptra, agrees so closely in habit and structure 
of leaf with our Georgia pellucida, that its place in this family ought to be 
at once apparent, yet Lindberg appears to be the only author who has 
noticed its true affinity; see his remarks in Act. Soc. scient. fenn. X, 
p. 240 (1872). 


(Hannov. Mag. 1780, p. 932). 

Plants caespitose, tall, erect, or very small with long radical 
linear leaves or flagelliform leafy branches. Lower leaves small, 
upper much larger, ovato-lanceolate, areolation hexagono-rotundate, 
at base laxer and linear-rectangular. Calyptra mitriform, plicate, 
sulcate, covering greater part of capsule. Capsule cylindraceous or 
oval, leptodermous, on a long pedicel ; operculum conical ; peristome 
arising below the mouth, teeth 4, lanceolate in outline, striate at 
back, rufous. Spores smooth, green or yellow. Growing on the 
ground, on rotten wood, or on sandstone rocks. 


Plants taller, slender, caespitose, the leaves increasing in length 
upwards ; primordial frondiform leaves, present only in the early state 
of the plant, then vanishing. Capsule cylindric. 


AutBaroicous ; cauline leaves in 3 or 5 rows, ovato-lanceolate, acute, 
nerve vanishing below apex, capsule cylindric, on a straight, smooth 
seta. (T. IV A). 

SYN. Mnium minus non ramosum angustioribus et pellucidis foliis DILL, in RAY Syn. st. brit. 
3 ed. 78 (1724). 

Mnium Serpylli foliis tenuibus pellucidis DILL. Hist. Muse. 232. n. 2, t. 31, f. 2, excl. A 
(1741) ; et Herbar. 

Mnium pellucidum L. Sp. pi. ii, nog, n. i (1753) ; et Fl. suec. 968. HUDS. Fl. angl. 402 

(1762). HALL. Hist. st. Helv. iii, 56, t. 45, f. 8 (1768). WEISS Crypt. Gott. 162 (1770). 

NECK. Meth. muse. 233 (1771). WITH. Bot. arr. Br. Veg. ii, 663, i (1776). LIGHTF. 

Fl. Scot. 11, 705 (1777). L. FIL. Meth. muse. 363 (1781). RELH. Fl. cant. 398 (1785). 

SCHMID. Ic. pi. rar. 2 ed. i, 13, t. 3 (1793). HULL. Br. Fl. 249 (1799). 
Bryum diaphanum WEB. Spic. Fl. gott. 121 (1778). VILL. PI. Dauph. iii, 873 (1789). 

Georgia Mnemosynum EHRH. in Hann. Mag. 1780, 932 ; et Beitr. i, 188 (1787). C. MUELL. 
Syn. muse, i, 182 (1849). 

Tetraphis pellucida HEDW. Fund. muse, ii, 88, t. vii, f. 32 (1782) ; Sp. muse. 45, t. 7, 
f. i a f (1801). ROTH. Fl. Germ. tent, i, 454, et iii, P. I, 132 (1788). BRID. muse, 
rec. n P. I, 48 (1792) ; Sp. muse. I, 83 (1806) ; Mant. muse. 26 (1819) ; Bry. univ. i, 134 
(1826). SIBTH. Fl. Oxon. 275 (1794). ROHL. Deutsch. Fl. 41 (1794) ; Moosg. Deuts. 
87 (1800) ; Ann. Wett. Ges. ii, 79. HOFFM. Deutsch. Fl. ii, 30 (1796). SWARTZ Muse. 


suec. 21 (1798). SMITH Eng. Bot. t. 1020 (1802); Fl. brit. iii, 1179 (1804). STURM 
Deutsch. Fl. ii, 2 (1803). LA MRK. CAND. Fl. Fr. {.449 (1805). Fl. Dan. 1.300 ett. 1412. 
P. BEAUV. Prodr. 90 (1805). SCHULTZ Fl. starg. 281 (1806), WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 
93 (1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. moos. 52, t. 13 (1810). MOUG. and NEST. St. Crypt, 
n. 14. SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. i, 39 (1811); et III, P. i, t. 232 (1828). WAHLEN. Fl. 
lapp. 305 (1812); Fl. carpat. 334 (1814). HOOK. Fl. Lond. n. s. t. go (1816) ; Fl. Scot. 
P. 2, 124 (1821) ; Br. Fl. ii, 14 (1833). SAVI Bot. etrusc. iii, 39 (1818). HOOK. TAY. 
Muse. br. 16, t. 8 (1818). GRAY Nat. arr. Br. PI. 717 (1821). HARTM. Sk. Fl. HUEB. 
Muse. Germ. 72 (1833). MACKAY Fl. Hib. P. 2, 12 (1836). DE NOT. Syll. muse. 262 
(1838); Epil. Briol. Ital. 725 (1869). FIOR. MAZ. Bry. rom. 2 ed. 5 (1841), SCHIMP. 
Bry. Eur. iii, mon. 6, t. i (1843) ; Syn. muse. 282 (1860) ; et 2 ed. 349 (1876). WILS. 
Bry. brit. 196, t. 8 (1855). JENS. Bry. dan. t. 3, f. 16 (1856). SULL. Moss. Un. St. 30 
(1856). BERK. Handb. br. m. 216, PI. 19, f. 8 (1863). MILDE Bry. Siles. 244 (1869). 
HOBK. Syn. br. m. 98 (1873). 

Bryum pellucidum ABBOT Fl. bedf. 237 (1798). 
Tetraphis oblonga TURN. Muse. bib. 12 (1804). 
Tetr. cylindrica VOIT Muse, herbip. 17 (1812). FUNCK Moostasch. g, t. 6 (1821). 

Georgia pcllucida RABENH. Deutsch. Krypt. Fl. ii, P. 3, 231 (1848). SPRUCE in Tr. Bot. 
Soc. Edinb. iii, 153 (1849) ; et in Ann. Mag. N. hist. 2 ser. iii, 359 (1849). LINDB. in 
Ofv. V. Ak. Forh. XX, 399 (1863), et in Bot. ur Sallsk. Fn. et Fl. fenn. IX, 150 (1867). 

AutBsroicous. Plants rather densely caespitose, erect; bright green 
above, reddish brown below. Stems of two kinds, i. fertile, having 
leaves in 3 ranks, crowded, ovato-lanceolate, becoming 5 ranked and 
enlarging into a coma ; 2. gonidiiferous, with leaves in 3 ranks, and 
more distant, two in nearly opposite rows, the third smaller and 
anterior, the gemmae lentiform, in a cuplike involucre of 4-5 reniform 
leaves, terminating the stem. 

Fertile stem flexuose, i-i in. high, erect, simple or dichotomous, 
radiculose at base, pale red. Lower leaves very small, remote, erect, 
appressed, broadly lanceolate, rufous ; upper much larger, ovato- 
lanceolate, patent, entire, nerve vanishing below the point ; peri- 
chaetial bracts sheathing, lanceolate, elongated, rather obtuse. Cells 
roundish hexagonal above, elongated rectangular at base. Capsule 
erect, on a straight, smooth, purple pedicel, elongated, cylindric, 
pale brown, with the mouth red ; calyptra reaching to middle of 
capsule, whitish, rust colored at apex, mitriform, sublacerate at base, 
irregularly plicate, with about 8 or 9 ridges, which run out into 
serrate crests at apex ; annulus none ; operculum thin, conical, 
straight or oblique; peristome of 4 erect, brown, pyramidal teeth, 
connivent when moist, triquetrous, rigid, not articulated, but longi- 
tudinally striate at back ; columella slender, cylindric ; spores very 
small, smooth, green. Male inflorescence at the apex of special 
shoots, which arise in pairs from a sterile female inflorescence; bracts 
6-10, ovato-lanceolate, nerved. 

Gemmiferous stem with lax leaves, very small and distant below, 
those about the middle being the largest, obovate, apiculate, with 
the nerve vanishing below apex, then decreasing in size toward the 


top ; areolation uniform, hexagonal ; cup of 3-4 obcordate, obsoletely 
nerved bracts, enclosing many flattened lenticular, stalked gemmae, 
intermixed with paraphyses, these gemmae are altered antheridia, as 
the cups often arise in pairs just as the perfect males do. 
Occasionally also a gemmiferous shoot may be found growing from 
a female inflorescence. 
HAB. Damp, shady rocks, rotten stumps of trees, decayed palings, and 

on turfy banks on heaths, not uncommon. Fr. 7-9. Plentiful about 

Killarney, but otherwise rather scarce in Ireland, as it also is in 


This beautiful moss is widely distributed, and in North America 
besides the ordinary form, a variety (cuvvata Lindb.} is common, having a 
narrower, curved capsule. The leaves vary much in size, as well as in 
density of arrangement, and we have seen stems of the gemmiferous 
plant, having them almost circular. It is also not uncommon to find 
gemmae, which have dropped from the cups, entangled among the leaves 
and attached to the stem by radicles they have thrown out. The second 
species G. geniculata GIRGENS. is a native of Japan and N. West 
America, and differs from the European species chiefly in the seta, 
which is suddenly bent about the middle to an obtuse angle, and roughly 
tuberculate above the bend. 


Plants very small, gregarious, simple, having the long frondiform 
leaves, permanent or vanishing, or sometimes with lateral flagelliform 
ramuli, bearing very minute imbricated leaves ; capsule oval. 

2. GEORGIA BROWNII. (Dicks.) C. Muell. 

Autoicous ; plants dwarf, gregarious, the stem with or without 
flagelliform ramuli, the perichaetial bracts ovate, acuminate, nerved 
half-way; capsule oval; lid conic, oblique. (T. IV. B.) 

SYN. Bryum Brownianum DICKS. PL crypt. Brit. fasc. IV, 7, t. 10, fig 16 (1801). BRID. Muse. 

rec. n, P. Ill, 62 (1803). TURNER in KOJN. and SIMS Ann. Bot. II, 197 (1806). 

Tctraphis ovata FUNCK in HOPP. Bot. Tasch. 1802, 41, et in Reg. hot. Zeit. 1802, 120. 

HOPP m STURM Deutschl. Fl. ii, Heft 6 (1803). SPRENG. Einl. 275, t. 6, f. 52 (1804). 

BRID. Sp. Muse, i, 84 (1806) ; Mant. muse. 26 (1819) ; Bry. univ. i, 131 (1826). WEB. 

Bot. Tasch. 95 (1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. krypt. Gew. ii, 33, t. 13 (1810). 
SCHW.EGR. Suppl. I, P. I, 3g , t . I3 ( l8ll) . R Q HL- in Ann> Wett> Ges Hi) 88 (l8r2)- 
Sw. Summ. Veg. Scand. 38 (1814). WALLM. in LILJEBL. Sv. Fl. 3 ed. 529 (1816). 
HOOK Fl. Lond. n. s. t. 114 (1817) ; Fl. Scot. P. 2, 124 (1821). SMITH Comp. Fl. Brit. 
3 ed. 163 (1818). HK. TAY. Muse. brit. 17, t. 8 (1818). HARTM, Sk. Fl, 1-4 ed. (1820-43). 
GRAY Nat Arr. Br. PI. i, 717 ( l82I ). W.-ARN' in Mem. Soc. d'Hist. nat. Par. ii, 262 
(1825). NEES HSCH. ST. Bry. germ, ii, P. I, 5, t . 13, fig. 1.2 (1827). WALLR. Fl. crypt. 
Germ I, 117 (1831). HUEBEN. Muse. Germ. 73 (1833). AONGST. Disp. muse. Scand. 14 


Tetraphis rigida HED. FIL. Obs. hot. i, 7, T. I (1802). WAHLENB. Fl. suec. ii, 770 (1826). 

SWARTZ Adnot. hot. 82 (1829). MYRIN in W. Ak. Handl. 1831, p. 261. 
Orthotrichum Brownianum SM. Fl. Brit, iii, 1269 (1804). BRID. Sp. Muse. P. 2, n (1812). 
Grimmia Browniana TURN. op. c. i, 522, in nota (1805). SM. Eng. Bot. t. 1422 (1805). 
Tetraphis Browniana GREV. Fl. Edin. 230 (1824) ; Scot. Crypt. Fl. iii, t. 169 (1826). W.- 

ARN. 1. c. BRID. Bry. univ. i, 133 (1826). HOOK. T. op. c. 2 ed. 33 (1827). N. H. ST. 

op. c. 9. WALLR. op. c. 118. HUEBEN. op. c. 74. DUBY Bot. gall, ii, 577 (1830). 

HOOK. Br. Fl. ii, 14 (1833). MACKAY Fl. Hib. P. 2, 12 (1836). HAMPE in Regens. bot. 

Zeit. XX, P. i, 280, n. i. cum Var. ovata (1837). HARTM. op. c. 5-9 edd. (1849-64). 
Tetrodont'nim Brownianum SCHWGN. op. cit. ii, P. I, 102, t. 129 (1824). MOUG. NEST. St. 

Cr. n. 811. BR. SCHIMP. Bry. Eur. iii, Mon. 4, t. 2 (1843). AONGSTR. in FR. Summ. 

Veg. Sc. i, 92 (1846). WILS. Bry. brit. 197, t. 8 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 283 (1860) ; 

51 (1876). BERK. Handb. 
(1869). HOBK. Syn. Br. M. 99 (1873). 

et 2 ed. 351 (1876). BERK. Handb. Br. M. 216, t. 19, f. 7 (1863). MILDE Bry. Siles. 245 

Tetrodontium ovatum SCHWGN. op. c. ii, P. I, 102. 

Georgia Browniana C. MUELL. Syn. i, 181 (1848). RABENH. Deutsch. Krypt. Fl. ii, P. 3, 
231 (1848). SPRUCE Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin. iii, 153 (1849) ; et Ann. Mag. N. Hist. 2 
Ser. iii, 359 (1849). LINDB. in Not. ur Sallsk. Fn. et Fl. fenn. 151 (1867). 

Tetrodontium varium a. foliatum et B. frondiferum LINDB. in Ofr. V. Ak. Forh. XX, 414 

Autoicous ; plants very small, simple, gregarious, radiculose at base, 
with very short decumbent stems, bearing the terminal inflorescence. 
Radical frondiform leaves long, linear-cuneate or somewhat palmate 
at apex, of 2-3 layers of cells; or else bearing flagelliform branches 
covered with lanceolate, entire, nerveless leaves. 

Perichsetial bracts numerous, imbricated, outer much smaller, 
all ovato-lanceolate, faintly nerved at base, entire, the cells oval, 
capsule solitary, on a rigid purple pedicel, erect, oval, symmetric, 
firm, olive-brown, becoming blackish by age ; calyptra covering all 
the capsule, glossy reddish-brown, more deeply slit, unequally plicate ; 
operculum one-third length of capsule, dull yellow, conic or rostellate ; 
mouth of capsule exannulate, more or less emarginate opposite the 
interspaces between the teeth ; teeth shorter and broader than in 
G . pellucida ; spores greenish-yellow. Male infl. gemmiform, the bracts 
fewer, oval, pointed, nerveless, paraphyses short. 

HAB. Sandstone and gritstone rocks, not very uncommon in Scotland, 
N. of England, and Ireland. Fr. 7. 

On rocks by the river at Rosslin, Edinburgh (Brown). Bilston burn (Maughan). Kirk- 
caldy (Chalmers). Arniston and Auchindenny woods (Greville and Arnott). Rae hills 
woods, Dumfries (Jardine). 

Common in Yorkshire as at Keb Clough, Todmorden (Nowcll 1848) ! ! Rig? mill and 
Goathland beck, Whitby (Braithwaite)\\ Cronkley gill (Spruce] \ Healy hall, 
Rochdale (Hobson). Ripon (Brunton). Dene at Twizell House, Berwick (Greville), 
and Lyham Dene (Boyd). Cornwood cascade and Fox-tor, Devon (Holmes). Hays 
wood, Meavy (Fl. dev.). Ardingly, Sussex (Davies). 

Ircl.Hea.d of Kelly's glen, Dublin, and near Ballycastle, Antrim (Moore 1835). Lough 
Bray (Fl. Hib.). 

Tetraphis ovata, FUNCK is a state in which the radical frondiform leaves 
are short or altogether wanting. 

Tetraphis repanda FUNCK is only a variety of G. Brownii, having the 
mouth of capsule slightly more emarginate, and sending from the roots 


flagelliform ramuli with densely imbricated, nerveless ovato-lanceolate 
leaves ; so far as we know it has not been detected in this country. 

Georgia Brownii most frequently occurs on the upper surface of hori- 
zontal fissures in sandstone rocks, and then the capsule is of course the 
lowest part ; when found on the upright faces of rocks the seta stands out 
horizontally or curves gently upwards. Creeping among the felt-like stratum 
may also generally be found associated some of the smaller liver-mosses, as 
Diplophyllum albicans, &c. 

Lindberg aptly compares the radical frondiform leaves to minature 
fronds of the elks-horn fern Playty cerium alcicorne. 


A. Georgia pellucida (Bexley, Mr. George). 

B. Georgia Brownii (Rigg mill, Whitby, Braithwaite}. 

b. Gemmiferous plant mag. 2. Male infl. 
4. Lower leaf. 5. Upper leaf of plant b. 

a. Perfect plants, i. Fertile plant mag. 
3, Bract, antheridium and paraphyses. 

5 aa. Areolation of apex. 5 ab. Ditto of base. 6. Perichjetial bract. 6 aa. Areolation 
of apex. 6 ab. Ditto of base. 7. Cup with one of its bracts. 8. Lentiform gemma and 
paraphyses. g. Frondiform leaves. 10. Apex of same more mag. n. Calyptra. 
12. Apex of same more mag. 13. Operculum. 14. Mouth of capsule and peristome. 
15. Single tooth of same. 16. Transverse section of half of operculum and peristome. 




Georgia pelkicida. 


6. a a. 

Georgia brownii. 

dfi. ad not. I). Blair Uth. 

MinternJiro's imp. 




1. C. angustata Brid. 

2. undulata (L.) Web.Mohr. 

3. crispa James. 

1. 0. incurvum (Huds.) Lindb. 


1. P. subrotundum Huds. 

2. aloides Hedw. 

3. urnigerum L. 

4. alpinum L. 

5. sexangulare Floerke. 

6. gracile Dicks. 

7. attenuatum Mem. 

8. piliferum Schreb. 

9. juniperiuum Willd. 

10. strictum Banks. 

11. commune L. 


Mosses variable in size and habit ; sometimes short and simple, 
sometimes very tall, dendroid and branched, with the stem highly 
developed, having a central woody axis. 

Innovations basal, or in the male plants the axis is continued 
from the centre of the inflorescence. Leaves firm and rigid, the nerve 
generally expanded and bearing on the upper surface a variable 
number of more or less developed vertical lamellae, which vanish 
toward the sheathing base of the leaf; the margin usually serrate, the 
cells of the non-lamellose part mnioid. 

Inflorescence almost always dioicous, the male discoid with the 
bracts often coloured. 

Calyptra cucullate, naked or spinulose or with a few hairs, or 
most frequently covered with long villose pendent hairs. Capsule 
on a long wiry pedicel, terete or angular or rarely depressed, with 
stomata frequently present in the cuticle. 

Peristome of 32 or 64 erect, solid, linguiform teeth, united at 
apex to the discoidal dilated extremity of the columella (the epiphragm 
or tympanum) ; sometimes broken up into a pencil of cilia ; very rarely 
none. Inhabiting the ground, especially on moorlands, and often 
occupying extensive tracts. 

This great family of 200 or more species, is a most natural one, 
approaching the Mniaceae in some points, but yet possessed of characters 
quite peculiar ; notably the solid tongue-shaped teeth, the membranous 
dilated discoid top of the columella, the lamelligerous leaves, and the 
densely pilose calyptra. By the well-developed fibre-vascular cells forming 
a woody axis to the stem, and the noble tree like habit of some exotic 
forms, we may perhaps regard them as standing at the head of all mosses. 

The structure of the peristomial teeth is well worth a careful examina- 
tion, as it differs from that of all other mosses. Each tooth consists of 
several layers of fine threads, held together by cellular material, and we 
can trace each thread down from the apex of one tooth, through the basal 
membrane, and up again to the apex of the adjacent tooth, those in the 
axial line being more condensed. The basal membrane is a continuation 
of the lining of the capsule (endothecal membrane), and consists of several 
rows of thick-walled rectangular cells. 

Prof. Schimper divides the Polytrichaceae into three sub-families : 
i. Polytricheae, comprising nearly all the species. 2. Lyellieae, for the 
genus Lyellia, containing two East Indian species, remarkable for the 
absence of peristome, though with a button shaped epiphragm closing the 
mouth of the capsule. 3. Dawsonieae, including the Australian genus 
Dawsonia of 4 species, among which stands D. superba, one of the most 


beautiful of known mosses ; here both the peristome and endostome are 
broken up into a brush-like tuft of cilia, and there is no epiphragm. In 
both these genera we recognise a certain affinity to Buxbawnia by the 
depressed, ovate and somewhat irregular capsule, and again the scabrous 
seta of Buxbaumia is represented in the Malayan Racelopus, a feature quite 
exceptional in this family, where it is usually polished and wiry. Lindberg's 
paper " Observations de forms presertim europais Polytrichoideamm," in Notis. ur 
Siillsk. pro Fn. et Fl. fenn. forh. ix, p. 91 (1867), is perhaps the most perfect 
example of a botanical dissertation which has ever come before us. 

In this a very curious relation existing between the peristome and 
epiphragm is pointed out and used to divide the genus Polytrichum into two 
sections Pterygodon and Leiodon, but as the parts are very minute and would 
offer difficulties to students in their examination, we have preferred the older 
divisions of C. Mueller. 

A part of this beautiful combination was first accurately made known 
by our celebrated countryman Richard Spruce in his paper on " The Mosses 
and Hepatica of the Pyrenees," in Trans. Bot. Soc. of Edinburgh, iii, 162 (1849) ; 
and as these structures are so important, it may be of interest to quote the 
descriptions of both authors. 

Spruce says, " In Polytrichum alpinum the epiphragm is originally placed 
at the base of the teeth, to which it is attached by means of processes equal 
to them in number, and exactly covering their internal face. After the fall 
of the lid, these processes are gradually detached, and the epiphragm rises, 
probably from the pressure of the full-grown spores beneath it, so as to allow 
the latter to escape through the interstices of the peristome. When the 
epiphragm is quite liberated, the processes curve inward upon its upper 
surface, so as to be with difficulty seen, unless the light be properly regulated, 
or the epiphragm be set up on its edge. The adhesion of the epiphragm to 
the teeth is so great as to resist the action of the columella to draw it down 
into the capsule, and often ultimately to cause the columella to rupture." 

Lindberg's description is as follows, " In the Polytrichacea the teeth 
are incurved and in transverse section triangular, especially at the base ; the 
inner surface of the teeth is elevated in the middle into a longitudinal crest, 
which is composed of the innermost cells of the basal membrane not reaching 
the apex of the tooth. The apices of these cells in the subgenus Pterygodon 
are not united to the teeth, but inflexed, free or irregularly connected with 
each other, and form wings, compressed at the sides, and resembling stag's 
horns. These wings are formed both from the basal membrane itself, and 
the lower part of the crests of the teeth, and are somewhat coloured or 
hyaline; they enclose chambers of the same number as the teeth, in the 
mouth of the capsule, the fundus of which is formed by the basal membrane, 
the walls by the teeth and their wings, and the roof by the epiphragm ; these 
spaces are fenestrae for the exit of the spores, when the spore sac finally 
bursts at apex. The species referred to Pterygodon are P. commune, juniperinum, 
strictum and piliferum, and in these also the epiphragm is thin, flat and strictly 
contained between the apices of the peristome, to which it closely adheres by 
the margin. From its lower surface and within the margin, hang down 
sacculi or nipple like processes, closing the upper part of the interdental 
spaces, almost to the middle of the teeth, and as many in number as the 

POLYTRICHACE.E.] 37 [Catharinea. 

interspaces. In the young state, these mamillae reach down to the basal 
membrane, but in the mature fruit contract by drying, and the spore sac also 
rupturing, through these apertures, as in the fruit of Papaver and Campanula, 
the spores escape. The remaining species form the subgenus Leiodon and in 
this as well as in Catharinea and Oligotrichum the wing-like crest is wanting, the 
epiphragm is thick, concave, and generally somewhat hollowed in the centre, 
the margin toothed with thin processes curved upward and inward, and 
closely fixed to the upper part of the teeth, which they resemble in structure. 
For this reason the epiphragm is not strictly contained within the apices of 
the peristome, but hangs down from them for the length of the dentiform 
processes, connate with the highest part of peristome. Mamillae are also 
absent from the under surface, and the spores are much larger." 

The leaves of Polytrichaceae, except in Catharinea and Racelopus, are 
thick and opake, from the presence on the upper surface of numerous longi- 
tudinal lamellae, and the number and structure of these lamellae, as seen in 
transverse section, are as Prof. Lindberg points out, of the greatest import- 
ance for a proper discrimination of the species, especially in the barren state ; 
the cells forming their free margin are particularly to be noted, as they vary 
considerably in different species. 

In Catharinea the lamellae are few and confined to the nerve, and are 
chlorophyllose like the leaf lamina, but in Polytrichum the lamellae alone 
have chlorophyllose cells. 

Pogonatum is not separable from Polytrichum as a natural genus, for 
in a large proportion of species referred to Pogonatum (forming the section 
Anasmogonium MITT.), the capsule is 6 8 plicate, while in some Polytricha 
the angles of the capsule are almost obsolete. 

It may be noted that Pol. commune is one of the few mosses which have 
been put to economic purposes. Linnaeus tells us that the Laplanders use 
it for beds, and commends it as not harbouring fleas or any infectious disease ; 
in the north of England it is also made into small dusting brooms and mats. 


(Hannov. Mag. 1780, 59 Stuck, p. 933 ; et Beitr. i., pp. 126 et 178 (1787). 

Plants mnioid, gregarious or ccespitose, throwing up erect stems 
from a creeping, subterranean rhizome. Leaves Ungulate or oblong, 
generally undulated, crisped when dry ; bordered and serrate at margin ; 
the nerve with few lamella? ; areolation chlorophyllose, rounded 
hexagonal. Calyptra narrow, cucullate, spinulose only at apex. 
Capsule oval or cylindric, subarcuate ; annulus none ; lid convex, long- 
beaked ; teeth of peristome 32, lingulate, rigid, with a narrow basal 
membrane ; sporangium close to the wall of capsule ; spores minute, 
smooth. Inflorescence usually dioicous ; the male cup-like, with 
numerous bracts and filiform paraphyses. 

This genus was founded by Ehrhart in honour of Catharine II. Empress 
of Russia, and for the reasons stated under Georgia, yet Schimper displaces it 

POLYTRICHACE^.] 38 [Cathariwa. 

for the much later name of P. Beauvois, and then absurdly confers Ehrhart's 
name on Pol. dendroides BRID. and squamosum HOOK. WILS. both unknown to 

The genus includes some 25 species, the majority of which are natives 
of South America, and closely approximate in habit. One other species 
(C. tenella ROHL.) is European, and has been several times recorded as 
British, but I have not seen any genuine native specimens. 

C. undulata, although so common, is a most elegant moss, and is certain 
to be among those that first attract the notice of a young collector. 


Leaves Ungulate, undulated. 

Dioicous. Leaves with obtuse points, densely areolate, margin serrate only in upper half. 

C. angustata. 
Paroicous. Leaves with acute points, more laxly areolate, margin serrate throughout. 

C. undulata. 
Leaves oblongo-lanceolate, not undulated. 

C. crispa. 


Dioicous. Leaves shorter, narrowly lanceolate, obtusely pointed, 
more minutely areolate, serrate only above the middle ; lamellae higher 
and more numerous. Capsule erect, slender cylindric ; lid with a 
shorter beak. (T. V, A.) 

SYN. Bryum Juniperi foliis rugosis, capsulis rcctioribus DILL. Hist. muse. 362, n. 19, t. 46, 
fig. 19 (1741), et Herb. 

Polytrichum nndulatum var. minus MICHX. Fl. bor.-amer. ii, 295 (1803). BALS. DE NOT. 

Prodr. bryol. mediol. 25 (1834). 

Atrichum controversum P. BEAUV. Prodr. 42, excl. syn. (1805). 
Pol. angustatum BRID. Sp. muse, i, 79 (1806). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. i, P. II, 331 (1816). 

HOOK. muse. exot. i, t. 50 (1818). SCHULTZ Suppl. Fl. Starg. 88 (1819). WALLR. Fl. 

cr. germ, i, 195 (1831). DE NOT. Syll. muse. 215 (1838). 

Pol. cylindricum SVVARTZ in MUEHL. Catal. pi. amer. sept. 99 (1813), et Adnot. hot. 

171 (1829). 
Catharinca angustata BRID. Mant. muse. 204 (1819) ; Bry. univ. ii, 105 (1827). STEUD. 

Nom. crypt. 101 (1824). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 519 (1833). C. MUELL. Syn. muse, i, 

193 (1849). HARTM. Skand. Fl. LINDB. in Not. ur Siillsk. Fn. et Fl. fenn. ix, 145 

(1867). DE NOT. Epil. Briol. Ital. 344 (1869). 

Pol. (Oligotrichum) angustatum W.-ARN. in Mem. Soc. d'Hist. nat. Paris, ii, 320 (1825). 
Atrichum angustatum BR. SCHIMP. Bryol. eur. iv, mon. 9, t. 3 (1844) ; Syn. muse. eur. 434 

1860 , et 2 ed. 528 (1876). MILDE Bry. siles. 246 (1869). BERK. Hand. Br. m. 213 
OBK. Syn. Br. m. 100 (1873). HUSNOT Mouss. du Nord-Ouest 134 (1873). 

Dioicous ; gregarious or laxly tufted ; resembling C. undulata in 
habit, but smaller and more slender, and of a more obscure or reddish 
tint. Stems about i in. high, simple erect. Leaves crowded, linear- 
lanceolate, shorter and firmer than in C. undulata, less undulated, 
erecto-patent, more crisp when dry, less spinulose at back, more 
densely and minutely areolate ; the apex somewhat obtuse, the margin 
reflexed below, very narrowly bordered, and serrate only in the upper 

POLYTRICHACE^.] 39 [Catharinea. 

part ; lamellae 5 7, much higher, and occupying most of the apex of 
leaf, in section each of 4 6 small rounded cells. Capsule on a 
purple seta, erect or a little inclined, straight or subarcuate, narrowly 
cylindric, purple red ; calyptra very narrow, spinulose at point ; lid 
dark purple, glossy, with a shorter beak ; teeth of peristome narrower. 
Male plants in separate tufts ; infl. cup-shaped, inner bracts broadly 
obovate with the nerve thickened at apex. 
HAB. Clay and sandy soil in shady places. Very rare. Fr. n i. 

Wet sand banks at Hassocks, near Hurstpierpoint, 6* and fr. (Mitten 1846) ! ! Steep 
stony pastures near Doune, Perthshire, c. fr. (McK inlay 1864) ! 

Readily known from C. imdulata by its slender habit, olive-green tint, 
and shorter, blunt-pointed leaves, which are more minutely areolate. Much 
more frequent in America than in Europe. 


Paroicous. Leaves increasing in size upward, lingulato-lanceolate, 
undulate in the upper half, acute, margin narrowly bordered and dentate 
nearly to base; lamellae 2 5, low. Capsule cylindric, arcuate; lid 
long-beaked. (T. V, B.) 

SYN. Adiantum sen Polytrichum aureum medium RAY Hist. PI. i, 124 (1686), et Syn. Stirp. 

Brit, i ed. 19 (1690). 
MUSCHS capillaris mafusculus, foliis longis cum aliqua latitudinc, viridibus, acutis rugosis 

RAY Syn. 2 ed. 29, n. 6 (1696). MORIS. Hist. pi. Oxon. iii, 631, t. V, f. 10 (1698). 
Bryum erectum, capitulis oblongis, rubentibus, foliis oblongis, angustis pellucidis rugosis 

DILL. Cat. Giss. 222 (1719), et in Ray Synops. 3 ed. 95, n. 15 (1724). 
Bryum Phyllitidis folio rugoso cicuto, capsulis incurvis DILL. Hist. muse. 360, n. 18 ; t. 46, 

f. 18 (1741) et Herb. 
Bryum undulatum L. Sp. PI. ii, 117, n. 10 (1753), et Syst. nat. ii, 701. HUDS. Fl. angl. 

406 (1762). OEDER Fl. Dan. t. 477. WEISS Cr. Gott. 196 (1770). WITHER. Bot. arr. 

Br. Veg. ii. 673 (1776). LIGHTF. Fl. Scot, ii, 722 (1777). CURT. Fl. Lond. i, t. 70 

(1778). WEB. Spic. Fl. gott. 171 (1778). RELH. Fl. cant. 404 (1785). HOFFM. 

Deutsch. Fl. ii. 40, t. i (1796). ABBOTT Fl. bedf. 243 (1798). HULL Br. Fl. 

P. 2, 265 (1799). 

Bryum phyllitidifolium NECK. Meth. muse. 203 (1771)- 
Catharinea Callibryon EHRH. in Hann. Mag. 1780, p. 934, et Beitr. i, 126 (1787). 

C. MUELL. Syn. muse, i, 192 (1849). 

Mnium undulatum SWARTZ Meth. muse. 27 (1781). L. FIL. Meth. muse. 364 (1787). 
Polytrichum undulatum HEDW. Fund, ii, go (1782) ; Stirp. cr. i, 43, T. xvi.xvii (1787) ; 

Sp. muse. 98 (1801). WILLD. Fl. berol. n. 915 (1787). ROTH Fl. germ, i, 458, et iii, 

354 (1788). TIMM Fl. meg. n. 773 (1788). SCHRANK Baier. Fl. ii, 448 (1789). BRID. 

Muse. rec. ii, P. I, 92 (1792) ; Sp. muse. I, 78 (1806). SIBTH. Fl. Oxon. 307 (1794). 

MOENCH PI. marb. 736 (1794). SWARTZ Muse. suec. 78 (1798). ROHL. Moosg. Deuts. 

201 (1800). RICH, in MCHX. Fl. bor. amer. ii, 295 (1803). STURM Deutsch. Fl. ii, 2 

(1803). SMITH Fl. Brit, iii, 1382 (1804) ; Eng. Bot. t. 1220 (1803). TURN. Muse. nib. 

91 (1804). SCHULTZ Fl. starg. 287 (1806). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. 2, 300 (1816). 

MART. Fl. cr. erl. 79 (1817). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. Br. 23, T. X (1818). GRAY Nat. arr. 

Br. pi. i, 719 (1821). HOOK. Fl, Scot. P. 2, 125 (1821) ; Brit. Fl. ii, 48 (1833). FUNCK 

Moostasch. 70, t. 57 (1821). WAHLEN. Fl. suec. 741 (1826). WALLR. Fl. cr. germ, i, 

195 (1831), MACKAY Fl. hib. P. 2, 27 (1836). DE NOT. Syll. muse. n. 214 (1838). 

FIOR. MAZ. Bry. rom. 2 ed. 28 (1841). 

Callibryum polytrichoides WIBEL Prim. fl. Werth. 290 (1799). 
Catharinea undulata WEB. MOHR Ind. mus. pi. cr. (1803) ; Bot. Tasch. 216 (1807). 

ROHL. Ann. Wett. Ges. iii, 233 (1814) ; Deutsch. Fl. iii, 61 (1813). BRID. Mant. muse. 

304 (1819) ; Bry. univ. ii, 102 (1827). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 517 (1833). RABENH. 

Deutsch. Kr. Fl. ii, P. 3, 233 (1848). LINDB. in Not. ur Sallsk. Fn. et Fl. fenn. ix, 

146 (1867). 

POLYTRICHACE^.] 4 [Catharinea. 

OHgotrichum undulatum LAM. DE C. Fl. franc. 3 ed. ii. 492 (1805). 

Atrichurn undulatum P. BEAUV. Prodr. 42 (1805). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. iv, Mon. 8, T. 

1-2 (1844) ; Syn. muse. 433 (1860), et 2 ed. 528 (1876). WILS. Bry. Brit. 203, t. x (1855). 

JENS. Bry. dan. t. 3, f. 14 (1856). BERK. Handb. Br. m. 212, t. 19, f. 4 (1863). MILDE 

Bry. Siles. 246 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. Briol. Ital. 343 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 100 

(1873). HUSN. Mouss. Nord-Ouest 133 (1873). 
Cath. Ehrharti VOIT Muse, herbip. 17 (1812). 
Callibryum undulatum ZENK. DIETR. Muse. Thur. n. 41 (1822). 

Paroicous and polyoicous ; gregarious in wide, bright green patches. 
Rhizome much branched, the roots twisted together like a cable ; stems 
erect, i 3 in. high, simple or bifid, nearly naked below. Leaves rather 
lax, not sheathing, concavo-carinate, patulous and flexuose when moist, 
strongly curled and twisted when dry ; lower small, ovate, scale-like, 
inserted obliquely, the rest increasing in size to the coma, lanceolate, 
ligulate, and linear-elongate, transversely undulate in the upper half, 
with a narrow rufescent border of two rows of narrow cells, bearing for 
greater part of its length callose teeth, usually in pairs, nerve vanishing 
in the rather acute apex, which is beset with spinules at back in trans- 
verse rows ; cells rather large, rounded and subhexagonal ; lamellae 
3 6, subundulate, in section each of 4 5 nearly equal rounded cells. 
Perichsetial bracts, resembling the comal leaves but longer and narrower. 

Pedicel as long as stem, bright-red, erect, twisted to the right in 
upper part when dry, single or in pairs ; capsule pachydermous, brown, 
cylindric, inclined, arcuate, with a very short neck : lid from a hemi- 
spherical purple base, subulato-rostrate, the beak slender, long as 
capsule, straight or curved downward or upward ; teeth longish, orange 
in the axis, basal membrane rufescent. Male inn. terminating the first 
year's stem, the same axis growing on and producing female the next 
year ; perigone cup-shaped, bracts numerous, inner broadly cuneiform- 
truncate with a crenulate, recurved point, and thin nerve. 

HAB. On clay or sandy soil in woods, by the side of paths and on hedge- 
banks. Common. Fr. n 12. 
Schimper records that occasionally the stem produces fruit the first year 

without any preceding male inflorescence. 

Var. ft. Minor (Hedw.) Web. Mohr. 

Stem short ; leaves crowded, shorter, less undulated. Capsule suberect, 
ovate-oblong, unequal, on a shorter pedicel. 

SYN. Polytrichum undulatum var. ft. minus HEDW. Stirp. crypt, i, 43, t. 17, f. 14 21 (1787), 

et Sp. muse. 98. WAHLENB. Fl. lap. 349. MACKAY Fl. hib. P. 2, 27. 
Pol. (Catharinea) controversum ROHL. Moosg. Deutsch. 206. 
OHgotrichum undulatum var. ft. minus LAM. DE C. Fl. franc. 

Cath.undulata ft. minor WEB. MOHR Bot, Tasch. 217. BRID. Mant. muse. 204; Bry. 
univ. ii, 104. 

Atr. undulatum var. y. abbreviatum Bry. eur. 

Cath. undulata var. ft. abbreviata RABENH. Deutsch. Krypt. Fl. ii, P. 3, 233. 

POLYTRICHACE^E.] 41 {Catharinea. 

HAB. In bare stony places. Not common. 

Catharinea tenella ROHL. has been recorded as British, but we believe 
erroneously, we have seen specimens so-called from the following localities : 

i. Strensall moor, Yorkshire (Dr. Spruce 1847) ; referred by Schimper 
to C. tenella is certainly only a slender variety of C. undulata growing 
in sand, and Mr. Boswell informs me that Schimper afterwards 
called it A tr. undulatum Var. tenelliforme ; it may be the same as the 
American Var. attenuatum of Bry. Eur. 

2. Hell's mouth, Loch Goil head (Dr. Nichol) ; also a form of C. 

3. Wet places by the road between Ben Lawers and Killin (McKinlay 
1865) ; belongs to C. undulata Var. minor. 

C, tenella is a good species ; dioicous, having stems i in. high ; leaves 
oblongo-lanceolate, scarcely undulate, dull green ; capsule oblongo-cylindric, 
about half the length of that of C. undulata, inclined, lid large conic, tumid, 
rufous, with a nearly straight pale beak rather shorter than capsule. 


Dioicous. Leaves distant, crisped when dry, oblongo-lanceolate, 
scarcely undulated, smooth at back ; lamellae i 3, very narrow. 
Capsule oblong, suberect ; lid conic, shortly rostrate. (T. V, C.) 

SYN. Catharinea crispa JAMES in Proc. ac. nat. sc. Phil, vii, 445 (1855). LINDB. in Not. ur 

Sallsk, pro Faun, et Fl. fenn. fdrh. ix, 149 (1867). 
Atrlchum crispum SULL. in Gray Man. Bot. U. St. 2 ed. 41 (1856), et Icon. muse. 73, 

T. 46 (1864)". BRAITHW. in Jour, of Bot. 1870, 225, t. 109, f. i. HOBK. Syn. br. m. 101 

(1873). SCHIMP. Syn. muse. 2 ed. 530 (1876). 
Air. laxifolium WILS. M.S. 
Atr. tortifolium SULL. M.S. 

Dioicous ; in soft lurid-green tufts. Stems tall, slender, simple, 
with very distant leaves, rooting only at base, 2 4 in. high. Leaves 
large, crisped when dry, patent when moist, nearly flat, scarcely 
undulated, quite smooth at back ; from a narrowed base, elongato- 
oblongo-lanceolate, rather obtuse, border very narrow, rufescent, formed 
of two layers of cells, remotely toothed, the teeth small and usually in 
pairs ; nerve thick, vanishing in the apex, sometimes with a few spines 
at back, lamellae very low and indistinct, i 3, in section showing a 
row of i 3 rather lax rounded cells ; areolation lax, the basal cells 
rectangular, hyaline, empty, the rest irregular, rounded and hexagonal, 
chlorophyllose ; perichaetial bracts larger and more acute. Pedicels 
slender, i 3 in each perichsetium, capsule suberect, often a little curved, 
oblong-obconic, wide-mouthed, brown ; lid conic with a subulate beak, 
calyptra scabrous at apex ; peristome with scarcely any basal membrane, 
the teeth narrow, unequal, hyaline with a purple median line. 

POLYTRICHACE^;.] 42 [Oligotrichum. 

Male plants in distinct tufts, taller and more slender ; infl. discoid, 
inner perigonial bracts narrow at base, suddenly expanded and then 
contracted into an acute point, the nerve slightly lamellose at apex. 

HAB. Among stones and grass by the sides of streams, and among the 
sandy deposit washed down by the water, not common. Male and 
barren plants only. 

Boggy ground, Rowley moor, near Rochdale (Nowell 1848). Staley brushes, Lancashire 
(Dr. Wood 1860) ! ! Keb clough, Todmorden (Nowell 1860). Several places near 
Hebden bridge, Yorkshire, and in the Saddleworth district (Hunt, Hobkirk) ! ! Rattle 
brook, Dartmoor (Mr. Brent] ! ! and Tay Cleave (Holmes 1868). Near the head of the 
Luchir, Carmarthen (Rev. A. Ley 1878) ! ! 

Var. ft. Densifolia Lindb. Op. cit. p. 150. 

Plants dwarf, dense leaved ; leaves broader, elliptical, more patulous. 
SYN. Atrichum crispum v&r.foliis latioribus, ellipticis WILS. MSS. 
HAB. Oakmere, Cheshire (Wilson 1860) ! Male plant only. 

The fertile plant has only been found in N. America, and has a shorter 
stem, with the leaves denser, longer, more lingulate and crisped. 


(Fl. franc. 3 ed., ii, 491 (1805). ) 

Stems simple, innovating from subterranean stolons. Leaves 
lanceolate or oblong, incurved when dry, very concave ; lamellae 
numerous, high, strongly undulated. Capsule erect, ovate-oblong, 
terete, or gibbose and compressed ; calyptra cucullate, with a few 
scattered hairs or naked ; lid conic, rostrate ; teeth of peristome 
slender, irregular. 

This genus is named from the calyptra having " few hairs," and 
stands immediately between Catharinea and Polytrichum, agreeing with the 
former in its mode of growth and capsule, and with the latter in its rigidity, 
more opake leaves and areolation. 

Several other allied genera have been formed, which are perhaps 
better regarded as sections of the present, and we thus have i. Euoligotrichum, 
of which our British species is the type, and including others from South 
America and the E. Indies ; 2. Psilopilum, of five species, one of which is 
found in the extreme north of Europe; 01. glabratum (\VAHL.) Psilopilum 
arcticum BRID. 3. Dendroligotrichum, represented by the giant Pol. dendroides 
BRID. 4. Polytrichadelphus, embracing some 20 species, nearly all South 

Although the character of the genus differs but little from that of 
Catharinea, it has a peculiar habit which is very striking in the growing state, 
and the lid is so slightly attached, that it generally falls away with the 

POLYTRICHACE^E.] 43 [Oligotrichum. 


Dioicous; stems short, simple. Leaves patent, incurved, lanceo- 
late, concave, involute above, subserrate, lamellae numerous, undulated. 
Capsule erect, ovato-cylindric ; lid conic, acuminate. (T. V, D.) 

SYN. Bryum incurvum HUDS. Fl. Angl. 2 ed. 479 (1778). 

Catharlnea hcrcynica EHRH. Beitr. i, 190 (1787). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 217 (1807). 

Fl. dan. t. 1417 (1810). ROHL. Deutsch. Fl. iii, 61 (1813) ; Ann. Wett. Ges. iii, 232 

(1814). BRID. Mant. muse. 203 (1819) ; Bry. univ. ii, 99 (1827). RABENH. Deutsch. 

Krypt. Fl. ii, P. 3, 234 (1848). C. MUELL. Syn. muse, i, 196 (1849). 
Polytrichum hercynicum HEDW. St. crypt, i, 40, 1. 15 (1787) ; Sp. muse. 94 (1801). SCHRANK 

Baier. Fl. ii, 447 (1789) ; Prim. Fl. sal. 824 (1792). DICKS. PI. crypt, Fasc. 2, 3 (1790). 

WITH. Bot. arr. Br. Veg. 3 ed. iii, 797 (1796). BRID. muse. rec. ii, P. I, 91, t. 2, f. 12 

(1798) ; Sp. muse. I, 77 (1806). HULL Brit. Fl. P. 2, 248 (1799). ROTH Fl. germ, iii, 

353 (1800). ROHL. Moosg. Deuts. 197 (1800). SMITH Eng. Bot. t, 1219 (1803); Fl. Br. 

iii, 1381 (1804). WAHLENB. Fl. Lap. 348 (1812); Fl. Carp. 349 (1814). SCHWAEGR. 

Suppl. I, P. II, 329 (1816). HOOK. TAY. Muse. Br. 24, t. X (1818). FUNCK Moostasch. 

70, t. 57 (1821). GRAY Nat. arr. Br. PI. i, 720 (1821). HOOK. Fl. Scot. P. 2, 125 (1821) ; 

Brit. Fl. ii, 45 (1833). WALLR. Fl. crypt, germ, i, 195 (1831). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 

521 (1833)- 

Orthotrichum hercynicum HOFFM. Deutsch. Fl. ii, 25 (1795). 
Atrichum hercynicum P. BEAUV. Prodr. 42 (1805). 
Oligotrichum hercynicum LAM. ET DE C. Fl. franc. 3 ed. ii, 492 (1805). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. 

eur. iv, mon. 4, t. 5 (1844) ; Syn. muse. eur. 436 (1860), et 2 ed. 531 (1876). WILS. 

Bry. Brit. 205, t. x (1855). BERK. Handb. Br. m. 212, t. 19, f. 3 (1863). MILDE Bry. 

Sil. 247 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. Briol. Ital. 342 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 101 (1873). 
Olig. incurvum LINDB. in HARTM. Skand. Fl. 9 ed. ii, 45 (1864), et in Not. ur Sallsk. Fn. 

et Fl. fenn. forh ix, 144 (1867). 

Dioicous ; gregariously caespitose, in loose tufts, adhering by the 
earth at roots, pale glaucous green, when old rufescent. Stems about 
i in. high, erect, simple, rigid. Lower leaves remote, minute, appressed, 
oval, acuminate ; upper crowded, rigid, twisted when dry, patent when 
moist, subarcuate-incurved, very concave, from a pale thin, sheathing 
base, narrowly lanceolate, the margin inflexed above the middle, remotely 
serrate in upper part ; nerve at back toward apex, with three narrow 
remotely serrate lamellae, above with 10 12 high, sinuose, strongly 
undulated lamellae, each in section of 5 12 equal rounded cells. 
Capsule on a thickish orange-red pedicel, twisted to the right above 
when dry, ovato-cylindric, erect, ferruginous, when dry plicate, contracted 
below the mouth, and with a few stomata on the neck ; lid large, convex- 
conic, obtusely acuminate, fugacious ; teeth of peristome pale, short, 
unequal ; spores very small, smooth. 

Male plants short, more slender, the infl. rosaceous, bracts broadly 
oval, acute, with a lamellar nerve; paraphyses both filiform and 

HAB. Bare declivities and sandy ground on mountains. Scotland, Wales, 
N. of England, Ireland. Fr. 7. 

Var. (3. Laxum Braithw. 

Stems 34 in. high, slender, flexuose. Leaves more distant and 

POLYTRICHACE^E.J 44 [Polytrichum. 

divergent, not dilated at base, elongated, pale green, pellucid, with larger 
areolation ; nerve broader, margin more or less distinctly subserrated. 

HAB. Ben Nevis (McKinlay 1863) ! near Bangor, N. Wales (J. Griffiths 

1879) ! ! 

I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. Hobkirk for this very striking 
variety, only found in the barren state. 


(Cat. pi. giss. 211 (1718).) 

Plants short and simple, or tall, showy and branched, innovating 
from radical protonema, or subterranean stolons, or from middle of 
stem. Leaves from a membranous, sheathing base, rigid, coriaceous, 
scarce altered by drying, nerve broad, covered with very numerous 
erect lamellae, margin spinoso-serrate. Calyptra dimidiate, with straight 
defluent tomentum, covering all or most of capsule. Capsule erect 
or cernuous, terete and cylindraceous, or prismatic or cuboid, and 4, 
rarely 5 6 angled, tapering to a neck or with a small discoid or 
subglobose hypophysis. Lid convex, apiculate or with a straight 
beak. Teeth 32 or 64, adhering at apex to the papery epiphragm. 

An extensive genus scattered over the whole world and exhibiting 
great diversity in the size of the individuals, some of the species forming 
small groups of closely allied forms. Above 100 species belong to the 
sections with rounded fruit (commonly combined into the genus Pogonatum] 
and about 30 to that of Eupolytrichum. The derivation is from TroAvs many, 
Opig hair. 


Capsules rounded. 

Leaves short, broadly lanceolate, subinvolute at margin. 

Leaves obtusely toothed. Capsule subglobose. Columella cylindric. 

Leaves sharply serrate. Capsule longish oval. Columella 4-winged. 

Leaves longer, narrowly lanceolate, acute. 

Capsule subcylindric, erect, terete, papillose. urnigeruin. 

Capsule oblong, tumid, somewhat inclined, smooth. alpinum. 

Capsules angular. 

Leaves entire with an inflexed margin. 

Leaves obtuse at apex. sixangularc. 

Leaves aristate at apex. 

Arista short, smooth, coloured ; stems short, leaves spreading, recurved ; 

capsule square, prismatic. junipcrinnni. 

Arista the same; stem tall, leaves erecto-patent, straight; capsule small, 

cuboid. strictum. 

Arista longer, rough, hyaline. pilifcrwn. 

Leaves sharply serrated, plane, acuminate. 

Capsule ovate, obscurely angled, lid rostrate ; leaves short. gracile. 

Capsule oblong, 4 6 angled, leptodermous ; lid conical, pointed. 


Capsule cubic, acutely 4-angled, pachydermous, with a distinct hypophysis ; 
lid conico.rostellate commune. 

POLYTRICHACE.E.] 45 [Polytrichwn. 


Stem short. Leaves few, rather broad, more or less involute, 
resembling those of a miniature aloe. Capsule oval or cylindric. 


Dioicous ; subgregarious. Stem very short, simple ; leaves patent, 
lanceolate, rather obtuse, remotely denticulate above. Capsule globose- 
urceolate, wide-mouthed ; lid conic, rostellate. (T. VI, A.) 

SYN. Adiantum aureum minus, capitulis rotundis, BOBART. RAY Syn. St. Br. i ed. app. 237 


Polytrichum minus, capsulis subrotundis, calyptra quasi lacera coronatis DILL. Giss. 221 
(1719), et Syn. 3 ed. 91, n. 3 (1724). 

Polytr. nanum, capsulis subrotundis galeritis, aloes folio non serrato DILL. Hist. muse. 428, 
t. 55, f. 6 (1741) et Herb. 

M nium polytrichoides a. L. Sp. PI. ii, 1112, n. 13 (1753). POLLICH PI. palat. n. 990(1777). 

Ditto Var. rotundifructum EHRH. in Hann. Mag. 1780, 236. 

Polytr.subrotundum HUDS. Fl. Angl. 400 (1762). CURT. Fl. Lond. t. 68 (1778). RELH. 

Fl. Cant. Suppl. 16 (1786). WITH. Bot. arr. Br. Veg. 3 ed. 786 (1796). MENZ. in Tr. 

Lin. Soc. iv, 68, n. 2 (1798). HULL Br. Fl. P. 2, 247 (1799). SMITH Fl. Brit, iii, 1378 

(1804) ; Eng. Bot. t. 1624 (1806). TURN. Muse. hib. 89 (1804). MART. Fl. crypt. 

Erlang. 80 (1817). DUBY Bot. gall, ii, 547 (1830). LINDB. in Not. ur Sallsk. Fn. Fl. 

fenn. forh. ix, 141 (1867.) 

Polytr. nanum NECK. Meth. muse. 119 (1771). SCHREB. Spic. fl. lips. 74 (1771). SWTZ. 
Meth. muse. 26, n. 6, p.p. (1781). LEYSS. Fl. hal. 2 ed. 263 (1783). HEDW. St. crypt. 
i, 35, t. 13 (1787) ; Sp. muse. 95 (1801). MENZ. SM. TURN. MART. op. c. TIMM Fl. 
meg. n. 771 (1788). ROTH Fl. germ, i, 458 (1788). SIBTH. Fl. Oxon. 306 (1794). BRID. 
Muse. rec. ii, P. I, 88 (1798) ; Sp. muse. I. 71 (1806) ; Mant. 200 (1819). HULL Br. Fl. 
P. 2, 247 (1799). SCHULTZ Fl. Starg. 286 (1806). Eng. Bot. t. 1625 (1806). WEB. 
MOHR Bot. Tasch. 227 (1807). VOIT Muse. herb. 61 (1812). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. i, P. 2, 
324 (1816). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. Brit. 28, t. ii (1818). FUNCK Moostasch. 70, t. 57 
(1821). HOOK. Fl. Scot. P. 2,126 (1821); Brit. Fl. ii, 51 (1833). WALLR. Fl. crypt, 
germ, i, 197 (1831). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 524 (1833). RABENH. Deutsch. Kr. Fl. ii, 
P- 3> 2 35 (1848). C. MUELL. Syn. muse, i, 204 (1849). HARTM. Skand. Fl. 

Pol. nanum var. ft. WEISS Fl. gott. 175 (1770). HUDS. op. c. 2 ed. 470 (1778). 

Pol. alo'ifolium ft. SCOP. Fl. earn. 2 ed, ii, 310 (1772). 

Pol. ericoides HOFFM. Deutsch. Fl. ii, 24 (1795). WIB. Fl. Werth. 291 (1799). 

Pol. pumilum SWARTZ in W. ak. nya Handl. xvi, 271 (1795) ; Disp. muse. Suec. 77 et 108, 

t. ix, f. 19 (1799), et Adnot bot. 166 (1829). BRID. Sp. muse. I, 69 (1806), Mant. muse. 

199. HEDW. Sp. muse. 97, t. 21, f. 7-9 (1801). STEUD. nom. crypt. 353 (1824). 
Pogonatum pumilum P. BEAUV. Prodr. 84 (1805). BRID. Bry. univ. ii, 116 (1827). 
Fog. nanum P. BEAUV. 1. c. et in Mem. soc. Linn. Par. i, t. xi, f. 3. ROHL. ann. Wett. 

Ges. iii, 231 (1814); Deutsch. Fl. iii, 69 (1813). BRID. Bry. univ. ii, 117 (1827). BR. 

SCHIMP. Bry. Eur. iv, Mon. 5, t. 7 (1844) ; Syn. muse. Eur. 438 (1860), et 2 ed. 534 (1876). 

WILS. Bry. Brit. 206, t. xi (1855). BERK. Hand. Br. m. 210, t. 19, f. i (1863). MILDE 

Bry. Siles. 248 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. Briol. Ital. 340 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 101 

(1873). HUSN. Mouss. Nord-ouest 134 (1873). 
Pol. intermedium BRID. Sp. muse, i, 70 (1806). 
Pog. intermedium ROHL. Deutsch. Fl. 2 ed. iii, 60 (1813). 
Pol. semidiaphanum BRID. Mant. muse. 200 (1819). 
Pog. nanum ft. semidiaphanum BRID. Bry. univ. ii, 119. 
Pog. subrotundum LINDB. in HARTM. Skand. Fl. 9 ed. ii, 44, inter synon. (1864). 

Dioicous; laxly gregarious. Stems very short, simple, naked at 
base ; leaves crowded, embracing the stem, patulous, olivaceous-green, 

POLYTRICHACE^.] 46 \Polytrichum. 

linear-lingulate, obtuse, margin erect and remotely denticulate above, 
convex at back and obscurely muricate below apex ; when dry adpresso- 
incurved; lamellae about 36, subundulate, rather high and somewhat 
distant, each in section of 6 8 small, equal rounded cells. Seta purple, 
often flexuose ; capsule ovato-globose, erect or inclined, pale olive, 
turbinate when dry and contracted below the wide mouth ; lid convex, 
protuberant, rostellate ; teeth 32, linear, obtuse, hyaline with a purple 
median line. Calyptra cucullate, rufescent, scarce covering all capsule. 
Columella cylindric. 

Male infl. cyathiform, inner bracts obovato-lanceolate, the nerve 
thin, with a few lamellae at apex. 

HAB. By roadsides, on sandy places on heaths and banks in woods. Not 
uncommon, but much less frequent than the next species. Fr. n 2. 

Var. ft. Longisetum (Hampe) Lindb. 

Leaves longer, more linear. Seta much elongated ; capsule oval-oblong. 
SYN. Pol. nanum var. ft. longisetum HAMPE MSS. C. MUELL. Synops. i, 204. 

Pogon. nanum var. ft. longisetum BR. SCH. Bry. eur. mon. 5, t. 7, f. ft. 

Pol. subrotundum var. ft. longisetum LINDB. op. cit. 143. 

HAB. Near Virginia water, with the ordinary form (Braithwaite, 1868) ! ! 

Near Penzance (Curnow) ! Bickleigh down (Holmes), Yanaton down, 

Devon (Brent). 

Several forms of this moss occur, one of which with linear, shorter, 
eroso-denticulate leaves is the P. pumilum SWARTZ and other old authors ; and 
P. semidiaphanum BRID. only differs in the broader border of the leaf being 
pale and thus more transparent ; P. subrotundum was also kept distinct from 
P. nanum for a state in which the leaf was almost entire. In this species 
alone, the inner membrane of the sporangium is in contact with the columella, 
the cylindric form of which is evident by a transverse section of the capsule, 
and is thus useful to distinguish this species from the next, in such a dubious 
form as the var. longisetum. 


Dioicous; stem short, simple or innovating. Leaves sheathing, 
broadly lanceolate, subacute, sharply serrate at margin and back of 
nerve. Capsule erect, oblongo-cylindric, lid conico-rostellate ; colu- 
mella 4-winged. (T. VI, B.) 

Svx.Polytrichum parvum, Aloes folio serrato, capsulis oblongis DILL. Hist. muse. 429, t. 55, 
f. 7 (1741) et Herb. 

Mnium polytrlcholdes var. ft. L. Sp. pi. ii, 1112 (1753). 

Ditto var. longifrttctum Ehrh. in Hann, mag. 1780, 236. 

Pol. subrotundum var. ft. HUDS. Fl. angl. 400 (1762). 

Pol. nanum WEISS Fl. gott. 173 (1770). LIGHTF. Fl. Scot, ii, 701 (1777). HUDS. op. 

cit. 2 ed. 470 (1778). Sw. meth. muse. 26, p.p. (1781). LINDB. in not. ur Sallsk. Fn. 

et. Fl. fenn. torh. ix, 139 (1867). Var. ft. LEYSS. Fl. hal. 2 ed. 263 (1783). 

POLYTRICHACE.E.] 47 [Pofytnchum. 

Pol. mnioides NECK. Meth. muse. 123 (1771). 

Pol. alocfolium i et 2 SCOP. Fl. earn. 2 ed. ii, 309 (1772). 

Pol. aloides HEDW. St. crypt, i, 37, t. xiv (1787) ; Sp. Muse. 96 (1801). WILLD. Fl. berol. 

n. 914 (1787). ROTH Fl. germ, i, 458, et iii, 332 (1788). TIMM Fl. meg. n. 772 (1788). 

SIBTH. Fl. Oxon. 307 (1794). WITH. Bot. arr. Br. Veg. 3 ed., iii, 796 (1796). HOFFM. 

Deut. Fl. ii, 24 (1796). SWARTZ muse. suec. 78 (1798). MENZ. in Tr. Lin. soc. iv, 70 

(1798). BRID. muse. rec. ii, P. I, 72 (1798) ; Sp. muse, i, 72 (1806) ; Mant. muse. 200 

(1819). HULL Br. Fl. P. 2, 247 (1799). HOPPE Bot. Tasch. 155 (1800). ROHL. Moosg. 

Deutsch. 192 (1800). SM. Fl. Brit, iii, 1380 (1804) ; Eng. Bot. t. 1649. TURN. Muse. 

hib. 88 (1804). SCHULTZ Fl. Starg. 287 (1806). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 226 (1807). 

VOIT muse. herb. 60 (1812). WAHLEN. Fl. carp. 349 (1814). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. 2, 

322 (1816). HOOK. TAYL. muse. brit. 28, t. xi (1818). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. 2, 126 (1821) ; 

Brit. Fl. ii, 50 (1833). GRAY Nat. arr. Br. Veg. i, 721 (1821). ZENK. DIETR. muse. 

Thuring. n. 32 (1822). WALLR. Fl. crypt, germ, i, 197 (1831). HUEBEN. muse. germ. 

522 (1833). BALS. DE NOT. Pr. Bry. Mediol. 22 (1833). MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 28 (1836). 

DE NOT. Syll. muse. n. 211 (1838). FIOR. MAZ. Bry. rom. 2 ed. 30 (1841). RABENH. 

Deutsch. Krypt. Fl. ii, P. 3, 235 (1848). C. MUELL. Syn. muse, i, 202 (1849). 
Pol. rubellum MENZ. in Tr. Lin. Soc. iv, 79, t. vii, f. 3 (1798). HULL Br. Fl. P. 2, 248 

(1799). SMITH Fl. Brit, iii, 1381 (1804) ; Eng. Bot. t. 1939. BRID. Sp. muse. I, 73 

(1806), et Mant. muse. 201 (1819). 
Pogonatum aloides P. BEAUV. Prodr. 84 (1805). ROHL. Deuts. Fl. iii, 60 (1813) ; Ann. 

Wett. Ges. iii, 229 (1814). BRID. Bry. univ. ii, 119 (1827). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. Eur. iv, 

Mon. 6, t. 8 (1844) ; Syn. muse. 439 (1860), et 2 ed. 535 (1876). WILS. Bry. Brit. 206, 

t. xi (1855). BERK. Handb. Br. m. 210, t. 19, f. 2 (1863). MILDE Bry. Siles. 248 (1869). 

DE NOT. Epil. Briol. Ital. 339 (1869). HOBK. Syn. Br. M. 102 (1873). HUSN. Mous. 

du Nord-ouest 135 (1873). 

Dioicous ; gregarious or clustered. Stem from a creeping base, 
erect, simple, naked below, sometimes bifid and elongated. Leaves 
crowded, patulous, dull green, lowest scale-like, ovate, the rest gradually 
longer as they ascend, from a sheathing, submembranous base, elongate- 
lanceolate, rather acute, distinctly serrate above and on the back of the 
nerve, contracted and appressed when dry ; lamellae about 48, low, 
straight, each in section of one row of 3 5 small, equal, rounded cells. 
Seta purple. Capsule somewhat contracted at base, oblong-urceolate, 
erect or inclined, olivaceous, with a red mouth, finally brown, granulose 
toward base ; lid conic, rostellate ; columella 4-winged ; teeth 32, linear, 
pale ; spores pale green. Calyptra longer than capsule, whitish, tinged 
with ferruginous below. 

Male infl. discoid, inner bracts obovate, pointed, with some lamellae 
at apex. 

HAB. Heaths, hollow banks and by the side of paths in woods. Common. 
Fr. ii 2. 

Var. /?. Dicksoni (Turn.} Wallm. 

Dwarf, stem simple or branched ; seta very short, capsule subobovate, 
lid conical, calyptra sometimes confluent below the capsule, sometimes per- 
forated at apex. 

SYN. Polyi. nanum HOFFM. Deutsch. Fl. ii, 24. in obs. (1795). 

Pol. Dicksoni TURN. Muse. Hib. 90, t. x, f. 2. Eng. Bot. t. 1605 (1804). BRID. Sp. muse. 
71 et Mant. muse. 201. 

Pol. aloides nanum WEB. M. Bot. Tasch. 227, in obs. var. ft. Dicksoni WALLM. in LILJEBL. 
Svensk Fl. 3 ed. 528 (1816). HOOK. TAY. Muse. Br. 28. 

POLYTRICHACE^;.] 48 [Polytrichum. 

Pol. minimum CROME in HOPP. Bot. Tasch. 1807, 108 : et Samml. n. 30. 
Pol. laterale CROME op. c. in, et. Samml. ii, 89. 
Pol. defluens BRID. Mant. muse. 200. 

Pog. aloides var. y. dcflucns, BRID. Bry. univ. ii, 121. C. MUELL. Syn. i, 203. SCHIMP. 
Synops. Muse. Var. ft. minus Bry. eur. Bry. brit. BERK. Handb. 

HAS. On dry banks. Not common. 

Near Yarmouth (Dickson). Derry, Ireland (D. Brown). Hopton, Suffolk (Turner 1802). 
Banks of Tay, Glebe of Kenmore (Herb. Hook) ! Strome Ferry (Hunt, 1866) ! ! 
Madron, Penzance (Curnow). Compton and Moretonhampstead (Brent). 

This species should strictly bear the name of P. nanum, having been so 
called and clearly defined by WEISS in 1770 in his excellent " PL cvypt. Fl. 
gotting; " but seeing that later authors have transferred the name to the pre- 
ceding species, it would lead to endless confusion to retain it. The plant is 
taller and more branching than P. subrotundum, and like it presents several 
different forms, the serration varying in extent, and size of teeth and some- 
times being nearly obsolete on the back of the nerve ; in P. nibellum MENZ. it 
is very distinct, and the stems also are taller and more branched. 
Occasionally both stems and setae become greatly elongated, a state which 
appears to be frequent in N. India and Japan. 


Stems taller, simple or branched, leafy throughout ; leaves narrower, 
lanceolate, acute. Capsule as in Sect. i. 


Dioicous ; glaucescent, branched above. Leaves from a short, 
sheathing base, lanceolate, acute, sharply serrated. Capsule erect, 
ovali-cylindric, narrowed in the middle, papillose ; lid convex, rostrate. 
(T. VI, C.) 

SYN. Polytrichum ramosum,setis ex alls urnigeris DILL. Hist. muse. 427, t. 55, f. 5 (1741) et Herb. 
Pol. urnigerum L. Sp. pi. ii, 1109, n. 3 (1753) ; et Fl. suec. 967. HUDS. Fl. angl. 400 
(1762). OEDER Fl. Dan. t. 296. NECK. meth. muse. 129 (1771). WITHER. Bot. 
arr. Br. veg. 663 (1776). LIGHTF. Fl. Scot, ii, 703 (1777). WEB. Fl. Gott. n. 119 
(1778). ROTH Fl. germ. i. 457, et iii, 350 (1788). EHRH. Hann. mag. 235 (1780). 
HOFFM. Deutsch. Fl. ii, 24 (1796). MENZ. Tr. Lin. soc. iv, 81 (1798). BRID. Muse. 
rec. ii, P. I, 97 (1798) ; Sp. muse. I, 65 (1806) ; Mant. muse. 199 (1819). SWARTZ 
muse. suec. 77 (1798). HULL Br. Fl. P. 2, 248 (1799). ROHL. Moosg. Deutsch. 210 
(1800). HOPPE Bot. Tasch. 154 (1800). HEDW. Sp. muse. 100, t. 22, f. 5-7 (1801). 
BM. Fl. Brit, iii, 1378 (1804); Eng. Bot. 1218. TURN. Muse. hib. 87 (1804). WEB. 
MOHR Bot. Tasch. 216 (1807). WAHL. Fl. lapp. 347 (1812) ; Fl. carp. 349 (1814). 
VOIT Muse. herb. 60 (1812). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. 2, 318 (1816). MART. Fl. cr. 
erlang. 81 (1817). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 27, t. xi (1818). HARTM. Skand Fl. 286 
(1820). FUNCK Moostasch. 70, t, 57 (1821). HooK.Fl. Scot. P. 2, 126 (1821) ; Brit. Fl. 
11,50(1833). GRAY Nat. arr. Br. pi. i, 721 (1821). ZENK. DIETR. Muse. Thur. n.g 
(1821). WALLR. Fl. crypt, germ, i, 197 (1831). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 525 (1833). 
BALS. DE NOT. Pr. Bry. mediol. 21 (1834). MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 28 (1836). DE NOT. 
SYLL. muse. n. 210 (1838). FIOR. MAZ. Briol. rom. 2 ed. 30 (1841). RABENH. Deuts. 
Krypt. Fl. n, P. 3, 236 (1848). C. MUELL. Syn. muse, i, 208 (1849). LINDB. in Not. 
ur Sallsk. Fl. Fn. fenn. ix, 134 (1867). 

Bryum urnigerum NECK. Delic. gallo-belg. ii, 462 (1768). 

POLYTRICHACE^E.] 49 [Polytrichum. 

Pol. dubium SCOP. Fl. earn. 2 ed. ii, 310 (1772). 

Pol. axillare LAM. Fl. franc, i, 43 (1778). 

Pol. pulverulentum REYN. in Act. Lausan. ii, P. i, p. n (1780). ROHL. op. cit. 216. 
BRID. Muse, rec., Sp. muse, et Mant. SCHWAEGR. op. c. 322. 

Pol.fasdculatum MICHX. Fl. bor.-amer. ii, 294 (1803). BRID. Sp. muse. 64. 

Pogonatum pulverulentum P. BEAUV. Prodr. 84 (1805). 

Pog.fasciculatum P. BEAUV. op. cit. 84. 

Pog. urnigernm P. BEAUV. op. cit. 85. ROHL. Deutsch. Fl. iii, 60 (1813) ; Ann. Wett. 
ges. iii, 228 (1814). BRID. Bry. univ. ii, 124 (1827). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. iv, Mon. 8, 
t. 9 (1844) ; Syn. muse. 440 (1860), et 2 ed. 537 (1876). WILS. Bry. Brit. 208, t. xi 
(1855). BERK. Handb. Br. m. 211 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 249 (1869). DE NOT. 
Epil. Briol. Ital. 338 (1809). HUSN. Mouss. Nord-ouest 135 (1873). HOBK. Syn. 
br. m. 102 (1873). 

Dioicous; pale glaucous green above, ferruginous brown below ; in 
wide lax patches. Stem erect i 3 in. high, rigid, innovating laterally 
and more or less fasciculate. Lower leaves minute, scale-like, cuspidate, 
upper crowded, coriaceous, patent when moist, straight and incumbent 
when dry, from a shortly sheathing base, broadly lineal-lanceolate, very 
acute, nearly plane, margin serrate throughout with solid acute teeth, 
also slightly serrate at back of apex ; lamellae dense, low, straight, about 
48, each in section of one row of 4 5 cells, the marginal larger, round, 
incrassate, papillose on the surface. Perichsetial bracts narrow, subulate, 
with long sheathing bases. Seta longish, reddish yellow. Calyptra 
yellow-brown, prolonged below capsule. Capsule nearly erect, ovate- 
oblong, cylindraceous, somewhat contracted below the mouth, pachy- 
dermous, rufous brown, papillose with ascending conical granules, 
without stomata ; lid convex with a straight subulate beak. Peristome 
from a broadish orange basal membrane, teeth 32, equal, rufous, rather 
short. Spores smooth. Male plants shorter and more slender, bracts 
very broad, obovate, with a short point. 

HAB. On banks and by streams in subalpine districts, not uncommon. 
Fr. ii i. 
Var. /3. Humile Wahlenb. 

Stem short, simple ; leaves shorter, straight. Capsule narrower, ovate, 
subcernuous, on a shorter seta. 

SYN. Pol. urnigerum var. (3. humile WAHLENB. Fl. lapp. 347 (1812). BRID. Mant. muse. 199 ; 
Bry. univ. ii, 126. SCHIMP. Syn. muse. 440, et 2 ed. 537. 

HAB. Dry stony places on moorlands. 

This species varies somewhat in size and colour, and the capsules 
occasionally are a little asymmetric ; the papillae extend over the lower part 
of the lid. 


Dioicous ; stem tall, fasciculate-branched. Leaves longly sheathing, 
lineal-lanceolate, sharply serrate, spinulose at back. Capsule sub- 

POLYTRICHACE^.] 5 \Polytrichum. 

cernuous, tumid, ovate ; lid obliquely rostrate ; peristome short, 
irregular. (T. VI, D.) 

Svx.Polytrichum alpinum ramcsum, capsulis e summitate ellipticis DILL. Hist. muse. 427, 

t. 55, f. 4 (1741) et Herb. 

Pol. alpinum L. Sp. pi. ii, nog, n. 2 (1753) ', Syst. nat. ii, 700. NECK. meth. muse. 120 
(1771). WITHER. Bot. arr. Br. Veg. ii, 663 (1776). LIGHTF. Fl. Scot, ii, 703 (1777). 
WEBER Fl. gott. 40 (1778). HUDS. Fl. Angl. 2 ed., ii, 470 (1778). ROTH Fl. Germ, i, 
457 (1788), et iii, 349. BRID. Muse. rec. ii, P. I, 99 (1792) ; Sp. muse. I, 62 (1806) ; 
Mant. muse. 198 (1819). HOFFM. Deuts. Fl. ii, 24 (1796). MENZ. Tr. Lin. Soc. iv, 83 
(1798). SWARTZ muse. suec. 76 (1798). HULL Br. Fl. P. 2, 248 (1799). HOPPE Bot. 
Tasch. 153 (1800). HEDW. Sp. muse. 92, t. 19, f. 2 --6 (1801). SMITH Fl. brit. iii, 1377 
(1804) ; Eng. Bot. t. 1905. TURN. Muse. hib. 85 (1804). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 85 (1805). 
LAM. DE C. Fl. franc. 3 ed. ii, 490 (1805). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 225 (1807). Fl. 
Dan. t. 1362. WAHLENB. Fl. lapp. 346 (1812) ; Fl. carp. 348 (1814). HARTM. Skand. 
Fl. 286. SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. 2, 307 (1816). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 27, t. xi 
(1818). HOOK. Fl. Scot. P. 2, 126 (1821) ; Brit. Fl. ii, 50 (1833). FUNCK Moostasch. 
69, t. 57 (1821). GRAY Nat. arr. Br. pi. i, 721 (1821). WALLR. Fl. crypt, germ, i, 198 
(1831). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 527 (1833). MACKAY Fl. Hib. P. 2, 28 (1836). DE NOT. 
Syll. muse. n. 209 (1838). FIOR. MAZ. Briol. rom. 2 ed. 29 (1841). RABENH. Deuts. Krypt. 
Fl. ii, P. 3, 236 (1848). C. MUELL. Syn. muse, i, 210 (1849). LINDB. op. c. 129 (1867). 

Pol. urnigerutn var. /?. HUDS. Fl. Angl. 400 (1762). 

Pol. ferrugincum BRID. Sp. muse, i, 61 (1806). 

Pogonatum alpinum ROHL. Deutschl. Fl. 2 ed. iii, 59 (1813) ; et in Ann. Wetter. Ges. iii, 

226 (1814). BRID. Bry. univ. ii, 129 (1827). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. Eur. iv, Mon. 9, t. x 

(1844) ; Syn. muse. 441 (1860), et 2 ed. 538 (1876). WILS. Bry. Brit. 208, t. xi (1855). 

BERK. Handb. Br. m. 211 (1863). MILDE Bry. Siles. 249 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. Briol. 

Ital. 338 (1869). HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 102 (1873). 
Pol.furcatum HORNSCH. in N. ESF.N. Hor. phys. berol. 67 (1820). 
Pog.furcatum BRID. Bry. un. ii, 133 (1827). 

Dioicous ; laxly and irregularly csespitose, deep green, rufous brown 
when old. Stem rooting only at base, trigonous, slender, erect or 
ascending, 2 4 in. high, dichotomous and fasciculate-branched. Leaves 
below scale-like, scariose, aristate with the excurrent nerve, upper 
gradually longer, from a whitish, glossy, long sheathing base, patulous, 
recurved or subsecund, when dry erecto-appressed, with the margin 
inflexed, long, lineal-lanceolate, cuspidate, concave, sharply serrate, 
spinulose and reddish at back towards apex; lamellae about 32, higher, 
each in section of one row of 4 7 rounded cells, the marginal larger, 
ovate, incrassate, papillulose on the surface. Seta long, flexuose, 
orange. Calyptra shorter than capsule, fulvous brown. Capsule 
obliquely inclined, turgidly ovate or subgibbose oblong, with a short 
neck bearing stomata, leptodermous, smooth, at first greenish-yellow 
with the mouth red, afterwards olive brown or black when old ; lid 
small, conoid, with a subulate oblique beak ; teeth of peristome yellow, 
short and very irregular ; spores punctulate. Male plants shorter and 
more slender, scarce ; bracts obovate, pointed. 

HAB. Rough stony and grassy places on all our mountains, descending to 

the lower moorlands in a dwarf form. Fr. 78. 

This pretty moss may be readily known by its branching stems and 
tumid, pale, oblique capsule. Several well-marked varieties have been met 

POLYTRICHACE.E.] 5 1 [Polytrichum. 

with on the higher mountains and in northern Europe, one of which Var. 
silvaticum (MENZ.) is probably a native of Scotland, and is chiefly distinguished 
by its narrower oblong, subincurved capsules. Another, Var. septentrionale 
(Sw.) LINDB. is incorrectly referred by Hooker and Wilson to P. sexangulare, 
misled apparently by specimens so called in Herb. Turn., Swartz described 
his P. septentrionale with " leaves acute at apex, serrulate," and it must be 
referred to P. alpinum, as is well shown by Lindberg. 


Stems taller ; leaves lanceolate, acute. Capsule with 2 6 angles. 

Dioicous ; simple, erect. Leaves linear-lanceolate, obtuse, with 
the margin inflexed and quite entire. Capsule ovate, 5 6 angled ; lid 
rostrate. (T. VII, A.) 

SYN. Polytrichum sexangulare FLOERKE in HOPP. Bot. Taschenb. 1800, pp. 43 et 150, n. 4. 
STURM Deutschl. Fl. ii, 4 (1800). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 220 (1807). BRID. Sp. 
muse. II, 52 (1812) ; Mant. muse. 196 (1819) ; Bry. univ. ii, 145 (1827). ROHL. Deutsch. 
Fi. iii, 58 ; Ann. Wett. Ges. iii, 218 (1814). FUNCK Moostasch. 68, t. 54 (1821). 
WALLR. Fl. crypt, germ, i, 199 (1831). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. Eur. iv, mon. 7, t.n (1844) ; 
Syn. Muse. 443 (1860) ; et 2 ed. 540 (1876). WILS. Bryol. brit. 209, t. 10, fig. g (1855). 
HARTM. Skand. Fl. 8 ed. 373, p.p. (1861). BERK. Handb. Br. m. 207, t. 18, f. 6 (1863). 
MILDE Bry. Siles. 251 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. Briol. Ital. 333 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. 
m. 102 (1873). 
Pol. crassisetum LAM. DE C. Fl. franc. 3 ed. ii, 486 (1805), et v, 224 (1815). 

Pol. septentrionale (non SWTZ.) P. BEAUV. Prodr. 86 (1805) ? Eng Bot. t. 1906 (1808). 

SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. II, 313, excl. syn. (1816) ; et in L. Sp. pi. 5 ed. v, P. II, p. 5 excl. 

syn. (1830). WALLM. in LIIJEBL. Svensk fl. 3 ed, 527, p.p. (1816). HOOK. TAYL. 

Muse. br. 25, t. x, p.p. (1818). HOOK. Fl. Scot. P. 2, 126 (1821) ; Brit. Fl. ii, 49 (1833). 

SOMM. Suppl. Fl. lapp. 55, p.p. (1826). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 528, excl. syn. (1833). 

DE NOT. Syll. muse. Ital. 160 (1838). C. MUELL. Syn. muse, i, 223, excl. syn. 

(1848); et Deutsch. moos. 171, excl. syn. (1853). RABEN. Deutschl. Krypt. Fl. ii, P. Ill, 

237, p.p. (1848). 
Pol. helveticum SCHLEICH. cent. Ill, n. 16 (1815). 

Dioicous ; widely csespitose, deep green above, rufo-ferruginous 
below, without radicular tomentum. Stem naked at base, rigid, 
flexuose, 2 5 in. high, simple, erect, or decumbent. Leaves short, 
gradually elongating as they ascend, incurvo-patent or secund, when 
dry laxly incumbent, from a broad base, suddenly elongato-lanceolate, 
quite entire, glossy, rigid, semiterete, rather obtuse, smooth at back, 
margin thin, papery, inflexed; lamellae high, about 32, each in section of 
4 6 cells, the marginal one larger, incrassate, ovate, smooth. Perich. 
bracts longer, with longer sheaths. Seta bright red, thick. Calyptra 
reaching middle of capsule, brownish. Capsule erect or inclined, ovate 
with 6 obtuse angles, reddish brown, when dry hexagono-prismatic, 
pachydermous ; hypophysis obconic, not well defined ; lid from a 

POLYTRICHACE.E.] 52 [Polytrichum. 

convex-conic reddish base, with a thick yellowish oblique beak. 
Peristome of 64 short unequal teeth, pale with an orange median line. 
Epicarpic membrane minutely quadrate-areolate, with some minute 
stomata below. 

Male plants intermixed ; bracts subquadrate, pointed, the nerve 
with a few lamellae at apex, paraphyses spathulate. 
HAS. Wet hollows on the higher Scotch mountains. Fr. 8 9. 

Ben Nevis, Ben Macdhui and others of the Cairngorm range, fruiting sparingly. Ben 
Lawers, barren. 

Schwaegrichen, Aongstroem and the British bryologists refer this 
species to P. septentrionale SWARTZ, which appears without doubt to be only a 
variety of P. alpinum that has been confounded with it ; (see Bridel Bry. 
univ. ii, pp. 132 et 146 for a clear exposition of the subject). 


Dioicous; densely csespitose. Leaves shorter, lineal-lanceolate, 
the wings thin, pellucid, erect, sharply serrate. Capsule ovate, obscurely 
6-angled, narrowed at mouth ; lid large, with a long slightly obliquate 
beak. (T. VII, B.) 

SYN. Polytrichum Cradle DICKS. MSS. MENZ. in Trans. Lin. Soc. iv, 73, t. 6, fig. 3 (1798). 

HULL Br. Flor. P. 2, 247 (1799). SMITH Fl. Brit, iii, 1374 (1804) ; Eng. Bot. t. 1827. 

TURN. muse. Hib. 85 (1804). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 222 (1807). MART. Fl. crypt. 

Erl. 83 (1817). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. II, 167, t. 148 (1824). BRID. Bry. univ. ii, 154 (1827). 

WALLR. Fl. crypt, germ, i, 201 (1831). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 530 (1833). DE NOT. 

Syll. muse. n. 208 (1838). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. Eur. iv, Mon. 10, t. xii (1844) ; Syn. muse. 

444 (1860), et 2 ed. 540 (1876). C. MUELL. Syn. muse, i, 225 (1849). WILS. Bry. Brit. 

210, t. 46 (1855). BERK. Handb. Br. m. 208 (1863). LINDB. in Not. ur Sails. Fn. et Fl. 

fenn. fbrh. ix, 127 (1867). DE NOT. Epil. Briol. Ital. 332 (1869). MILDE Bry. Siles. 

250 (1869). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 137 (1873). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 103 (1873). 
Pol. longisetum SWTZ. Disp. muse. Suec. 76, n. 4, et 103, n. 16, t. 8, f. 16 (1799). BRID. 

Sp. Muse. I, 59 (1806); Mant. muse. 197 (1819). SCHULTZ Fl. Starg. 286 (1806). 

ROEHL. Deutsch. Fl. iii, 69, et in Ann. Wett. Ges. iii, 220 (1814). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, 

P. II, 316 (1816). FUNCK Moostasch. 69, t. 56 (1821). 

Pol. aiirantiacum HOPPE Bot. Tasch. 1800, pp. 139 et 151. WAHLENB. Fl. Lapp. 345 (1812). 
Pol. marginatum WAHL. MSS. WEB. MOHR Ind. mus. pi. crypt. (1803). BRID. Sp. muse. 

i, 59 (1806). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. II, 329, n. 24, p.p. (1816). 

Pol. attenuatum var. ft. aurantiacum TURN. Muse. hib. 84 (1804). 
Pol. nigrescens LAM. DEC. Fl. franc. 3 ed. ii, 490 (1805). 

Pol. commune var. (3. attenuatum HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 26, p.p. (1818). Var. ft. auran- 
tiacum WAHLENB. Fl. suec. ii, 737, p.p. (1826). 

Pol.formosum var. ft. aurantiacum HARTM. Skand F1.4O4 (1820). 

Dioicous ; densely caespitose, cohering by radicular tomentum. 
Stems i 4 in. high, erect, slender, simple, dividing from a strongly 
flexuose and tomentose base. Leaves sub-erect, shorter, dark green, 
from a sheathing base, somewhat channelled, lineal-lanceolate, with a 
short brown point, the wings thin, pellucid, erect, sharply serrate, 
rough at back of apex ; lamellas abount 42, higher, each in section 

POLYTRICHACE.E.] 53 [Polytrichum. 

of 4 6 cells, all equal and smooth. Perich. bracts sheathing up to 
middle, narrowly subulate. Capsule on a long orange seta, erect, 
when dry horizontal, not quite covered by the orange calyptra, ovate 
with 6 obscure angles, narrowed at mouth, yellow, leptodermous, with 
an obconic not very distinct hypophysis ; lid large, red bordered, with 
a long slightly obliquate beak. Teeth 32, united in pairs, or 64, unequal, 
varying in length. Spores rather large, pale ferruginous. Male plants 
with shorter leaves ; bracts obovate, acuminate. 

HAB. Dry heaths on turfy soil, sides of peat cuttings and sometimes in 
clefts of rocks. Not uncommon. Fr. 7. 

Ben Nevis (Dickson). Oakmere and Knutsford moor (Wilson) ! Halemoss, Cheshire 
(Hunt) ! ! Ingleboro (Hooker). Todmorden (Nowell). Chyandour moor, Penzance 
(Curnow). Trowlsworthy bog (Brent). 

Resembles P. attenuatum but is smaller and more slender, the leaves 
shorter, with cells twice the size, and with broad pellucid margins, and 
differing also by the obtuse-angled capsule and beaked lid. The latter 
characters will also distinguish it from P. commune var. minus. 


Dioicous ; tall, csespitose. Leaves from a glossy sheathing base, 
arcuato-patulous, lineal-lanceolate, plane ; margin sharply serrate. 
Capsule prismatic, with 6 (sometimes 4 or 5) angles, pale, leptodermous ; 
lid from a broad base, conico-acuminate. (T. VII, C.) 

SYN. Polytrichum attenuatum MENZ. in Trans. Lin. Soc. iv, 72, t. 6, fig. 2 (1798). SMITH 

Eng. Bot. t. 1198 (1803), et Fl. brit. Hi, 1373 (1804). TURN. Muse. hib. 83 (1804). 

LINDB. in Not. ur. Sails. Fn. et Fl. fenn. forh. ix, 126 (1867). 
Pol.formosum HEDW. Sp. muse. 92, t. 19, fig. i et a. (1801). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 85 (1805). 

BRID. Sp. muse. I, 55 (1806) ; Mant. muse. 197 (1819) ; Bry. univ. ii, 151 (1827). WEB. 

MOHR Bot. Tasch. 221 (1807). WAHLENB. Fl. lapp. 345 (1812) ; Fl. carp. 348 (1814). 

ROEHL. Deuts. Fl. iii, 58, et. in Ann. Wett. Ges. iii, 219 (1814). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, 

P. II, 315 (1816). MART. Fl. crypt. Erl. 83 (1817). SCHULTZ Suppl. Fl. Starg. 87 (1819). 

FUNCK Moostasch. 69, t. 55 (1821). WALLR. Fl. crypt, germ, i, 200 (1831). HUEBEN. 

Muse. germ. 536 (1833). BALS. DE NOT. Pr. Bry. med. 20 (1834). DE NOT. Syll. 

muse. n. 207 (1838). FIOR. MAZ. Briol. rom. 2 ed. 29 (1841). Br. SCHIMP. Bry. Eur. 

iv, Mon. 9, t. xii (1844) ; Syn. Muse. 445 (1860), et 2 ed. 541 (1876). C. MUELL. Syn. 

muse, i, 224 (1849). WILS. Bry. Brit. 210, t. 46 (1855). BERK. Handb. Br. m. 208 

(1863). MILDE Bry. Siles. 250 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. Briol. Ital. 331 (1869). HOBK. 

Syn. br. m. 103 (1873). HUSN. mouss. nord-ouest 136 (1873). 
Pol. pallidisetum FUNCK in HOPP. Bot. Tasch. 1802, p. 44 ; Moostasch. 69, t. 55. BRID. 

Sp. muse. I, 58; Mant. muse. 197. 
Pol. commune var. ft. attenuatum HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 26, p.p. (1818) ; Brit. Fl. ii, 49 

( J 833). Var. ft. aurantiacum WAHLENB. Fl. suec. ii, p. 737, p.p. (1826). 
Pol. aurantiacum var. ft- WAHLENB. Fl. upsal. 387 (1820). 
Pol.formosum a. quadrangularc HARTM. Skand. Fl. 404 (1820). 

Dioicous; tall, laxly csespitose, bright green. Stem 3 6 in. high, 
simple, erect or ascending from a decumbent tomentose base. Lower 
leaves minute, membranous with a patent cuspidate point ; upper from 
a glossy, longly sheathing whitish base, arcuato-patulous, when dry 
laxly incumbent, longly lineal-lanceolate, plane, opake, margin erect, 

POLYTRICHACE.E.] 54 [Polytnchwn. 

sharply serrate to base; lamellae very low and close, about 60, each in 
section of a row of 3 4 cells, equal in size and smooth. Perich. bracts 
very long, erect, with long sheaths, lamellose only toward apex. Seta 
long, reddish yellow. Calyptra covering all capsule, fulvous brown. 
Capsule erect when moist, cernuous when dry, finally horizontal, 
prismatic with 6 rarely 5 or 4 angles, and an obconic rather indistinct 
hypophysis, pale yellow green, finally fawn-colored, leptodermous ; lid 
from a broad base with a purple margin, conico-acuminate. Teeth 64, 
pale yellow, short. Spores very small, dark yellow. Male plants 
shorter and more slender, bracts cuspidate. 
HAB. Dry woods in subalpine districts. Common in the north. Fr. 6 7. 

This species is at first sight often mistaken for P. commune, but is a 
more delicate plant, easily distinguished by its soft, less quadrangular 
capsule, without a distinct perichaetium. 

P. pallidisetum is only a form with shorter stems, straighter leaves, and 
narrower and longer capsule. 


Dioicous ; laxly caespitose. Stems short, simple, naked below, 
densely comoso-leafy above ; leaves elongate-lanceolate, wings inflexed, 
entire, nerve prolonged into a rough hoary hair-point. Capsule tetra- 
gonous; lid depresso-conic, rostellate. (T. VIII, A.) 

SYN. Muscus trichoides minor follis oblongis, &c. RAY Synops. 2 ed. 2g, n. 5 (1696). 

Polytrichum quadrangulare minus, juniperifoliis pilosis DILL. Hist. muse. 426, t. 54, fig. 3 
(1741) et Herb. 

Pol. commune var. y. L. Sp. PI. ii, 1109 (1753). HUDS. Fl. angl. 400 (1762). WITHER. 
Arr. Br. Veg. ii, 662 (1776). Var. y. pilosum WEISS PI. cr. fl. gott. 172 (1770). 

PoLpilifernm SCHREB. Spic. fl. lips. 74 (1771). BRID. Muse. rec. ii, P. I, 85 (1792) ; Sp. 

muse. I, 52 (1806) ; Mant. muse. 196 (1819) ; Bry. univ. ii, 142 (1827). SIBTH. Fl. Oxon. 

306 (1794). HOFFM. Deuts. Fl. ii, 21 (1796). ROTH Fl. Germ, i, 457 et iii, 348. MENZ. 

Trans. Linn. Soc. iv, 75 (1798). SWARTZ Muse. suec. 76 (1798). HULL Br. Fl. P. 2, 

2 47 (i799)- ROHL. Moosg. Deuts. 181 (1800) ; Deutsch. Fl. iii, 58 (1813) ; Ann. Wett. 

ges. iii, 217 (1814). HOPPE Bot. Tasch. 148 (1800). HEDW. Sp. muse. 90 (1801). 

SMITH Fl. Brit, iii, 1374 (1804) ; Eng. Bot. 1199. TURN. Muse. Hib. 82 (1804). 

P. BEAUV. Prodr. 86 (1805). LAM. DEC. Fl. franc. 3 ed. ii, 488 (1805). SCHULTZ Fl. 

Starg. 287 (1806). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 118 (1807). VOIT Muse. herb. 59 (1812). 

WAHLEN. Fl. Lapp. 243 (1812) ; Fl. carp. 347 (1814). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. 2, 313 

(1816). MART. Fl. cr. Erlang. 82 (1817). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. Brit. 24, t. x (1818). 

HOOK. Fl. Scot. P. 2, 125 (1821) ; Brit. Fl. ii, 48 (1833). FUNCK Moostasch. 68, t. 54 

(1821). WALLR. Fl. crypt, germ. i. 199 (1831). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 524 (1833). 

BALS. DE NOT. Pr. Bry. mediol. 18 (1834). MACKAY Fl. Hib. P. 2, 27 (1836). BR. 

SCHIMP. Bry. Eur. iv, Mon. n, t. xiv (1844) ; Syn. Muse. 446 (1860), et 2 ed. 542 (1876). 

C. MUELL. Syn. Muse, i, 217 (1849). WILS. Bry. Brit. 213, t. x (1855). BERK. Handb. 
. Br. m. 208 (1863). LIND. Not ur Sails. Fn. et Fl. fenn. ix, 124 (1867). MILDE Bry. 

Siles. 252 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. Briol. Ital. 335 (1869). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 137 

(1873). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 104 (1873). 

Pol. pilosum NECK. Meth. muse. 123 (1771). SCHRANK Baiers. Fl. ii, 446 (1789). 
Pol. commune /?. pilosum EHRH. Hann. Mag. 235 (1780). 
Pol. pilifoliinii GRAY Nat. arr. Br. pi. i, 720 (1821). 

PoLYTRiCHACEyE.J 55 [Polytrichwn. 

Dioicous; laxly csespitose, glaucous green above, fuscescent below; 
rhizome subterranean, flexuose, branched and densely tomentose. 
Stems short, i in. high, erect, simple, naked below; lower leaves very 
small, ovate, appressed, upper suddenly larger, erecto-patent, when dry 
imbricated and forming a clavate penicillate head, from an ovate, 
coloured, sheathing base, elongate-lanceolate, the wings inflexed, 
connivent, entire, with wide rectangular areolation, the apex smooth at 
back ; the nerve prolonged into a serrate hoary hair-like arista ; lamellae 
low, about 32, each in section of a row of 4 6 cells, the marginal one 
larger, with a large papilla at apex, and hence somewhat cruciate. 
Perich. bracts lineal-lingulate, erect, very concave, innermost thin, 
without lamellae, all longly aristate. Seta purple. Calyptra reaching 
below capsule, fulvous with paler fringe. Capsule tetragono ovate, 
erect, cernuous when dry, finally horizontal, pachydermous, pale brown; 
hypophysis narrow, conoid, purple; lid depresso conic, shortly 
rostellate, orange or red. Teeth 64, shortish, regular, with an orange 
median line. Spores very small, ferruginous. 

Male plants have leaves more lax, with shorter awns ; inflor. rosy 
purple, orange or green, bracts obcordate, apiculate, lamellose at apex. 
HAS. On dry heaths ; very common. Fr. 5 6. 

Pol. Hoppei HORNSCH. is an alpine form with lingulate leaves, long very 
rough hair-points and cubic capsules. Pol. hyperboreum R. BR. appears to be 
a good species, confined to arctic Europe and America, having the leaf cells, 
three times the size of those of P. piliferum and the capsule leptodermous and 
flattened as in P. commune. 


Dioicous ; gregarious, glaucescent. Leaves patulous and sub- 
recurved, lineal-lanceolate, the wings inflexed, entire, nerve excurrent 
in a short reddish awn. Capsule tetragono-prismatic, pachydermous ; 
lid plano-convex, rostellate. (T. VIII, B.) 
SYN. Adiantum aureum pileolo villoso, medium RAY Syn. Stirp. Br. 2 ed. 28 (1696). 

Polytrichum montanum et minus, capsula qurdrangulari DILL. cat. giss. 221 (1719) ; et in 

RAY Syn. 3 ed. 90 (1724). 

Pol. quadrangulare junlperi foliis brcvioribus et rigidioribus DILL. Hist. Muse. 424, t. 54, 
f. 2 (1741). 

Pol. commune var. (3. L. Sp. PI. ii, 1109, p.p. (1753). HUDS. Fl. Angl. 400 (1762). Var. /?. 

minus WEISS Crypt, gott. 171, p.p. (1770). NECK. Meth. muse. 125 (1771). WITH. 

Bot. arr. Br. Veg. ii, 662 (1776). LIGHTF. 700 (1777). RELH. Fl. Cant. 397 (1785). 
Pol. commune -juniper if olium EHRH. in Hann. Mag. 235 (1780). 
Pol. juniper mum WILLD. Fl. berol. prodr. 305 (1787). ROTH. Fl. germ i, 457 (1788) , et iii, 348. 

BRID. Muse. rec. ii, P. I, 83 (1792) ; Sp. muse. 1, 47 (1806) ; Mant. muse. 194 (1819) ; Bry. 

univ. ii, 136 (1827). SIBTH. Fl. oxon. 306 (1794). ABBOT Fl. bedf. 232 (1798). MENZ. Tr. 

Linn. Soc. iv, 76, t. 6, f. 4 (1798). SWARTZ Muse. suec. 77 (1798). ROHL. Moosg. Deuts. 

170 (1800) ; Deutsch. fl. iii, 57 (1812) ; Ann. Wett. ges. iii, 215 (1814). HEDW. Sp. muse. 

POLYTRICHACE^E.] 56 [Polytrichum. 

89, T. 18, f. 6io (1801). SMITH Fl. Brit, iii, 1375 (1804) ; Eng. Bot. 1200. TURN. 
Muse. Hib. 82 (1804). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 352 (1805). LAM. DEC. Fl. franc. 3 ed. ii, 
489 (1805). SCHULTZ Fl. Starg. 285 (1806). WAHLENB. Fl. lapp. 341 (1812) ; Fl. carp. 
348 (1814). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. 2, 309 (1816). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. Brit. 27, t. x 
(1818). FUNCK Moostasch. 68, t. 54 (1821). HOOK. Fl. Scot. P. 2, 126 (1821) excl. syn., 
Brit. Fl. ii, 49 (1833). GREV. Mem. Wern. soc. iii, 436 (1821). GRAY Nat. arr. Br. pi. 
i, 720 (1821). WALLR. Fl. crypt, germ, i, 200 (1831). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 532 
(1833). BALS. DE NOT. Pr. Bry. Med. 18 (1834). MACK. Fl. Hib., P. 2, 28 (1836). DE 
NOT. Syll. muse. n. 204 (1838). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. Eur. iv, Mon. 12, t. xv (1844) ; Syn. 
muse. 447 (1860), et 2 ed. 543 (1876). RABENH. Deutsch. Krypt. Fl. ii, P. 3, 238 (1848). 
C. MUELL. Syn. muse, i, 218 (1849). WILS. Bry. Brit. 213, t. x (1855). BERK. Handb. 
Br. m. 209, t. 18, f. 7 (1863). LINDB. in Not. ur Sails. Fn. et Fl. fenn. forh. ix, 122 
(1867). MILDE Bry. Siles 253 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. Briol. Ital. 334 (1869). HOBK. 
Syn. br. m. 104 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 137 (1873). 

Pol. juniperifolium HOFFM. Deutsch. Fl. ii, 24 (1795). HOPPE Journ. Bot. 146 (1800). 
WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch., 219 (1807). MART. Fl. Cr. Erl. 82 (1817). ZENK. DIETR. 
Muse. Thuring. n. 10 (1821). 

Pol. implicatum VOIT Muse, herbip. 59 (1812). 

Dioicous ; gregarious, glaucous green above, fuscescent below ; 
rhizome flexuose, densely radiculose. Stem erect i 6 in. high, rarely 
2 or 3 partite. Leaves when moist patulous and subrecurved, when dry 
erect, the lower squamose, appressed, the upper long, lineal-lanceolate, 
semiterete-subulate, the wings inflexed, subconnivent, quite entire, 
nerve excurrent in a short reddish arista, muricate at back; lamellae 
yellow-green, low, dense, about 48, each in section of a row of 4 6 cells, 
the marginal one larger, cruciform from having a tooth-like papilla at 
apex. Perich. bracts longer, convolute, membranous at margin, with a 
long rough arista. Capsule on a purple seta, entirely covered by the 
rufous calyptra, tetragono-prismatic, erect, pachydermous, rufous- 
orange, finally brown and horizontal, with a purple shield-like 
hypophysis; lid plano-convex, rostellate, rufous with a deep red margin. 
Teeth 64, rather short, pale yellowish. 

Male plants intermixed, more slender, with shorter leaves; outer 
bracts ovate, strongly mucronate, innermost thin, truncate, pointed. 

HAB. Wet heaths and bare places in woods ; not uncommon. Fr. 6 7. 

This plant varies much in size and also in the colour of the calyptra, 
which at great elevations is sometimes quite white. 

Dillenius by some mistake has figured the leaf as serrated, and the plant 
in his herbarium is P. strictum $ . 


Dioicous ; resembling P. juniperinum but taller, and more slender 
with densely tomentose stems; the leaves shorter, erecto-patent, 
straight. Capsule small, cuboid. (T. VIII, C.) 

SYN. Pol. strictum BANKS MSS. MENZ. in Trans. Lin. Soc. iv. 77, t. 7, fig. i (1798). HULL 
Br. Fl. P. 2, 247 (1799). SMITH Fl. Brit, iii, 1376 (1804) ; Eng. Bot. t. 2435 (1812). 
TURN. Muse. hib. 83 (1804). LAM. DEC. Fl. gall. n. 1274 (1805). BRID. Sp. muse. I, 49 

POLYTRICHACE^;.] 57 \Polytrichum. 

(1806); Mant. muse. 195 (1819), et Bry. univ. ii, 139 (1827). MILDE Bry. Siles. 253 
(1869). HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 104 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 137 (1873). SCHIMP. 
Syn. Muse. 448 (1860), et 2 ed. 544 (1876). 

Pol. alpcstre HOPPE Bot. Tasch. 198 (1801). BRID. Sp. muse, I, 50 (1806) ; Mant. muse. 
195 (1819) ; Bry. univ. ii, 140 (1827). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. 2, 310 (1816). SCHULTZ 
Fl. Starg. Suppl. 88 (1819). WALLR. Fl. crypt, germ, i, 199 (1831). HUEBEN. Muse. 
germ. 533 (1833). 

Pol. junipcrinum var. WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch., 220 (1807). Var. A. strictum WALLM. 
in LILJEBL. Svensk Fl. 3 ed. 527 (1816). Var. (3. gracilius WAHLEN. Fl. lapp. 344 
(1812). Var. ft. strictum HARTM. Skand. Fl. 404 (1820). C. MUELL Syn. muse, i, 218 
(1849). Var. ft. strictum et y. alpestre BR. SCHIMP. Br. Eur. iv, Mon. 12, t. 16 (1844). 
DE NOT. Epil. Briol. Ital. 334 (1869). WILS. BERK.,&C. Var. (3. alpestre HARTM. op. 
cit. 5 ed. 361 (1849). *P. strictum LINDB. in Ofv. W. Ak. Forh. xxiii, 548 (1866), et 
NOT. ur Sallsk. Fn. et Fl. fenn. forh. ix, 123 (1867). 

Dioicous ; resembling P. juniperinum, pale glaucous green, slender, 
densely caespitose, branched. Stems 3 12 in. high, interwoven by 
dense dirty white tomentum. Leaves erecto-patent, straight, imbricated 
when dry, shorter and narrower; lamellae about 32, less developed. 
Capsule small, cubic, acutely angular, rufous orange. Calyptra 
brownish or whitish. 
HAS. Boggy heaths. Less frequent. Fr. 5 6. 

Near Taymouth on tops of walls (Menzies). Forfar (Don 1802). Ben Lawers and Glen 
Callater (Hunt) ! ! Ben Vracky, Perth (Boswell) ! ! Herringfleet, Suffolk (Turner 1806). 
Scawfell and Witherslack (Boswell). Micklefell, Yorks. (Baker) ! ! Todmorden and 
Cliviger (Nowell). Knutsford moor and Wybunbury bog (Wilson). 

Much as this differs in appearance from P. juniperinum, I confess to be 
more in accord with the authors who regarded it as a variety of that species, 
for it will be seen there are no structual differences between them. Lindberg 
calls it a subspecies of P. junipeyinum, to which it stands in the same relation 
as P. Swartzii to P. commune. 


Dioicous ; very tall, simple. Leaves very long, patent recurved, 
linear-subulate, plane, spinuloso-serrate, scabrous at back. Capsule 
tetraedral, with a discoid hypophysis ; lid depresso-convex, conico- 
rostellate. (T. IX.) 

SYN. Polytrichum vulgareet majus, capsula quadrangulari DILL. Cat. Giss. 221, App. 85 (1719), 
et in RAY Synops. 3 ed. 90, i (1724). 

Polyt. quadrangulare vulgare, yucca foliis serratis DILL. Hist. muse. 420, i, T. 54, fig. i 
(1741), et Herb. 

Pol. commune a. L. Sp. PI. ii, 1109, n. i (1753) ; Syst. Nat. ii, 700 ; Fl. suec. n, 966. HUDS. 
Fl. angl. 399 (1762). SCHREB. Spic. Fl. Lips. 73 (1771). NECK. Meth. muse. 124 

(1771). WITH. Bot. arr. Br. veg. 662 (1776). LIGHTF. Fl. Scot, ii, 698 (1777). RELH. 
Fl. Cant. 6 18. WILLD. Pr. Fl. Berol. n. 00 18. SIBTH. Fl. O 

Linn. Soc. iv, 74 (1798) ; Roth. Fl. germ, i, 456 (1788), et iii, 346. SWARTZ Muse. suec. 

Cant. 396 (1785). WILLD. Pr. Fl. Berol. n. 900 (1787). SIBTH. Fl. Oxon. 305 
(1794). ABBOT Fl. bedf. 232 (1798). HOFFM. Deutsch. Fl. ii, 23 (1796). MENZ. Tr. 

75 (1798). BRID. Muse. rec. ii, P. I, 81 (1792) ; Sp. muse. I, 54 (1806) ; Mant. muse. 
197(1819); Bry. univ, ii, 148 (1827). ROHL. Moosg. Deutsch. 170 (1800); Deutsch. 
Fl. iii, 58 (1813) ; Ann. Wett. ges. iii, 219 (1814). SMITH Fl. Brit, iii, 1372 (1804) ; 
Eng. Bot. 1197. TURN. Muse. Hib. 80 (1804). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 85 (1805). LAM. 
DEC. Fl. franc. 3 ed. ii, 487 (1805). SCHULTZ Fl. starg. 285 (1806). WAHLENB. Fl. 
lapp. 344 (1812) ; Fl. carp. 348 (1814). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. i, P. 2, 314 (1816). HOOK. 

POLYTRICHACE^.] 58 [Polytrichuw . 

TAYL. Muse. Brit. 26, t. x (1818). FUNCK Moostasch. 69, t. 55 (1821). GRAY Nat. arr. 
Br. pi. i, 721 (1821). ZENK. DIETR. Muse. Thuring. n. 33 (1822). WALLR. Fl. crypt, 
germ, i, 201 (1831). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 535 (1833). BALS. DE NOT. Pr. Bry. mediol. 
18 (1834). DE NOT. Syll. mus. n. 206 (1838). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. Eur. iv, Mon. 13, t. 
xvii (1844) ; Syn. muse. 448 (1860) ; et 2 ed. 545 (1876). C. MUELL. Syn. muse, i, 220 
(1849). WILS. Bry. Brit. 211, t. x (1855). BERK. Handb. Br. m. 209 (1863). MILDE 
Bry. Siles. 252 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. Bry. Ital. 329 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 103 
(1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 136 (1873). 

Pol. commune a. majus WEISS- Crypt, getting. 168 (1770). 

a. serrulatum RETZ. Fl. Scand. ii. 209 (1779). 

. a. yucccefolium EHRH. in Hann. mag. 235 (1780). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. 

brit. 26, T. 10 (1818). 
Pol. yucccefolium EHRH. PI. crypt, n. 214, et Beitr. vii, 101 (1792). WEB. MOHR Bot. 

Tasch. 221 (1807). VOIT Muse, herbip. 58 (1812). MART. Fl. cr. Erl. 83 (1817). 
Pol. serratum SCHRANK Bayer. Fl, ii, 446 (1789) ; et Prim. fl. salisb. 223 (1792). 
Pol. propinquum R. BR. in Parry Voyage, Suppl. 294 (1824). 
Pol. quadrangulare GILIB. ; e STEUD. Nomen. crypt. 353 (1824). 

Dioicous ; very tall, laxly caespitose, in large deep green patches, 
rufescent below. Stem 6 18 in. high, flexile, trigonous, tomentose at 
base, simple, rarely forked. Lower leaves lax, scale-like, fulvous, 
shining, from an oblong base, subulato-setaceous, rough at apex, the 
upper very long, patenti-recurved or squarrose, erect and appressed 
when dry with the apex flexuose, from a sheathing, submembranous, 
glossy whitish base, linear-subulate, plane, the wings very narrow, 
densely spinuloso-serrate to the base, above scabrous at back ; lamellae 
with the margin thickened and grooved, occupying nearly all leaf, about 
60, low, straight, each in section of a row of 4 6 cells, the marginal 
broader, incrassate, subquadrate, semilunar at top ; perich. bracts 
erect, very long, sheathing, the internal membranous, the nerve without 
lamellae, prolonged into a short bristle. Seta very long, orange-red. 
Calyptra extending below the capsule, ferruginous with a silky gloss. 
Capsule tetraedral, acute-angled, somewhat flattened horizontally, 
pachydermous, rufo-fuscous, at first erect, horizontal when dry and 
empty ; hypophysis annular ; lid from a depresso-convex base, conico- 
rostellate, rufous red at margin ; teeth 64, small, rather broad, on a 
yellowish basal membrane. Spores very small, rufous. 

Male plants shorter, less comose ; the infl. discoid, repeatedly 
proliferous from the centre, bracts subcuneate-ovate, mucronate, 
denticulate, lamelligerous at apex ; paraphyses very numerous and long, 
filiform and spathulate. 
HAB. Marshy places on turf-moors. Common. Fr. 6 7. 

Var. p. Perigoniale (Michx.) Br. Schp. 

Stem shorter, simple ; inner perichsetial bracts longer, quite entire ; 
leaves nearly smooth at back. 

SYN. Polytr. perigonlah MICHX. Fl. bor.-amer. ii, 293 (1803). BRID. Sp. muse. 54; Mant. muse. 
197 ; et Bry. univ. ii, 150. 

POLYTRICHACE^.] 59 [Polytrickum. 

Pol. yucccefolium Var. ft. perigoniale MART. Fl. crypt, erlang. 83 (1817). 

Pol. commune a. campestre WALLR. Fl. crypt. Germ, i, 201 (1831). Var. ft. campestre 
HUEBEN. Muse. Germ. 535. Var. ft. perigoniale BR. SCHP. Br. Eur. iv, Mon. 13, t. 17, 
fig. ft. et Syn. muse. WILS. Bry. Brit. 212. LINDB, op. c. 117. 

HAB. Drier places on moors. 

Newchurch bog and Woolston moss (Wilson) \ 
Var. y. Minus Weiss. 

Plants shorter and more slender ; leaves dense, shorter and more erect, 
perich. bracts less distinct. Capsules much smaller and shorter, less acutely 
quadrangular, lid with a short straight beak, calyptra pale golden brown. 

SYN. Pol. commune Auct. ant. p.p. Var. ft. L. Sp. pi. ii, 1109, p.p. Var. ft. minus WEISS PI. 
crypt, gott. 171, p.p. LIGHTF. Fl. Scot, ii, 700. DE NOT. Syll. muse. Ital. 163. Var. ft. 
humile SWTZ. Adnot. hot. 141. Var. y. minus BR. SCH. Bry. Eur. iv, mon. 13. 
C. MUELL. Synops. i, 221. WILS. Bry. brit. 212. SCHPR. Coroll. 92. Var. y. humile 
SCHPR. Synops. 449, et 2 ed. 546. Var. 8. minus RABENH. Deutsch. Krypt.-Fl. ii, 
P. Ill, 239. GIRGENS. Naturg. Moos. Livl., &c., 365. 
Pol. yucccefolium HOPP. in Sturm Deutsch. Fl. ii, 4 p.p. 

* Pol. cubicum LINDB. in Not. ur Sa'llsk Fl. Fn. fenn. ix, 117. 

HAB. Wet heaths. Not uncommon. Oakmere. (Wilson] \ \ 

Regarded by Lindberg as a subspecies, and named cubicum, reaching he 
says a height of i foot, and corresponding to the *P. strictum in its relation to 
the typical species. 

Var. 8. Fastiglatum (Lyle.] Wils. 

Stems taller, fastigiate-branched, densely tufted ; leaves shorter, a little 
recurved at apex when dry, more deeply channelled, with higher lamellas ; 
capsule smaller, cubical. 

SvK.Polytr.fastigiatum LYLE MSS. 

Pol. commune Var. y ft. fastigiatum WILS. Bry. brit. 212. 

* Pol. cubicum Var. y. fastigiatum LINDB. in Not. ur Sallsk. Fn. et Fl. fenn. forh. ix, 119. 

HAB. Dry moors in mountain districts. 

Near Airth, Scotland (T. Lyle 1849) ! Cliviger moor, Keb Clough and Longfield moor 
(Nowcll 1849) ! ! Winslade, Hants. (Hill 1861) ! Easterside, Yorks. (Baker 1855). 
Appleton, Lane. (Wilson) ! 

This appears to be a form depending on arrest in the line of growth, and 
a corresponding state is met with in other species, as P. juniperinum, urnigerum 
and piliferum, sometimes each innovation bearing a capsule, so that we see 
ten or twelve on one root. 

Few mosses offer better material than P. commune, for an examination 
of the various organs ; thus the beautiful rosette-shaped male inflorescence is 
easily dissected, and the antheridia when fully perfected afford an abundant 
supply of active antherozoids, readily seen by a sufficient magnifying power, 
the paraphyses also both of the filiform and spathulate kind being well 
developed. The calyptra when stripped of its villose indumentum, will be 
seen to be small and cucullate, and in its early stage will show that this 

POLYTRICHACE^E.] 60 [Polytrichum. 

elegant coat of long hairs is produced with great rapidity, and chiefly from 
the apex of the organ. The capsule shows small stomata in the cuticle above 
the hypophysis, and on section we observe the corrugated spore sac, 
suspended externally from the lining of the capsule and internally from the 
columella by numerous delicate cellular threads. 

In addition to the description of the epiphragm already given, it may be 
mentioned that in P. attenuatum, gracile and sexangulare, there is also a thick 
intramarginal ring beneath. 

TAB. V. 

A. Catharinea angustata. 

a. female plant (Doune, McKinlay). b. male plant (Hurst, Mitten). 

B. Catharinea undulata. 

a. typical form (Abbey wood, Braithwaite'). ft. var. minor (Ashton, Hunt). 

C. Catharinea crispa. 

a. female plant (New Jersey, James), b. male plant (Hebden bridge, Hobkirk). ft. var. 
densifolia $ (Oakmere, Wilson). 

D. Oligotrichum incurvum. 

a. b. female and male plant (Ben Lawers, Braithwaite). 


A. Polytrichum subrotundum. 

a. b. female and male plant (Virginia water, C. F. White), ft. var. longisetiim (Ditto). 

B. Polytrichum aloides. 

a. b. female and male plant (Wimbledon, Braithwaite). ft. var. Dicksoni (Strome ferry, 

C. Polytrichum urnigerum. 

a. b. female and male plant (Bowdon, Hunt), ft. var. humile (Aislaby, Braithwaite). 

D. Polytrichum alpinum. 

a. b. female and male plant (Ben Ledi, Braithwaite). 


A. Polytrichum sexangulare. 

a. b. female and male plant (Glen Callater, Hunt). 

B. Polytrichum gracile. 

a. b. female and male plant (Hale moss, Wilson). 

C. Polytrichum attenuatum. 

a. b. female and male plant (Rigg mill, Whitby, Braithwaite). 

POLYTRICHACE^E.] 61 [Polytrichum. 


A. Polytrichum piliferum. 

a. b. female and male plant (Wimbledon, Braithwaite). 

B . Polytrichum juniperinum. 

a. b. female and male plant \Ulpha moss, Barnes). 

C. Polytrichum strictum. 

a. b. female and male plant (Glen Callater, Hunt). 


Polytrichum commune. 

a. b. female and male plant (Goathland, Braithwaite). ft. Var. perigoniale. y. Var. 
minus. 8. Var. fastigiatutn . 

i. Leaf. mag. i x. Transv. section of leaf, i Ix. Ditto of one of vertical lamellae, 
i a. Apex of leaf, i aa. Areolation of same seen from the back, i am. Areolation of 
margin. 2. Perich. bract. 4. Bract, antheridium and paraphyses. 5. Capsule. 5 p. 
Mouth and peristome. 6. Calyptra. 7. Trans, sect, of columella. 8. of Epiphragm, 
internal face. 9. Two teeth, internal face ; crest removed from one. 10. Trans, sect. 
of stem. r. Root mag. v. Vaginula. 








T. IX. 

R.BrattJnrcute del.ud.nat -D.Blfur hth. 



APRIL IST, 1881. 


* Acrocarpous. 

1. F. exilis Hedw. 

2. pusillus Wils. 
8. incurvus Starke. 

4. viridulus (Swartz) Wahlenb. 

5. bryoides (L.) Hedw. 

6. Orrii (Lindb.) 

7. osmundoides (Swartz) Hedw. 

8. rufulus Br. Schimp. 

9. serrulatus Brid. 
* Cladocarpous. 

10. decipiens De Not. 

11. taxifolius (L.) #*/. 

12. adiantoides (L.) Hedw. 

13. polyphyllus Wils. 


Teeth of peristome transversely jointed, composed externally of 
two rows of coloured cells, with a divisural line between ; sometimes 


Leaves bifarious, inserted vertically, with a stipular appendage 
adnate to the nerve and part of upper lamina and sheathing the stem. 


Plants gregarious or densely csespitose, very variable in size, simple 
or branched, complanate, frondiform, acrocarpous or cladocarpous. 
Leaves distichous, alternate, inserted vertically, each with a median 
nerve, united to which for a greater or less extent is a second series 
of small lobules or stipules, which with the upper half of the leaf base 
sheathe the stem in an equitant manner ; cells parenchymatous, usually 
incrassate, often strongly papillose. Capsule and peristome dicranoid. 
Male infl. gemmiform, axillar, radical or terminal. 

Besides the great genus Fissidens, of which Conomitrium and Ododicems 
are regarded as sections the monotypic Sorapilla SPRUCE is the only other 
member, though Lindberg also adds to the family his genus Mittenia, 
( = Mniopsis MITT, non DUMORT.) The species are distributed through all 
the tropical and temperate regions of the world, and inhabit wet banks and 
rocks, sometimes trunks of trees, and a few float in water. 


Capsule on a terminal or lateral seta, symmetric or obliquely in- 
curved, narrowed at base. Calyptra cucullate or mitriform. Peristome 
of 16 teeth, cleft half-way or more into two rough subulate legs; or 
sometimes truncate and irregular, geniculato inflexed when dry. Leaves 
scalpelliform, the upper basal part conduplicate and amplexicaul. 

This most natural and extensive genus was established by Hedwig in 
his Fund. Muse. P. II, p. 91 (1782), with the character " Peristome simple, of 16 
rather short inflexed teeth ; male fl. gemmiform, in the axils of leaves" and he refers 
to it as species, Hyp. bryoides, taxifolium, adiantoides and stiuroides L. figuring the 
last, presumably as the type. For this reason, and too rigidly we think, 
Lindberg retains Fissidens for Leucodon, and transfers all the rest to Schisto- 
phyllum. By this latter name we are at once reminded of the very anomalous 
structure of the leaves, and of the different theories which have been ad- 

FISSIDENTACEJE.] 66 [Fissidens. 

vanced to account for it. One of these was that the leaf to a certain extent 
was split vertically to embrace the stem ; but this is not tenable, as each 
half of the split portion is of equal thickness to the rest of the leaf. Another 
view which has met with general acceptance is that the double portion alone 
is the true leaf (lamina vera C. MUELL.), and all the rest is an outgrowth from 
it, the portion behind the lam. vera being termed lam. dorsalis, and the two 
wings beyond these up to the apex constituting the lam. apicalis. However 
plausible this view may appear, it does not satisfy us, for there are species in 
which the duplicate part is nearly or altogether wanting, e.g. F. dealbatus 
from New Zealand. The most rational explanation seems to be this, that 
the additional lobule is of the nature of a stipule, arising on the opposite side 
of the stem, which has become adnate to the nerve by the whole lower 
margin, the upper margin being free and parallel to the corresponding 
margin of the leaf. Lindberg's names for the several parts are clear and 
simple, and are vaginant lamina for the conduplicate portion, superior lamina for 
the continuation of this to the apex, and inferior lamina for the whole length 
of the part below the nerve. 

The small species of the incurvus group present great variation in the 
position of the male infl., and I am satisfied that no reliable specific character 
can be founded on it ; a point noticed by Lindberg to some extent confirms 
this, viz., that in some autoicous species, the male is connected with the 
base of the female by rhizomatous radicles which in course of time dis- 
appear, while the male continues to grow on as an independent plant, and 
the species thus becomes dioicous. This elegant genus numbers 320 species, 
and besides the British, five others are European. 


Fruit terminal. 

Leaves not bordered. 

Minute, autoicous, lid conic. exilis. 

Robust, dioicous, lid rostrate. osmundoides. 

Leaves bordered. 
Border narrow, thickened. 
Nerve reaching apex and then confluent with the border. 

<? axillar, leaf with a short point. bryoidts. 

$ radical, leaf with a long acute point. Orrii. 

Nerve lost at apex. 
Small species ; leaves acute. 

Dioicous, capsule inclined, leaves very narrow, acute. f>usillns. 

Autoicous, capsule incurved, cernuous. incurvus. 

Autoicous, capsule equal orslightly asymmetric, erect, or inclined, viridulus. 
Robust species ; leaves rather obtuse. rufulus. 

Border not thickened, of 4 rows of cells. 

Leaves eroso-serrate at apex. serrulatus. 

Fruit lateral. 

<? radical, nerve excurrent. taxifolius. 

$ axillar, nerve lost below apex. adiantoidcs. 


Leaves short, with a pale border, serrulate at apex. decipicns. 

Leaves very long, not bordered, nearly entire at apex. polyfkyllus. 

FISSIDENTACE^.J 67 [Fissidetts. 


Autoicous ; very small ; leaves 34 pairs, lanceolate-oblong, not 
bordered, serrulate at margin ; capsule erect, elliptic, with a narrow 
annulus, lid conico-rostellate. (T. X, A.) 

Sw.Hypnum minutum L. MSS. in herb. 

Bryum viridulum DICKS. Cr. fasc. I, 3, t. i, f. 5 (1785). 

Fissidens exilis HEDW. Sp. muse. 152, t. 38, f. 79, excl. syn. L. (1801). SCHULTZ FI. 
Starg 2Qi (1806). BRID. p.p. Sp. muse, ii, 163 (1812) ; Mant. 187 (1819) ; Bry. umv. 
ii, 638 (1827). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. II, 4 (1816) p.p. WILS. Bry. Brit, 302, t. 53 
(1855). SCHIMP. Syn. muse. 103 (1860), et 2 ed. in (1876). BERK. Handb. Br. m. 160 
(1863). HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 135 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 61 (1873). 

Dicranum viridulum SM. Eng. Bot. t. 1368 (non descr. nee Swartz). 

Dicr. bryoides ft. minus TURN. muse. hib. 53 (1804). 

Hyp. trifoliatum DON MSS. in herb. Turn. 

Fiss. bryoides var. exilis ROHL. Deutsch. Fl. iii. 76 (1813). 

Skitophyllum exile LA PVL. in DESV. Journ. Bot. 1813, 34, t. 38, f. i. 

Fiss. Bloxami WILS. in Lond. Journ. Bot. 1845, p. 195, t. 9. C. MUELL. Syn. muse, i, 66 
(1849). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. Eur. i, Mon. Suppl. i, n. 8 (1850). MILDE Bry. Siles. 
80 (1869). 

Autoicous ; minute, deep green, closely gregarious. Stem i line 
long, inclined; leaves 3 4-jugous, lower minute, upper obliquely 
lanceolate-oblong, acute, nerved to apex, not bordered, the margin 
crenulate or serrulate, vag. lam. J length of leaf, inf. lam. linear-lanceo- 
late, ending at middle of vag. lam., areolation rather lax. Capsule 
erect, on a red seta 2 lines long, elliptic, with a short neck, brown with 
a red mouth ; calyptra conic, cucullate, lid red, long as capsule, conico- 
rostellate ; annulus pale, of two rows of cells, not unrolling ; peristome 
red, geniculate, spores olive-brown. 

Male infl. very minute, gemmiform, radical, or attached to the 
root tomentum, bracts ovate, acute, antheridia very small, without 

HAB. Shady banks by ditches and in woods. Fr. i 2. 

Boxhill and Enfield Chase (Dickson). Burnside and near R. Sherbet, Forfar (Don, 1802) ! 
Budd's Clough, Cheshire and Warrington (Wilson, 1834). Orton and Gopsal Woods, 
Twycross (Bloxam, 1844) ! ! Hurstpierpoint (Mitten, 1847) Kirkham, Yorks. (Spruce). 
Near Keston Common, Kent (Braithwaitc, 1865) ! ! Bowdon, Cotteral wood, Mottram 
and Ashley, Cheshire (Hunt) ! ! Todmorden (Newell, 1863) ! ! Prestwich (Hunt, 
1869) ! Bagley wood, Oxford (Boswell, 1861) ! Sellack, Hereford (Rev. A. Ley). 
Holwell, Dorset (Rev. H. Wood) ! ! Kelvedon Hall woods, Essex (Varenne, 1880) ! ! 
Luscombe wood, Teignmouth (Miss Jelly). Near Bearley and Knowle, Warwick 
(Bagnall) \ ! Levens, Westmoreland (Barnes) \ 

Readily known by its crenulate non-margined leaves, and probably more 
common than supposed, its small size and early appearance causing it to be 
overlooked. It was constantly confounded with F. viridulus by the older 

FISSIDENTACE^E.] 68 [Fissidens. 


Dioicous; very small; leaves 3 5 pairs, narrowly lanceolate, 
acuminate, entire with a very narrow border, nerved to apex ; capsule 
oval-cylindric, erect or inclined, lid conic, obliquely rostellate. (T. X, B.) 

SYN. Fissidens pusillus Wils. MSS. MILDE Bry. Siles. 82 (1869). SCHIMP. Syn. 2 ed. 113 

(1876). HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 136 (1873). 
F. viridulus var. ft. pusillus WILS. Bry. Brit. 303 (1855). 
F. incurvus var. pusillus SCHIMP. Syn. 104 (1860). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 62 (1873). 

Heteroicous (dioicous and rarely autoicous) ; very small, simple or 
branched at base. Stem short, inclined ; leaves pale green, 3 4-jugous, 
upper pair long, linear-ensiform, the rest shorter oblongo -lanceolate, 
the apex acuminate, margin quite entire, with a very narrow border 
vanishing below the apiculus, nerve lost at the point ; vag. lam. not 
reaching middle of leaf, inf. lam. semi-lanceolate, rapidly narrowing at 
base and lost before reaching the stem ; cells oval or rounded. Capsule 
on a pale seta, leptodermous, very small, erect or inclined, ovali-cylindric, 
strongly contracted below the mouth when dry; lid conic, somewhat 
obliquely rostellate ; peristome deep red, arising below the orifice, teeth 
deeply cleft, the legs subulate, filiform, rough. Male plant minute, 
simple or with i 2 branches, the bracts sheathing, with a short lamina ; 
very rarely a male ramulus arises at base of fertile stem. 
HAB. Wet sandstone rocks. Fr. 8 n. 

Hill cliff dingle and Winwick stone delph, Warrington (Wilson 1844) !! Todmorden 
(Nowcll 1852). Mowthorpe dale and about Castle Howard (Spruce) ! ! Pope's walk, 
Bath (Mrs. Hopkins). Albourne (Mitten). Near Heptonstall and Pontefract (Dr. 
Wood) 1 Ashley Mill, Bowdon and Clitheroe (Hunt) ! ! Gordale, Malham (Hunt 
1867) ! Lover's Leap, Buxton (Hunt 1860) ! ! Dailly (Hunt 1865). Seckley (Dr. 
Frazcr 1868) ! Levens Park (Barnes 1871) ! Trungle moor, Penzance (Curnow 1860). 
Ecclesbourne (Holmes 1876) ! ! 

Next to F. exilis the smallest of our species, and forming delicate green 
patches on the surface of the sandstone, to which it clings closely by the 
radicular tomentum. For some excellent remarks on this species see Dr. 
Spruce's paper in Journ. Bot. 1880, p. 360. 

Var. /?. Lylei Wils. 

Leaves broader, without any border. 

SYN. Fiss. Lylei WILS. MSS. F. viridulus var. . Lylei WILS. Bry. Brit. 304. 

HAB. Dam head at Airth (Lyle 1849) ! Ashley Mills and Marple, Cheshire (Hunt 1868) ! ! 

Allesley, Warwick (Bagnall) ! ! Gilbrook (Marratt). King's Caple, Hereford (Rev. 

A. Ley). 

Var. y. madidus Spruce. 

Leaves 5-jugous, longer and narrower. Capsule subcylindric, the 
lid obliquely rostrate, sometimes as long as capsule. Infloresc. most 
frequently autoicous, the male on a basal branch ; sometimes dioicous. 
(SPRUCE in Journ. Bot. 1880, p. 361). 

FISSIDENTACE^;.] 69 [Fissidcns. 

HAB. On dripping stones near the Obelisk bridge in Castle-Howard Park (Spruce 1844) ! ! 

Dr. Spruce having kindly favoured me with specimens of this plant, I can 
only confirm the accuracy of his description both of the type and variety ; 
like him I have also failed in finding any plants with the male infl. situated 
as described by Schimper. 


Autoicous ; leaves oblongo-lanceolate, narrowly bordered, apiculate ; 
capsule cernuous, irregular, incurved, lid conico-rostellate. (T. X, C.) 

Sw.Fissidens incurvus STARKE MSS. ROHL. Deutsch. Fl. iii, 76 (1813). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. 

I, P. II, p. 5, t. 49 (1816). FUNCK Moostasch. 32, t. 22, n. 2 (1821). Br. SCHIMP. Br. 

Eur. i, Mon. 6, t. i, p.p. (1843) ; Syn. muse. 104 (1860) ; et 2 ed. 112 (1876). RABENH. 

Deutsch. Kr. Fl. ii, P. Ill, 304 (1848). BERK. Handb. Br. m. 160 (1863). MILDE Bry. 

Siles. 81 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. Briol. Ital. 485 (1869). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 61 

(1873). HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 136 (1873). 
Dicranum incurvum WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 162 and 465 (1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. Kr. 

Gew. P. II, 82, t. 37 (1810). 

Dicr. viridulum SM. Fl. Brit, iii, 1230 (1804), Eng. Bot. t 1368, quoad descr. 
Dicr. bryoides var. ft. HOOK. TAY. Muse. Br. 49 (1818). 
Fiss. bryoides var. y. HUEB. Muse. germ. 219 (1833). 
Fiss. tamarindifolius BRID Bry. un. 684, p.p. (1827). 
Fiss. viridulus var. e. incurvus WILS. Bry. Brit. 303, t. 53 e. (1855). 
Fiss. sardous DE NOT. Epil. Briol. Ital. 486 (1869). 

Autoicous; gregarious or somewhat csespitose; stem very short, 
slender, ascending. Leaves 4 6-jugous, firm, flat or decurved, oval- 
oblong and lineal-lanceolate, apiculate, nerved to apex, with a very 
narrow border becoming wider toward base ; vag. lam. lanceolate, half 
length of leaf, infer, lam. lanceolate, very narrow at base ; cells small, 
rounded. Seta long, red, capsule pachydermous, cernuous or horizontal, 
pale brown, arcuato-incurved, with a distinct neck, oval or subcylindric ; 
lid conic, rostellate, red ; calyptra pale, rostrate ; peristome not inserted 
below the mouth. Male at the base of female, gemmiform, on a very 
short branch ; bracts broadly obovate with a small vertical lamina. 
HAB. Clay banks and pastures. Fr. 2 4. 

Near York (Spruce) ! Orford Park, Warrington (Wilson). Hurstpierpoint (Mitten). 
Hareleywood, Todmorden (Nowcll 1853) ! ! Castle mills, Ashley mill and Butt's Clough 
(Hunt) ! ! Buckland, Faringdon (Mrs. Milne) ! ! Iffley and Watereaton, Oxon (Boswell 
1861) ! Marple (Scholeficld 1868) ! Durdham Downs (Miss Atwood 1854) ! Merton 
Heath, Dorset (Rev. H. Wood). Solihull (Bagnall). Truro (Curnow). 

In the typical form figured this species appears to be distinct enough, 
but other states are met with in which the capsule is but slightly curved, 
and thus differing but little from that of the next species, while the leaves 
of both are nearly alike. After the fall of the lid, the capsule loses much of 
its curvature and becomes horizontal. 

Var. (3. tamarindifolius Don. 

Stems taller, fasciculate from the base ; leaves multijugous, more 
distant, shorter, broader, crisped when dry. Fertile branch springing 

FISSIDENTACE^.] 70 [Fissidens. 

from the lower part of a barren shoot, capsule shorter, reddish -brown, 
peristome paler. Male infl. gemmiform, near the base of stem. 

SYN. Hypnum tamarindif. DON. in lit. sec. Smith. 

Dicranum tamarindif. SM. Fl. Brit. 1231. TURN. muse. Hib. 55. 

Skitophyllum tamarindif. LA PYL. in DESV. Journ. Bot. 1813, t. 37. 

Fissidens tamarindif. BRID. Sp. muse. I, 165; Mant. 187, et Bry. un. 684, p.p.WiLS. Bry. 

Brit. 308, t. 53. BERK. Handb. Br. m. 157. HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 138. 
Fiss. trichomanoides WILS. MSS. 

HAB. On clay soil, banks and fallow fields. Fr. 2 3. 

Near Forfar (Don). Near Over, Cheshire, and Warrington (Wilson) \ Stansfield, 
Todmorden and Heptonstall (Nowell 1850) ! ! Hurstpierpoint (Mitten). Oakmere, 
Ashley and Clifton Junction (Hunt 1863) ! Roskelly Cliff, Penzance (Curnow 1865) ! ! 

This variety is distinguished by the great abundance of sterile surculi, 
but otherwise it presents no structural differences to separate it from F. 


Autoicous ; very small, simple ; leaves lanceolate, bordered, entire, 
acute, nerved to apex ; capsule erect or a little inclined, symmetric, 
oval-oblong, lid conic, acuminate. (T. X, D.) 

Srs.Bryum viridulum L. in Herb. p.p. 

Dicranum viridulum SWARTZ Muse. Suec. 84, t. 2, f. 3 (1799). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 

161 (1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. Kr. Gew. P. II, 81, t. 36 (1810). VOIT Muse. Herbip. 

37 (1812). 
Fissidens virid. WAHLENB. Fl. lapp. 334 (1812), Fl. carp. 342 (1814). WILS. Bry. Brit. 

33 * 53 ( I 855). BERK. Handb. Br. m. 159 (1863). HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 136 (1873). 
Fiss. exilis FUNCK Moostasch. t. 22, n. i (1821), non HEDW. 
Fiss. incurvus p.p. BR. SCHIMP. Bry. Eur. 5, Mon. 6, t. i (1843), Syn. muse. 104 (1860) et 

2 ed. 112 (1876). 
Fiss. bryoides p.p. BRIDEL et pi. auct. 

Autoicous ; stems short, slender, inclined. Leaves 5 8-jugous, pale 
green, crisped when dry, lanceolate, acute, nerved to apex, border 
vanishing usually at point, vag. lam. about half length of leaf, inf. lam. 
ceasing before reaching base. Capsule leptodermous, symmetric, erect 
or inclined, sometimes more or less oblique, oval, olivaceous-brown, 
seta pale ; lid conico-rostellate, red ; peristome arising below mouth of 
capsule. Male infl. terminal on a branch at base of fertile stem, some- 
times becoming dioicous. 

HAB. On clay banks, sandstone rocks and stones; not uncommon. 
Fr. ii 2. 

St. Vincent's rocks (Wilson 1860). Clitheroe and Pontefract (Dr. Wood) \ Plymouth 
(Holmes) ! ! Knowle (Bagnall). Melrose (Jordan). Howth (Orr). Ecclesbourne 
(Holmes) \ \ Barmouth (Rogers) \ ! Beckhole, Whitby (Braithwaite 1858) ! ! 

Swartz's specimens in Smith's herb, have the capsule perfectly sym- 
metric and erect. By all continental Botanists of our own time this is united to 

FISSIDENTACE.E.] 7 1 [Fissidens. 

F. incuvvus, and yet there is a great apparent difference in the capsules which 
is our chief reason for keeping them separate. Lindberg regards it as a 
subspecies of F. incuvvus. 

Var. (3. fontanus (S chimp.) 

Taller and more robust ; stem | 2 in. long, flexuose, ascending or 
submersed, simple or dichotomous ; leaves multijugous, rather distant, 
deep green, large and succulent, nerve vanishing below apex as also does 
the border, which is thicker and obsoletely denticulate toward point. 
Seta stout, reddish yellow, capsule erect or suboblique, obovate, pale 
brown, lid conico-rostellate. 

SYN. Fiss. incurvus var. /?. fontanus BR. SCHIMP. Br. Eur. i, Mon. 7, 1. 1 ft. et var. crassipes 

SCHIMP. Synops. 104. HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 62. 
Fiss. fontanus SCHIMP MSS. 
Fiss. crassipes WILS. MSS. BR. SCHIMP. Br. Eur. Mon. Suppl. i, n. 9. MILDE Bry. 

Siles. 82. DE NOT. Epil. Briol. Ital. 484. HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 136. SCHIMP. Synops. 

2 ed. 113. 
Fiss. viridulus var. y. major WILS. Bry. Brit. 303, t. 53, y. 

HAB. Attached to woodwork and stones in sluices. Fr. 9 10. 

Ireland (Turner 1809). Hulme (Wilson 1844) ! ! York and Castle Howard (Spruce) ! 
Ashley sluice, Bowden (Hunt 1863) ! ! Sandford Lasher, Oxford (Boswcll 1864) ! ' 
Bath (Mrs. Hopkins 1861) ! Wrexham (Wilson 1863) ! ! Croft, Thirsk, and Topcliffe 
(Baker). Eaton Bishop, Hereford (Rev. A. Ley). Tothill (Holmes). 

Like all aquatic mosses the leaves are of thicker substance, and dark 
green colour. The male inflorescence appears to be very scarce. 


Autoicous, with the male infl. axillary ; leaves oblongo-ligulate, 
acute, with a thickish hyaline border, nerve reaching point or excurrent, 
capsule ovate, erect or inclined, lid conico-rostellate. (T. X, E.) 

SYN. Muscus polytrichoides cxiguus, capitulis in extremis cauliculis scufoliis, subrotundis erectis 

RAY Syn. St. Brit. 2 ed. 35, n. 4 (1696). 

Hypnum repens fiUcifolium, non ramosum, pediculis brevioribus versus foliorum summit, 
cgrcdicntibus DILL, in RAY Syn. 3 ed. 88, n. 42 (1724). 

Hypnum taxiforme exiguum versus summitatem capsuliferum DILL. Hist. muse. 262, t. 34, 

f. i (1741) ; et Herb. 
Hyp. bryoides L. Sp. pi. ii, 1123 (1753) ; Fl. suec. 1012 ; Syst. Veg. 950. HUDS. Fl. angl. 418 

(1762). WEISS Cr. Gott. 217 (1770) ; Fl. Dan. t. 473. NECK. meth. muse. 152 (1771). 

WITH. Bot. arr. Br. veg. 680 (1776). LIGHTF. Fl. Scot, ii, 739 (1777). RELH. Fl. cant. 

408 (1785). WEB. Spic. Fl. Gott. 46 (1778). VILL. PI. Dauph. iii, 894 (1786). HOFFM. 

Deutsch. Fl. ii, 55 (1796). ABBOT Fl. bedf. 244 (1798). HULL Br. Fl. P. 2, 267 (1799). 

Eng. Bot. t. 625 (1799), p.p. 
Fiss. bryoides HEDW. Fund. muse. P. 2, 91 (1782) ; Muse. fr. iii, 67, t. 29 (1792) ; Sp. 

muse. 135 (1801). ROTH Fl. germ, i, 459 (1788). BRID. muse. rec. ii, P. 2, 139 (1801) ; 

Sp. muse. I, 164 (1806) ; Mant. 188 (1819) ; Bry. univ. ii, 686 (1827). ROHL. Moosg. 

Deutsch. 288 (1800). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 57 (1805). SCHULTZ Fl. Starg. 297 (1806). 

SCHWAEGR. Suppl. i, P. II, 7 (1816). FUNCK moostasch. 33, t. 22, f. 3 (1821). HARTM. 

Skand. Fl. HUEBEN. muse. germ. 219 (1833). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. Eur. i, Mon. 8, t. 2 

(1843) ; Syn. muse. 103 (1860), et 2 ed. in (1876). RABENH. Deutsch. Kr. Fl. ii, P. 3, 

305 (1848). C. MUELL. Syn. muse, i, 58 (1849). WILS. Bry. Brit. 304, t. 16 (1855). 

BERK. Handb. Br. m. 159 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 81 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. Bri. 

ital. 483 (1869). HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 136 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 61 (1873). 

FISSIDENTACE^.] 7 2 \Fissidens. 

Fuscina bryoides SCHRANK Balers. Fl. ii, 451 (1789) ; Prim. Fl. Salisb. n. 826 (1792). 
Dicranum bryoides SIBTH. Fl. oxon. 179 (1794)- R <> TH Fl. germ, iii, 181 (1795). SMITH 

Fl. Brit, iii, 1232 (1804). TURN. Muse. hib. 56 (1804). SCHKUHR Deutsch. Kr. Gew. 

P. II, 82, t. 37 (1810). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. Brit. 51, t. 16, p.p. (1818). GRAY Nat. arr.. 

Br. P l. i, 733 (1821). MACK. Fl. Hib. P. 2, 21 (1836). 
Skitophyllum bryoides LA PYL. in DESV. Journ. Bot. 1813, 40, t. 35, f. 4. 
SMstophyllum bry. BRID. MSS. LINDBERG. 
Fiss. inconstans SCHIMP. Syn. muse. 2 ed. 114 (1876). 

Autoicous; deep green, densely gregarious or somewhat csespitose. 
Stems i in. ascending from a declinate base ; leaves 3-plurijugous, 
patulous, oblongo-ligulate, mucronulate, with a thickish hyaline border, 
confluent at apex with the excurrent nerve, or ending below a very 
minutely serrate apiculus ; vag. lam. about half length of leaf, inf. lam. 
narrowed downward to the base and decurrent ; areolation angular- 
rotundate. Capsule on a purple seta, erect or slightly inclined, ovate 
or oblong, small, brown ; calyptra cucullate, lid conic-attenuate, short 
red ; teeth of peristome deep red, cleft half way, the legs subulate, very 
scabrous; spores smooth. Male infl. axillar, numerous, bracts 4 5, 
vertical lamina minute, pointed, antheridia few, very small ; sometimes 
also it is on a radical surculus. 
HAB. Damp shady banks in woods and edges of streams, common. 

Fr. 10 i. 

Few persons have seen this little moss without admiring it, and occa- 
sionally it is found in shady crevices where spray falls, tinged with a steel 
blue gloss which renders it still more beautiful. It is usually credited with 
being the plant which attracted Mungo Park's attention when in great 
distress during his African wanderings, but unfortunately this is not correct, 
the species he brought back is a smaller plant with a short seta, and non- 
margined leaves which Mr. Mitten has named Fiss. Parkii. 

I regard F. inconstans Schimp. (Sunningwell, Oxford, Boswell 1861) as 
rather of the nature of a sport than a permanent variety, as in structure it 
agrees in every respect with F. bryoides. The fruit is both terminal and 
from the middle on the same stem, and others have it radical like F. taxifolins, 
while the male infl. is axillar like the type, radical as in F. incurvus, and 
sometimes terminal on a separate plant ; the same form has been found by 
Mr. Bagnall at Binton Bridges, Warwick, and it is very probable that F. 
gymnandrus BUSE forms another link in the chain. F. rivularis SPRUCE is quite 
distinct, having smaller areolation and a very thick border. 

Var. ft. caespitans Schimp. 

Plants i iin. high, sparingly branched by innovation, soft, bright 
green, in wide crowded patches interwoven with rufous purple radicles. 
Border of leaves narrow, vanishing below the very minutely serrate 
apiculus. Capsules pale, thin, ovato-rotundate, inclined. 
SYN. SCHIMP. Syn. muse. 2 ed. m. 

HAB. Wet rocks under spray of a waterfall, Newlyn cliff, Penzance (Curnow 1868) ! ! In a 
stream at Kymal bridge, St. Creed (Ralfs 1879) ! ! 

FISSIDENTACE^E.] 73 [Fissidens. 


Autoicous ; very small. Leaves narrow, linear, very acute, with a 
thickened border and excurrent nerve. Capsule minute, obovate, cer- 
nuous, lid conico-rostrate. (T. X, F.) 

SvH.Schistophyllum Orrli LINDB. in Revue bryolog 1880, p. 97. 

Autoicous (rhizautoicous) ; very small, pale or yellowish, csespitose, 
innovating from brown rhizomatous tomentum. Leaves of sterile plant 
multijugous, rigid, straight, patent, linear-lanceolate, very acute, with a 
thickened yellow border confluent in the apex with the excurrent nerve ; 
vag. lam. f | length of leaf, infer, lam. gradually narrowed to base and 
slightly decurrent ; cells incrassate, oval and angular, smooth, pellucid. 
Leaves of fertile plant about 8-jugous, smaller. Seta slender, straight, 
yellow ; capsule minute, pale, pachydermous, obovate, inclined ; peris- 
tome brown-purple, legs of teeth very slender ; lid large, pale, 
conico-rostrate, calyptra small, conical. Male infl. very minute, gem- 
miform, cohering to base of female stem, bracts sheathing, emarginate 
at apex, with a thick excurrent nerve, antheridia 3 6, without 

HAB. On stones in the Tolka river and at an old quarry on its north bank nearFinglas bridge, 
Glasnevin Botanic Garden, Dublin (D. Orr 1854). 

The close vicinity of a Botanic garden naturally casts some shade of 
doubt on the claims of this pretty little moss to be considered indigenous, 
as spores may have been introduced with the soil attached to foreign plants. 
Mr. Orr gathered and distributed it as F. viridulus, and the drawing is made 
from the original plant kindly lent by Prof. Lindberg. 


Dioicous ; stems dichotomous, leaves crowded, scalpelliform, apicu- 
late, margin minutely crenulate, not bordered, nerve vanishing ; capsule 
erect, oval, calyptra mitriform, lid rostrate. (T. XI, A.) 

SYN. Dicranum osmundoides SWARTZ in Act. Holm. 1795, p. 240. TURN. Muse. Hib. 55 

(1804). SMITH Fl. Brit, iii, 1233 (1804) ; Eng. Bot. t. 1662. 

Dicr. bryoides SWARTZ Muse. Suec. 86, t. 2, f. 4 (1799). WL:B. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 163 
(1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. Kr. Gew. P. II, 82, t. 37 (1810). Var {3. elongatiim HOOK. 
TAYL. Muse. Brit. 

Hypnum asplcnioidcs DICKS. Cr. fasc. 2, p. 10, t. 5, f. 5 (1790), excl. Syn. Swartzii. WITH. 
Bot. arr. Br. Veg. 3 ed. 843 (1796). HULL Br. Fl. P. 2, 268 (1799). 

Fiss. osmundoides HEDW. Sp. muse. 153, t. 40, f. 7 ii (1801). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 57 
(1805). SCHULTZ Fl. starg. 292 (1806). BRID. Sp. muse, i, 168 (1806); Mant. muse 
188 (1819) ; Bry. univ. ii, 689 (1827). SCHWAEGR. suppl. I, P. II, 7 (1816). MART. Fl 
cr. Erl. 109 (1817). FUNCK Moost. 33, t. 22, n. 4 (1821). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 22 
(1833). HARTM. Skand. Fl. BR. SCHIMP. Br. eur. i, Mon. 8, t. 3 (1843) ; Syn. muse 
106 (1860) ; 2 ed. n6 (1876). FIEDL. Syn. Laubm. Meckl. 130 (1844). RABENH 
Deutsch. Kr. Fl. ii, P. 3, 305 (1848). C. MUELL. Syn. muse, i, 60 (1849). WILS. Bry 
Brit. 305, t. 16 (1855). BERK. Handb. Br. m. 158 (1863). MILDE Bry. Siles. 82 (1869) 
DE NOT. Epil. Bri. Ital. 481 (1869). HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 137 (1873). 

FISSIDENTACE^;.] 74 [Fissidens. 

Skitophy Hum osmundoides LA PYL. in Desv. Journ. Bot. 1813, p. 38, t. 25, f. 5. 
Fiss. bryoides ROHL. Deutsch. Fl. iii, 77 (1813). WAHLEN. Fl. Carp. 333 (1814). 
Fiss. dlcarpos BRID. Mant. 190; Bry. univ. ii, 698. 
Conomltrium osmundoides C. MUELL. Syn. ii, 526 (1851). 

Dioicous ; in rather dense deep green or yellowish tufts, interwoven 
with rufous tomentum. Stem slender, erect, i 6 in. high, repeatedly 
dichotomous ; leaves multijugous, crowded, increasing in size upward, 
broadly lingulate or scalpelliform, with a short apiculus, margin minutely 
crenulate, not bordered ; nerve vanishing below apex, vag. lam. ovato- 
lanceolate, about half length of leaf, inf. lam. linear-lanceolate, reaching 
base, but not decurrent ; cells rather lax, rounded or oblong. Seta 
terminal, erect, purple ; capsule erect or inclined, rather small, brown, 
pachydermous, oval or oval-oblong; lid long as capsule, conoid, rostrate, 
straight ; teeth cleft to middle, the legs unequal, subulate, nodulose ; 
calyptra submitriform, lobed at base. Male plant more slender, infl. 
terminal, inner bracts sheathing, with a narrow sword-shape lamina. 
HAB. In wet grassy places on heaths. Fr. 7. 

Pentland hills (Maughan 1807). Aber (Wilson 1838) ! ! Longfield moor, Todmorden 
(Nowell 1855) ! ! Trossachs (Shaw 1861). Langbrigg Fell, Rydal (Wood 1864) ! 
Tarbet, Cantire (Hunt 1866) ! ! Dunoon (Stirton 1866) ! Woodside moor, Levens 
(Stabler 1868) ! Lydford and Exwick, Devon (Holmes) ! ! Teesdale and Swaledale, 
Yorks. (Baker). Aultnaharra, Ross (Howse 1871) ! Cromagloun and Ben Bulben 
(Moore). Glengariff (Hunt) \ Llanberis (Holmes) \ ! 

Distinguishable at once by its non-bordered leaves with large cells. 
The var. microcarpus SCHIMP. appears to be only a dense form with ill- 
developed fruit, to which Wilson's specimens from Aber closely approximate. 


Dioicous ; leaves crowded, erecto-patent, cultriform, rather obtuse, 
entire, with a thick reddish border ; capsule small, oval, erect ; lid conical, 
obtuse. (T. XI, B.) 

SYN. Fissidens rufuhis SCHIMP. Br. Eur. Mon. Suppl. T. II. (1851) ; Syn. muse. 106 (1860) ; et 
2 ed. 120 (1876). MILDE Bry. siles. 84 (1869). 

Fiss. ventricosus LESQ. in Mem. Calif. Acad. i, 7 (1868). SULLIV. Icon. Muse. Suppl. 
p. 45, t. 30 (1874). 

Dioicous ; densely csespitose, blackish-green. Stems erect 1 in. 
high, dichotomous, fastigiate-branched, with brown radicles among the 
leaves. Leaves crowded, erecto-patent, multijugous, nearly equal, cul- 
triform, rather obtuse, with a thickened reddish border vanishing just 
below the minutely eroso-denticulate apex ; nerve stout, reddish, ending 
with the border at apex; vag. lam. | f length of leaf, somewhat 
inflated, acute at apex, where the margin is usually flexuose, inferior 
lam. lanceolate, narrowed gradually downward, and vanishing at the 
stem; cells incrassate, rounded-hexagonal, sparingly chlorophyllose. 

FISSIDENTACE^.] 75 [Fissidens. 

Seta very short, terminal; perich. bracts resembling the leaves, but 
longer ; capsule small, erect, pachydermous, narrowly oval, olivaceous ; 
lid conical, obtuse ; teeth of peristome erect, coarsely articulated, 
toward apex formed of spiral fibrils. Male plant shorter with terminal 
inflorescence, bracts obovate, dilated, with a short sword-shaped lamina. 

HAB. In streams, attached to rocks and stones. River Lune in Rigmaden 
Park, Westmoreland (P. Dreeseri). 

This interesting addition to our Flora has been found at the Rhine 
Falls, and at Salzburg, and we have no doubt it is also the same as the 
Californian F. ventricosus of Lesquereux. The capsules on our specimens are 
old and without operculum, and we have completed the drawings of these 
parts from Sullivant's figures. Our plants grow associated with Cinclidotus, 
those in the Rhine with Fiss. grandifrons, and the older leaves are generally 
worn and abraded by the current. 


Dioicous ; stem tall, simple; leaves about 20-jugous, straight, 
Ungulate, the margins serrulate with prominent cells, apex acute serrate. 
Capsule terminal inclined, oval-oblong, subventricose ; lid conic, long- 
beaked. (T. XI, C.) 

Svn.Fissidens serrulatus BRID. Sp. muse, i, 170 (1806) ; Mant. muse. 190 (1819), et Bry.univ. 

ii, 704 (1827). MONT, in Ann. Sc. nat. et in Hist. nat. des Isles Can. par Webb & Berth. 

iii, 22, t. 2, f. i (1840). C. MUELL. Syn. muse, i, 69 (1849). SCHIMP. Bry. Eur. vi, Suppl. 

T. 3 (1851) ; Syn. 107 (1860) et 2 ed. 117 (1876). 
Schistophyllum serratum BRID. MSS. 
Fiss. divisus KUNTH. 

Fiss. asplcnioides var. serrulatus WILS. Bry. brit. 306. 
Fiss. Langei DE NOT. Epil. briol. ital. 479 (1869). 

Dioicous ; laxly csespitose, tall, simple or with many stems from 
base; stem simple or sparingly branched i 3 in. high. Leaves 
crowded, multijugous, increasing in size upward, flat, glossy, pale green, 
coriaceo-membranous, lingulate, shortly acuminate at apex, which is 
often irregular and bent to one side ; nerve thick, subflexuose, yellowish, 
vanishing in the eroso-serrate acute apex ; vag. lam. about half length 
of leaf, inf. lam. linear, abruptly and narrowly decurrent at base ; all 
margin with a border of four rows of rather larger yellowish cells, more 
distinct in the older leaves, without chlorophyl, minutely crenulate ; 
rest of the areolation small rounded and angular. Fruit terminal on 
the stem or on a lateral innovation, rooting at the perichaetium, and 
finally deciduous and forming a distinct plant ; capsule on a short stout 
yellow flexuose pedicel, cernuous, oval, fulvous brown, pachydermous, 
contracted below the mouth when dry ; lid large, conic with a longish 
straight beak ; teeth large, deep purple, cleft into two longly subulate 

FISSIDENTACE^E.] 76 [Fissidens. 

nodulose legs. Male plants in separate tufts ; infl. gemmaceous, axillar 
and terminal, bracts broadly truncate oval, with a narrow vertical 
lamina, serrate at apex, antheridia numerous, oblongo-cylindraceous, 
with very few paraphyses. 

HAD. Wet rocks and moist shaded soil. River side at Castle Hornoch, 
near Penzance, <? (Curnow, Nov. 1868) ! ! Mousehole cave, Penzance 
(Curnow, Dec. 1869) ! ! 

This beautiful moss closely resembles F. polyphyllus, but may be readily 
distinguished by the apex of the leaf, which is acute with the margin sharply 
serrate. We have only the male and barren plants, and it truly belongs to 
the Canarian Flora, the fruiting plant having been brought from Teneriffe by 
Bory de St. Vincent. The species is also met with in Portugal, Tuscany, 
and at Monte Pisano, near Genoa, and at the latter station a few capsules 
have recently been found by Mr. Fitzgerald. 


Dioicous ; fasciculate at base ; leaves lineal-lanceolate, nerved to 
apex, with a pale border of rounded cells, margin crenulate, serrate 
toward apex ; capsule suberect, ovate, lid rostrate. (T. XI, D.) 

SYN. Fissidens decipiens DE NOT. in PICCONE Elenc. musch. ligur. n. 181, et Cronac. briol. 
ital. in Comm. critt. ii, 98 (1866) ; Epil. Briol. ital. 479 (1869). MILDE Bryol. siles. 84 
(1869). HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 138 (1873). SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 118 (1876). SULLIV. 
Icon. muse. Suppl. p. 46, t. 31 (1874). 

Fiss. adiantoides et F. taxifolius p.p. plur. auct. 

jFz'ss. adiantoides ft. marginatus (LA PYL.) BRID. Bry. univ. ii, 704 (1827). 

Fiss. rupestris WILS. MSS. 

Dioicous ; in erect rather dense lurid-green tufts, intermediate 
between F. taxifolius and adiantoides. Stems sparingly branched, fasci- 
culate at base, rigid. Leaves densely crowded, firm, lineal lanceolate, 
parabolically acute, the nerve reaching apex or vanishing below it ; 
vag. lam. reaching half length of leaf, inferior lam. lanceolate, narrowed 
and slightly decurrent at base ; margins very minutely serrulate, in 
upper part crenato-serrate, all with a pale border of four rows of incras- 
sate rounded cells, the other cells obscure and smaller than those of 
F. adiantoides. Setae from middle and lower part of stem, short, pale 
red, the perichaetial bracts ovate concave, extended into a narrow 
lamina; capsule rather small, ovate suberect or inclined, brown, lid 
rostrate, nearly equal to capsule, peristome deep red, the teeth strong, 
cleft to middle into two nearly equal rough legs ; spores small. Male 
plants in distinct tufts, the infl. axillar, bracts short, broadly ovate, 

HAB. Wet rocks near the sea and on the ground in hilly places. Fr. 123. 

FISSIDENTACE^E.J 77 [Fissidens. 

Gale green (Wilson 1837). Stokenchurch woods, Oxon (Dr. Ayrcs 1841) ! Beddgelert, 
Dennant and Conway (Wilson 1861) ! ! Croesor and Rhaglans (Wilson 1863) ! High 
rocks, Tunbridge wells (Mitten). Treveylor valley, Penzance (Curnow 1868) ! ! Levens 
and Rayrigg, near Bowness, Westmoreland $ , ? (Barnes 1869) ! ! Beeston Castle 
hill (Wilson 1836). Fin Glen, Campsie, and Tarbet, Cantire (Hunt 1864) ! Llanberis 
(Col. Palgrave 1865). Ben Voirlich (Shaw 1862). Glengariff and Kenmare road (Hunt 
1864) ! Muckross (Wilson 1866). 

In general aspect this moss comes nearest to F. taxifolius and in structure 
to F. adiantoides, but the leaf cells are decidedly smaller than in the latter 
species, and the pale border more marked. 


Autoicous ; fasciculate at base ; leaves oblongo-ligulate, nerve 
excurrent, margin minutely serrate ; capsule from base of stem, oblong, 
cernuous, lid rostrate. (T. XI, D.) 

SYN. Muscus jUiclfolhis sen pennattis minor, pinnulis pluritnis ad mediant costam annexis 

latiusculis crebris RAY Syn. st. Brit. 2 ed. 35 (1696). 
Hypnum rcpens filicifolium now ramosum, pediculis brevioribus ad radicem egredientibus 

DILL, in RAY Syn. 3 ed. 88 (1724). 

Hyp. taxiformc minus basi capsuliferum DILL. Hist. muse. 263, t. 34, f. 2 (1741) ; et Herb. 
Hyp. taxifolium L. Sp. pi. ii, 1122 (1753) ; Fl. Suec. 1013 ; Syst. Nat. 708. Huns. Fl. angl. 

418 (1762). WEISS Crypt, gott. 216 (1770). NECK. Meth. muse. 151 (1771). WITH. 

Bot. arr. Br. veg. 680 (1776). LIGHTF. Fl. scot, ii, 740 (1777). WEB. Sp. Fl. gott. 43 

(1778). Fl. Dan. t. 473, f. i. RELH. Fl. cant. 407 (1785). VILL. PI. Dauph. iii, 894 

(1786). HOFFM. Deutsch. Fl. ii, 55 (1796). SM. Eng. Bot. t. 426. ABBOT Fl. bedf. 244 

(1798). HULL Br. Fl. P. 2, 267 (1799). 
Fissidens taxifolius HEDW. Fund. muse. P. II, 91 (1782) ; Sp. muse. 135, t. 39, f. i 5 

(1801). ROTH Fl. germ, i, 459 (1788). ROHL. Moosg. Deutsch. 228 (1800) ; Deutsch. 

Fl. iii, 77 (1813). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 57 (1805). SCHULTZ Fl. Starg. 292 (1806). BRID. 

Sp. muse, i, 168 (1806) ; Mant. muse. 189 (1819) ; Bry. univ. ii, 692 (1827). WAHLEN. 

Fl. Lapp. 332 (1812) ; Fl. carp. 342 (1814). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. II, 10 (1816). 

MART. Fl. cr. Erl. no (1817). FUNCK Moost. 33, t. 22 (1821). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 

222 (1833). DE NOT. Syll. muse. n. 115 (1838); Epil. briol. ital. 481 (1869). BR. 

SCHIMP. Br. eur. i, Mon. 9, t. 4 (1843) ; Syn. muse. 108 (1860), et 2 ed. 118 (1876). 

RABENH. Deutsch. Kr. Fl. ii, P. 3, 305 (1848). C. MUELL. Syn. muse, i, 50 (1849). 

WILS. Bry. Brit. 308, t. 16 (1855). HARTM. Skand. Fl. BERK. Handb. Br. m. 157, 

t. 14, f. 3 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 83 (1869). HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 138 (1873). 

HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 62 (1873). 
Fuscina taxifolia SCHRANK Baiers. Fl. ii, 451 (1789). 
Dicranum taxifolium SIBTH. Fl. oxon. 279 (1794). ROTH. Fl. germ, iii, 180 (1795). 

SWARTZ Muse. Suec. 31 (1799). SMITH Fl. brit. iii, 1233 (1804). TURN. muse. hib. 56 

(1804). L AM. DE C. Fl. franc, i, 480 (1805). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 165 (1807). 

SCHKUHR Deutsch. Kr. Gew. P. II, 83, t. 37 (1810). VOIT muse. herb. 37 (1812). HOOK. 

TAY. Muse. brit. 51,1. 16 (1818). GRAY Nat. arr. Br. pi. i, 734 (1821). BALS. DE NOT. 

Pr. Bry. med. 132 (1834). MACK. Fl. hibern. P. 2, 22 (1836). 
Skitophyllum taxifolium LA PYL. in DESV. Journ. Bot. 1813, p. 60, t. 35, f. 10. 
Schistophyllum taxifolium BRID. MSS. LINDB. 

Autoicous, (rhizautoicous) ; in dark green depressed tufts, fascicu- 
late branched from base, branches suberect or decumbent, covered with 
numerous radicles at base. Leaves multijugous, crowded, expanded, 
incurved when dry, oblongo-ligulate, decreasing in size towards base and 
apex of stem ; nerve excurrent, margin minutely hyalino-serrate ; vag. 
lam. reaching half length, infer, lam. gradually narrowed from middle to 
base, not decurrent. 


Fruit from near base of stem, perich. bracts ovate, concave, pro- 
longed into a sword-shaped lamina ; capsule on a longish flexuose red 
pedicel, cernuous or drooping, oblong, subturgid, pachydermous, rufo- 
fuscous, contracted below mouth when dry ; lid convex at base, with a 
long curved beak, calyptra cucullate. Male infl. on short rooting ramuli, 
bracts ovate, concave, pointed ; antheridia 2 3, without paraphyses. 
HAS. On clay banks in woods, damp fields, and by road-sides. Fr. 10 12. 

Varying little, except in size, and readily known by the absence of 
thickened border, crenulate margin, and excurrent nerve, and when fertile, 
by the radical perichaetia. 


Autoicous ; stem erect, branched ; leaves oblongo-lanceolate, acute, 
serrulate above; seta from middle of stem, capsule ovate, lid long- 
beaked. (T. XII, B.) 

SYN. Muscus filicifolius sen pennatus aquaticus maximus. RAY Synops. stirp. Brit. 2 ed. 35, n. 

2 (I6 9 6). ' 

Hypnum erectiim filicifolium ramosuni, pinnulis ncutis. DILL, in RAY Synops. 3 ed. 87, n. 

Hyp. taxiforme palustre ramosum, majus et erectum. DILL. Hist. muse. 264, n. 3, t. 34, 
f. 3 (1741) ; et Herb. 

Hyp. adiantoides L. Sp. pi. ii, 1123 (1753); Syst. nat. ii, 703; Syst. Veg. 950. HUDS. 
Fl. angl. 419 (1762). NECK. meth. muse. 153 (1771). WITH. Bot. arr. Br. veg. 681 
(1776). LIGHTF. Fl. Scot, ii, 742 (1777). WEB. Spic. Gott. 48 (1778). RELH. Fl. cant. 

408 (1785). VILL. PI. Dauph. iii, 894 (1786). SM. Eng. hot. t. 264 (1795). HOFFM. 
Deutsch. Fl. ii, 55 (1796). ABBOT Fl. bedf. 244 (1798). HULL Br. Fl. P. 2, 268 (1799). 

Fissidens adiantoides HEDW. Fund. Muse. P. II, 91 (1782) ; Muse, frond. 61, t. 26 (1792). 
ROTH Fl. germ, i, 459 (1788). BRID. Muse. rec. ii, P. I, 145 (1792) ; Sp. muse, i, 171 
(1806) ; Mant. muse. 191 (1819); Bry. univ. ii, 702 (1827). ROHL. Moosg. Deutsch. 295 
(1800); Deutsch. Fl. iii, 77 (1813). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 57 (1805). SCHULTZ Fl. Starg. 292 
(1806). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. II, 10 (1816). MART. Fl. cr. erl. 109 (1817). FUNCK 
Moost. 33, t. 22 (1821). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 224 (1833). DE NOT. Syll. muse. n. 
114 (1838) ; Epil. briol. ital. 478 (1869). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. i, Mon. 10, t. 5 (1843) ; 
Syn. muse. 108 (1860) et 2 ed. 119 (1876). RABENH. Deutsch. Kr. Fl. ii, P. 3, 306 
(1848). C.MUELL. Syn. muse, i, 51 (1849). WILS. Bry. Brit. 307, t. 16 (1855). HARTM. 
Skand. Fl. BERK. Handb. Br. m. 156, t. 14, f. 2 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 83 (1869). 
HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 137 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 63 (1873). 

Dicranum adiantoides SIBTH. Fl. oxon. 280 (1794). ROTH. Fl. Germ, iii, 184 (1795). 
SWARTZ Muse. Suec. 31 (1799). SMITH Fl. Brit, iii, 1234 (1804). TURN. Muse. hib. 57 
(1804). LAM. DE C. Fl. franc, i, 480 (1805). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 164 (1807). 
SCHKUHR Deutsch. Kr. Gew. P. II, 83, t. 37 (1810). VOIT Muse. herb. 36 (1812). HOOK. 
TAYL. Muse. brit. 51, t. 16 (1818). GRAY Nat. arr. Br. pi. i, 733 (1821). BALS. DE 
NOT. Pr. Bry. med. 131 (1834). MACK. Fl. hibern. P. 2, 22 (1836). 

Fiss. taxifolius Var. ft. WAHLEN. Fl. Lapp. 332 (1812). 

Skitophyllum adiantoides LA PYL. in DESV. Jour. Bot. 1813, p. 55, t. 36, f. 15. 

Schistophyllum ad. BRID. MSS. LINDBERG. 

Autoicous ; in large bright green or yellowish green tufts. Stems 
i 5 in. high, generally prostrate at base, with subfasciculate branches, 
which are radiculose at base. Leaves multijugous, flattened or subse- 
cund, crowded and covering each other at base, oblong and oblongo- 
ligulate, suddenly acuminulate ; nerve vanishing in the apex ; all margin 

FISSIDENTACE.E.] 79 [Fissidens. 

minutely serrulate, toward apex eroso-denticulate with larger and smaller 
teeth; vag. lam. above half length of leaf; inferior lam. rather broad, 
with a rounded, non-decurrent base; areolation rather lax, rounded- 
subhexagonal, in the old leaves in a broad paler or yellowish border of 
rather larger cells. Capsules from middle of stem, on a long red pedicel, 
cernuous or horizontal, oval-oblong, pachydermous, rufo-fuscous, when 
dry and empty, strongly contracted below the mouth ; calyptra cucullate, 
lid long-beaked, about length of capsule ; teeth purple, narrowly trabe- 
culate externally, lamellose internally. Perich. bracts broadly ovate 
with a sword shaped vertical lamina. Male infl. on the stem near the 
female, small, axillar, gemmiform, bracts broadly ovate, abruptly apicu- 
late, antheridia few, oblong, minute, without paraphyses. 

HAB. Shady wet banks and heaths, subalpine rocks, and at base of walls. 
Not uncommon. Fr. 12. 

This well-known moss varies considerably in size and colour according 
to the locality, in dry places being only half an inch high, and of a yellow- 
rufous tint, in wet places deep green and approaching F. polyphyllus in size ; 
it occurs at a considerable altitude on the mountains. 


Dioicous ; tall, scarcely branched ; leaves crowded, elongato- 
lanceolate, not bordered, entire, nerved to apex; seta lateral, very 
short, capsule cylindraceous, cernuous. (T. XII, C.) 

SYN.- Fissidens polyphyllus WILS. in lit. BRUCH. SCHP. Bry. eur. vi, Mon. Suppl. T. III. (1851) ; 

Syn. muse. 109 (1860), et 2 ed. 121 (1876). BERK. Handb. Br. m. 158 (1863). 
F.asplcnioidesvzr. ft. polyphyllus WILS. Bry. Brit. 306, t. 53 (1855). HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 

J 37 (1873)- 

F. adiantoidcs p. p. C. MUELL. Syn. Muse, i, 51. 
F. Welwitschii SCHIMP. Syn. Muse. 2 ed. 120 (non Duby). 
F. polyphylloides SAUERB. in Adumb. Muse, ii, 658 (1879). 

Dioicous; stems 3 12, in. long, erect or declinate at base, simple 
or sparingly branched, tomentose with rufous radicles. Leaves crowded, 
erecto-patent, flattened or secund, somewhat twisting at apex and 
flexuose when dry, elongato-lanceolate, not bordered, minutely crenulate 
at extreme point, nerve lost just below it ; vag. lam. reaching beyond 
middle, infer, lam. gradually narrowed towards base, not decurrent, 
areolation minute, rounded-hexagonal, with large chlorophyl granules, 
that of vag. lam. laxer and larger. 

Female plant small, ij in. high, seta about i in. long, erect, arising 
near the top of stem ; capsule inclined or horizontal, pachydermous, 
chestnut brown, cylindraceous, narrowed at base into a neck ; teeth of 
peristome firm, orange red, erect, rather short, cleft half way into two 

FISSIDENTACE^.] 80 [Fissidetis. 

slender, unequal, nodulose legs; perich. bracts about 5, ovate, sheathing, 
with an elongated sword-shaped lamina. Male plant about 2 in. high, 
with longer leaves, the infl. axillary, numerous, 8-leaved, outer bracts 
small, ovato-lanceolate, inner from an obovate base, suddenly passing 
into a narrow, linear, nerved, flexuose lamina, antheridia large, numerous, 
with few paraphyses. 
HAB. Wet shady rocks. 

Glengariff, Ireland (Wilson 1829) ! Pont Aberglaslyn on the right of the road to 
Tremadoc, N. Wales (Wilson 1838) ! ! Well and river side at Treveylor, Penzance 
(Curnow 1866) ! ! Banks of the Dart, Holne bridge, S. Devon (Marqnand 1884). 

This fine moss was first distinguished by Wilson, but afterwards he 
referred both it and F. serrulatus to the West Indian F. asplenioides SWARTZ. 
The very interesting discovery of the fruit has confirmed its distinctness, and 
I am indebted to the kindness of M. Husnot for the opportunity of figuring 
a specimen, though, unfortunately, without operculum. It was found in the 
" Breche de Toul-an-Dioul," near St. Rivoal, Dep. of Finistere by M. Camus 
in June, 1878. A form occurs in the Beddgelert locality with the leaves 
somewhat falcato-secund. 

Since the above monograph was issued, an important paper by Mr. Mitten 
has appeared in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. XXI, 550 (1885), which adds con- 
siderably to our list of species, and alters many of the older views. This 
necessitated a fresh study of these mosses, and as Mr. Mitten has kindly 
supplied me with most of his types, I have taken the opportunity of drawing 
them on an additional plate and again enumerating our species, with remarks 
where my conclusions differ from those of the talented author. A good paper 
on the American species, by Mr. C. R. Barnes, of Purdue University, Lafa- 
yette, has also appeared in the Botanical Gazette for January and February, 
1887. It must be remembered that the optical aids to examination at the end 
of last century were of a very primitive kind and limited in use, hence we 
need not be surprised that among the minute sorts, various species were dis- 
tributed under the same name, because there were no means of certainly 
distinguishing them, hence we think too much stress must not be laid on her- 
barium specimens as types of species. 

The principal characters in Mr. Mitten's arrangement are, i. the position 
of the male inflorescence, 2. the erect symmetric, or inclined unequal cap- 
sule, -3. the presence or absence of a hyaline limb to the laminae of leaf. 
Among the small species of Fissidens, and in some of the larger, we have 
come to the conclusion that the position of the inflorescence is most variable, 
and affords no stable specific character, as indeed Mr. Mitten states, though 
the key conveys a different impression ; nor is much value to be attached to 
the erect or inclined position of the capsule, for both certainly occur in the 
same species, though the symmetric or asymmetric form, if well marked, may 
prove more reliable, but with respect to the limb bordering the leaves, we 
attach more weight to it, as constituting a character of importance in the 
structure of the leaf, and undoubtedly of great value in discriminating species 
of such genera as Mnium and Bryum. 

FISSIDENTACE^E.J 8 1 [Fissidens. 


Svn. Fissidens exilis HEDW. 1. c. HUSN. Muscol. gall. 48, t. 15 (1884). 

Fissidens Bloxami WILS. 1. c. MITT. Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. xx., 558 (1885). 

This no doubt was mixed up with F. viridulus and pusillus by the older 
botanists, but Hedwig had the true plant as his remark on the leaves testify, 
and he also sent specimens of it to Starke still preserved in his herbarium 
(fide Limpricht). 


Dioicous ; very small. Leaves 4 6-jugous, oblongo-lanceolate, 
uppermost longer, not limbate or only faintly on the vaginant lamina, 
nerved nearly to apex. Caps, erect, oblong-oval, lid conic-rostellate. 
(T, XII.* E.) 

SYN. Fissidens exiguus SULLIV. in Mem. Amer. Acad. n. ser. iii, p. 60, t. 2 (1848). Muse. 
Allegh. n. 182. Mosses Un. st. 24 (1856). Icones muse. 36, t. 23 (1864). LESQ. 
JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 84 (1884). MITT. Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. xxi, 557 (1885). 
Fissidens viridulus Var. Lylel WILS. Bry. br. 304. 
Fissidens pusillus /? Lylei BRAITHW. ante p. 68. 

Fissidens incurvits Var. exiguus AUSTIN Muse, appalach. n. 103. BARNES Bot. Gaz. 
1887, p. 6. 

Dioicous or autoicous ; very minute, densely gregarious, yellow- 
green. Leaves 4 6-jugous, recurved when the stem is declinate at 
base, oblong-lanceolate, rather suddenly acute-pointed, accrescent 
upward, immarginate or with a faint limb to the duplicate lamina or 
also to lower part of the other laminae, inferior lam. narrowing down- 
wards and vanishing at base ; cells rounded. Caps, erect or slightly 
inclined, oblong-oval, somewhat contracted below the mouth, lid conic, 
rostellate. Male plant minute, short, bracts two, with a short ensiform 
HAB. Stones in damp shady places. Fr. g 2. 

Tilgate forest, on clinkers with F. incurvus (Mitten) ! ! Henfield (Mitten). The form 
Lylei, Witney, Oxon (Boswell, 1878) ! ! &c. 


Dioicous and autoicous; very small. Leaves 5 8-jugous, upper 
long, linear-lanceolate, acute, all narrowly limbate, nerved to apex. 
Caps, erect or inclined oblong, lid conic, rostrate. (T. XII,* F.) 

SYN. Fissidens minutulus SULLIV. in Mem. Amer. acad. n. ser. iii, p. 58, t. 2 (1848). Muse. 
Allegh. n. 183. Mosses Un. St. 24 (1856). Icon. Muse. 37, t. 24 (1864). LESQ. JAMES 
Mosses N. Amer. 85 (1884). MITT. Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. xxi., 556. 

Fissidens bryoides Var. i & 2. HOOK. WILS. in Drumm. Muse. Amer. Coll. 2, n. 39 & 40. 
Fissidens pusillus Var. madidus SPRUCE in Journ. Bot. 1880, p. 361. BRAITHW. ante p. 68. 

Fissidens incurvus Var. minutulus AUSTIN Muse. Appalach. n. 102. BARNES Bot. Gaz. 
1887, p. 5. 


Dioicous and autoicous ; minute, bright green. Leaves more 
numerous, narrowly limbate, lower very small, upper longer, obliquely 
oblongo-lanceolate or linear, acute and long-pointed, nerved to apex, 
inferior lam. vanishing above the base, cells rounded, denser. Caps. 
erect or inclined, oval-oblong, rather narrow ; lid conic, obliquely ros- 
trate, nearly as long as caps. Male on a long basal branch or on 
separate plants. 

HAB. Dripping stones. Fr. 10 n. 

Castle Howard and Mowthorpe Dale (Spruce) ! ! Stirrup wood (Gordon, Ashton and 
Nield 1871). Marple, Cheshire (Whitchead 1871). Levens (Dr. Wood 1871). 

A beautiful little moss of bright green colour, and distinct habit, which 
has also been found in Scandinavia. 

Ante p. 70. HUSN. Muscol. gall. 50, t. 15 (1884). 
Flssidens pusillus WILS. ante p. 68. SPRUCE in Journ. Dot. 1880, p. 360. HUSN. op. c. 49, 

t. 15. 

Fissidens synanthus MITT. Journ. Linn. soc. Bot. xxi, 554 (1885). 
Fissidens exilis MITT. op. c. 555. 

Fissidens holomitrius SPRUCE Journ. Bot. 1880, p. 356. 
Fissidens sepincola MITT, in lit. 

Synoicous, autoicous or dioicous ; varying also in size and in the direc- 
tion of the capsule, which is however more or less symmetric. Mr. Mitten's 
specimens of F. sepincola sent to me are F. exilis of this work. In F. synanthus 
not one-half of the specimens are synoicous, the male infl. being basal or on 
a separate plant. 


Ante, p. 69. JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 61 (1882). HUSN. Muse. gall. 49, t. 15 
(1884). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 82 (1884). MITT. Journ. Linn. soc. Bot. xxi, 

Fissidens Bambergeri SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 115 (1876). HUSN. 1. c. MILDE in Bot. 
Zeit. 1864, Beil. p. 12. 

Var. /?. tamarindifolius (Don). Ante, p. 69. 

Fissidens tamarindifolius MITT. Journ. Linn. soc. xxi, 557 (1885). 

Oakwood, Romiley, Cheshire and Ashton (Scholefield and Whitehead). Charlesworth, 
Derby (Whitehead). 


SYN. Fissidens Tequendamensis MITT. Journ. Linn. soc. Bot. xii, 601 (1869). 
Fissidens Orrii LINDB. Ante, p. 73. 

The Irish plant is identical with Weir's from the Andes of New 
Granada, and adds another to the group of species common to these two 
distant regions of the world. It is very close to F. Algarvicus SOLMS, which 
has a similar minute capsule and long seta, and leaves of the same form, 
but with denser oval cells. 

FISSIDENTACE^.] 83 [Fissidens. 


Ante, p. 71. JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 60. HUSN. Muscol. gall. 47, t. 14 (1884). 
Var. f3. intermedius Rut he. 

Leaves more oblong, with broader points suddenly acutate, and narrower 
border, the imfer. lam. vanishing at or below the middle of the vag. lam. 
(T. XII.* D.) 

SYN. Fissidens bry aides Var. exilis SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 42, Suppl. 

F. bryoides Var. intermedius RUTHE in RABENH. Bryoth. eur. n. 1160 (1872). 
Fissidens impar MITT. Journ. Linn. soc. Bot. xxi, 554 (1885). 

HAB. Three bridges, Sussex (Mitten 1845) ! ! Botanic Garden, Dublin 

This variety evidently forms part of Hedwig's figures of F. bryoides in 
Muse, frond, iii, t. 29, and the specimen from Mr. Mitten, which I have 
figured, has no axillar $ infl. but it is radical on a very short branch, and 
Ruthe states it also occurs as naked antheridia in the upper axils as well as 
on separate plants. 


Autoicous ; robust, pale green. Leaves multijugous, long, lanceo- 
late, narrowly limbate. Caps, short, inclined, ovate-oblong, pale ; lid 
conic-rostellate. (T. XII* G.) 

SYN. Fissidens bryoides var. ccespitans SCHIMP. ante, p. 72. HUSN. Muse. gall. 47, t. 14 

Fissidens Curnowii MITT. Journ. Linn. soc. Bot. xxi, 556. 

Autoicous ; in dense extended matted tufts, interwoven with long 
purple radicles, pale green, glaucescent. Stems i ii in. high, erect, 
sparingly branched. Leaves 10 2O-jugous, long linear-lane, thin, the 
limb strong, vanishing below the apex, which is sometimes minutely 
serrate. Caps, small, inclined, leptodermous, pale greenish-brown, on 
a red seta, ovate or oblong; lid conic, rostellate, acute. Male infl. 

HAB. Coast about Penzance (Curnow) ! ! Lundy island and Lyme regis (Mitten). Bolton 
woods, Yorks. (Wild 1876). Tyn-y-groes (Holt). 

Although this moss comes very near F. bryoides, its general habit and 
texture are so different that I have followed Mr. Mitten in regarding it as a 
species, though probably it is connected with F. bryoides by intermediate 


Dioicous or autoicous ; tall, dull lurid green. Leaves multijugous, 
lineal-lingulate, the limb stout, vanishing below apex. Caps, erect, lid 
conico-rostellate. (T. X, D, 0.) 

FISSIDENTACE.E.] 84 [Fissidens. 

SYK. Fissidens incurvus var. /?. fontanus BR. Sen. Bry. eur. fasc. 17, Mon. 7, t. i (1843). 

Fissidens crassipes WILS. JUR.VTZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 62 (1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses 

N. Amer. 83 (1884). 
Fissidens mildcanus SCHIMP. in litt. MILDE in RABENH. Bryoth. n. 470. Bot. Zeit. 1862, 

p. 459. DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 482. 
Fissidens viridulus var. fontanus ante p. 71. 
Fissidens fontanus SCHIMP, MITT. Journ. Linn. soc. Bot. xxi, 556. 

Dioicous or autoicous ; dull lurid green. Stems weak i 2 in. high, 
flexuose, ascending. L. succulent, lineal-lingulate, acuminate, limb 
thick, yellow, unequal, vanishing with the nerve below the irregularly 
crenulate apex ; cells larger. Caps, suberect, ovate, contracted below 
the mouth when dry, narrowly annulate, on a stout yellow-red seta ; 
lid conico-rostellate. 

Ilkley (Dr. Carrington 1855). Ravensdale and Monsal dale (Holt 1883). More allied to the 
next species than to F. viridulus. 


Autoicous ; robust, dark green. Leaves multijugous, elongate- 
lineal, with a very thick border confluent at apex with the nerve. Caps, 
cernuous, oval, lid conico-rostellate. (T. XII*, A.) 

SYN. Fissidens bryoides var. rivularis SPRUCE Muse, pyren. n. 318 (1847) ; Trans. Bot. soc. 

Edin. iii, 193 (1849). Journ. Bot. 1880, p. 359. 
Fissidens rivularis SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 46-47 Suppl. 2 (1851). Synops. 105 (1860), 

2 ed. 114. HUSN. Muse. gall. 47, t. 15 (1884). 
Fissidens pyrenaicus SPRUCE Trans. Bot. soc. Edin. 1849, p. 194. 

Autoicous ; dark lurid green, csespitant, plants i in. high, divided 
at base or sparingly branched. Leaves 12 2o-j"ugous, crowded, patu- 
lous, rather rigid, elongate-lineal, with a thick limb confluent at apex 
with a stout nerve in a blunt apiculus, infer, lam. vanishing at base, cells 
round, dense, chlorophyllose. Caps, on a short slender pale terminal 
seta, cernuous, becoming erect when old, small, oval, leptodermous, pale 
fuscous, exannulate, lid conic, shortly rostrate, red. Male infl. axillar, 
very numerous, gemmaceous, minute, bracts 3, very thin, lax, the upper 
lam. forming an apiculus. 
HAB. On stones wet with spray. Fr. 89. 

On a rock in Fairlight glen, Hastings (Holmes 1884) ! ! 

An excellent species, and a fine addition to our flora, remarkable for the 
very short slender seta, which is often curved and flexuose. 


Ante p. 74. Also found on stones in the R. Wharfe, Bolton bridge (West) ! ! and Glynhir, 
Caermarthen (Rev. A. Ley 1879). 

FISSIDENTACE.E.] 84A [Fissidens. 


Ante p. 73. Found richly in fruit at Kinder Scout (Whitehead and Holt 1883). Tintwistle, 
Cheshire (Whitehead). 


Ante p. 75. HUSN. Muse. gall. 52, t. 16 (1884). BOTTINI Ricerche briol. nell'Isola 
d'Elba 25 (1886). 

Fissidens Langei DE NOT. MITT. Journ. Linn. soc. Bot. xxi, 559. 

The Marquis Bottini, in the paper quoted, has exhausted the subject of 
the various forms of this species, and shown conclusively that F. Langei, 
which is the British form, must be retained under F. sermlatus, having also 
terminal setae, and differing only by its papillose leaves with a colored margin 
of about 4 rows of cells, but which is variable in tint and extent. He also 
regards F. polyphyllus as a variety, a view with which at present we do not 

Ante p. 77. MITT. op. c. 558. 


SYN. Fissidens cristatus WILS. in Kew Journ. Bot. ix, 294 (1857). MITT. Journ. Linn. soc. i, 

Suppl. 137 (1859). 
Fissidens decipiens DE NOT. ante p. 76. HUSN. Muse. gall. 51, t. 16 (1884). BARNES in 

Bot. Gaz. 1887, p. 27. 
Fissidens adiantoides MITT, in Journ. Linn. soc. Bot. xxi, 559 (1885). 

Although Mitten refers this species to F. adiantoides of Hedwig, I look upon 
that name as already occupied by the plant of Linnaeus, certainly the same 
as that usually so called ; and although Hedwig's figure does look more like the 
present plant, I do not think it conclusive, for F. adiantoides (L.) is usually 
dioicous. Dr. Spruce finds a tall form with distant narrow, slightly crisped 
leaves, growing on grassy hillocks under shade of Rosa spinosissima at Cone} s- 
thorpe, which is identical with one found in Bhotan by Wallich. The 
species is widely distributed throughout the whole northern hemisphere. 

Var. (3. brevifolius Lindb. 

Leaves dense, about half the length of those in the typical form, the 
serratures less distinct or almost obsolete, the pale border narrower. 

HAB. Near O'Sullivan's hotel, Killarney (Lindberg 1873) ' 


Ante p. 78. JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 65. HUSN. Muse. gall. 52, t. 16. 
Fissidens majtis MITT. Journ. Linn. soc. Bot. xxi, 559 (1885). 

Var. /? collinus Mitt. 

Autoicous ; short, tufted 1 in. high, erect. 


SYN. Fissidens adiantoides j3. marginatus BRID. Bry. univ. ii, 704 (sec. Schimper). 
Fissidens collinus MITT, in Journ. Linn. soc. Bot. xxi, 559. 

HAB. Chalk downs among short grass. Fr. 12. Woolsonbury hill (Mitten) I \ 
Tring (Holmes) ! ! 

This is the small form alluded to in the Bryologia europaea, and I do not 
find the slightest difference in the cells from those of F. adiantoides, which is, 
however, more frequently dioicous than autoicous. See MILDE (48 Jahres- 
bericht d. Schles. Ges. p. 131) 1870. 


Ante p. 79. BOULAY in Rev. bryol. 1885, p. 50. 

HUSN. Muse. gall. 52, t. 16 (1884). MITT. Journ. Linn. soc. Bot. xxi, 559 (1885). 

F. serrulatus Var. polyphyllus BOTTINI Rich, briol. nell'is. d'Elba 32 (1886). 

Boulay as well as Bottini regards this species as a northern variety of 
F. serrulatus. 

TAB. X. A. Fissidens exllis (Keston, Braithwaite). B. Fiss. pusillus (Hill cliff dingle, 
Wilson), y. Fiss. minutulus (Castle Howard, Spruce). C. Fiss. incttrvus (Durdham 
downs, Miss Attwood). D. Fiss. viridulus (Ecclesbourne, Holmes), ft. Fiss.fontanus 
(Oxford, Boswell). E. Fiss. bryoides (Woodford, Braithwaite). ft. Fiss. Curnowii. 
F. Fiss. tequendamcnsis (Tolka river, Orr). 

TAB. XI. A. Fiss. osmundoidcs (Longfield moor, Nowell). B. Fiss. rufulus (Rigmaden Park, 
Dreesen). C. Fiss. serrulatus (Teneriffe and Penzance, Curnow). D. Fiss. cristatus 
(Rayrigg, Barnes). 

TAB. XII. A. Fiss. taxifolius (Hastings, Braithwaite). B. Fiss. adiantoides (Knutsford moor, 
Hunt). C. Fiss. polyphyllus. a. Finistere (Camus), b. Glengariff, (Wilson). c. 
(Penzance, Curnow). 

TAB. XII*. A. Fiss. rivularis (Hastings, Holmes). B. E. Fiss. exiguus (Sussex, Mitten). C. 
Fiss. viridulus (Hurst, Mitten). D. Fiss. bryoides ft. (Sussex, Mitten). F. Fiss. 
minutulus (Castle Howard, Spruce). G. Fiss. Curnowii, (Penzance, Curnow), H. 
Fiss. incurvus ft. (Ashley, Hunt). I. Astomum mediterranean (Isle of Man, Holt). 

a. Fertile plant. a*. Ditto mag. b. Male. c. Sterile plant. i. Leaf mag. ix. 
Trans, section. zaa. Apex and areolation. 2. Perichietium. 3. Male infl. 4. 
Bract and antheridia. 5. Capsule. 6. Calyptra. 7. Tooth of peristome. 

* Moss-Fl. 



Fiss. exilis. 

F pusillus. 


F. bryoides. 

I. a. a 

Fiss. Orrii. 

l.Braithwaite del. ad not. D. Blair Hth. 

Ninltrn Sros.imp. 



R.BrcuOuratie del.cuL not. D.BUur IM 

BT Moss Fl. 


T. XII. 




R:Bratifm-atie del. ad not . D Blair I 

ad 7uct, <lel E.Carter 

Mmtarn. Sros vnp 



1. L. glaucum (L) Schimp. 


Leaves in several rows, inserted horizontally, free from adnate 


Mosses of a pale glaucous green colour, white and brittle when dry, 
growing in dense spongy tufts. Leaves in many rows, lanceolate, con- 
cave, composed almost entirely of the dilated nerve, which consists of 
several layers of empty parenchymatous cells, with their internal walls 
perforated by foramina, and a central series of 3-4-angled, chlorophyl- 
lose duct-like cells. Capsule oblong, cernuous or erect ; peristome 
resembling that of Dicranum, of 16 or 8 teeth. Inhabiting the ground 
or rotten wood. 

The very striking plants referred to this family are almost entirely tropical, 
and are remarkable for their pale colour, and the composite structure of their 
leaves, compared by some authors to that of Sphagnum, to which however 
they are not allied. The family was established by Hampe, and named 
Leucophaneae, but was altered by C. Mueller to Leucobryaceae to accord 
with the principal genus, and comprises about 65 species, nearly half belong- 
ing to Leucobryum, the other genera being Leucophanes, Schistomityium and Octo- 
Uephantm. Our British species is the sole representative in Europe, and in 
the other three quarters of the globe seems to be replaced by the equally 
common Octoblepharum albidum. Lindberg reunites the family to Dicranaceae, 
as he finds that the leaves of D. albicans and longifolium in section, quite 
resemble in structure those of Leucobryum. The leaves have generally been 
described as nerveless, but it is more correct to regard them as consisting 
almost entirely of nerve, for careful observation will show that near the base, 
there is at the edges a very narrow but distinct lamina of only a single 
stratum of narrow elongated cells. On the terminal leaves of the stem of 
female Leucobryum glaucum, it is common to find a minute tuft of radicular 
tomentum developing a cluster of young plants, which falling to the ground 
grow to a new colony, and thus compensate for the rarity of the fruit. Mr. 
Barnes tells me that it is difficult to keep the lids on the capsules, as the 
moss continues its growth even in the press, and to prevent this he 
recommends those who are fortunate enough to find it in fruit, to dip it into 
boiling water before pressing. 


(Regensb. Bot. Zeit. 1837, * 282.) 

Densely csespitose mosses of a whitish or glaucous colour, with 
dichotomous and fastigiate ramification. Calyptra dimidiate, cucullate. 
Capsule pachydermous, unequal, often strumose, plicate when dry, 

LEUCOBRYACE^.] 86 [Leucobryum. 

terminal or lateral by innovation ; peristome of 16 teeth, bifid and tra- 
beculate as in Dicranum. Leaves composed of 2 or more strata of large 
empty rectangular parenchymatous cells, having their internal walls 
perforated by large circular foramina, and a central series of narrow 
quadrangular chlorophyllose cells. Terrestrial, on heaths and in woods. 
Deriv. Acv/cos white, (3pvov a moss. 


Dioicous ; densely compacted, whitish, glaucous. Leaves crowded, 
erecto-patent, entire, broadly lanceolate, cuspidate, with incurved 
margins; perichastial convolute, acuminate. Capsule oval, cernuous, 
strumose, sulcate, lid with a long oblique subulate beak. (T. XIII.) 

SYN. Muscus trichoides montanus albidus fragilis DOODY. RAY Synops. stirp. brit. 2 ed. app. 

339 (1696). MORIS. Hist. oxon. iii, 630, S. xv, t. 6. fig. 22 (1699). 
Bryum trichoides, erectis capitulis, albidum fragile DILL. Cat. Giss. 225 (1719) ; et in RAY 

Synops. 3 ed. 97, n. 29 (1724). 
Bryum albidum et glaucum fragile majus,foliis erectis, setis brevibus DILL. Hist. muse. 362, 

T. 46, fig. 20 (1741) ; et herb. 
Bryum glaucum L. Sp. pi. ii, iri8 (1753) ; Syst. Nat. ii, 701. HUDS. Fl. angl. 407 (1762). 

NECK. Meth. muse. 226 (1771). WITH. Bot. arr. Br. Veg. ii, 673 (1776). LIGHTF. Fl. 

Scot, ii, 723 (1777). Fl. Dan. t. 824, fig. 3 (1780). HOFFM. Deutsch. Fl. ii, 38 (1796). 

ABBOT Fl. Bedf. 239 (1798). HULL Brit. Fl. P. 2, 263 (1799). 
Hypnum glaucum WEISS Cr. gott. 208 (1770). WEB. Fl. gott. 75 (1778). 
Fuscina glauca SCHRANK Bayers. Fl. ii, 457 (1789). 
Mnium glaucumWiru. Bot. arr. Br. Veg. 3 ed. iii, 801 (1796). 
Dicranum glaucum HEDW. Fund. muse, ii, 92 (1782) ; Sp. muse. 135 (1801). ROTH Tent. 

Fl. germ, i, 461 (1788), et iii, 161. SIBTH. Fl. oxon. 281 (1794). SWARTZ Disp. muse. 

suec. 35 (1798). BRID. Muse. rec. ii, P. I, 165 (1798) ; Sp. muse. I, 205 (1806) ; Mant. 

muse. 66 (1819) ; Bry. univ. i, 407 (1826). ROEHL. Moosg. Deutsch. 351 (1800) ; Deutsch. 

Fl. iii, 75 (1813). SMITH Fl. brit. iii, 1216 (1804) ; Eng. Bot. t. 2166. TURN. Muse. hib. 

73 (1804). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 54 (1805). SCHULTZ Fl. starg. 299 (1806). WEB. MOHR 

Bot. Tasch. 66 (1807). VOIT Muse, herbip. 38 (1812). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 187, t. 

48 (1811). MART. Fl. cr. Erl. 105 (1817). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. Br. 52, t. 21 (1818). 

GRAY Nat. arr. Br. PI. i, 734 (1821). HOOK. Fl. Scot. P. 2, 131 (1821) ; Brit. Fl. ii, 37 

(1833). FUNCK Moost. 30, t. 21 (1821). ZENK. DIETR. Muse. Thuring. n. 40 (1822). 

HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 234 (1833). BALS. DE NOT. Prod. Bry. Mediol. 133 (1834). 

MACKAY Fl. hib. P. 2, 22 (1836). DE NOT. Syll. muse. n. 276 (1838). 
Leucobryum vulgare HAMPE in Reg. bot. zeit. 1837, P- 282, et in Linnaea 1839, p. 42. 

C. MUELL. in Linn. 1843, p. 687; Syn. muse, i, 74 (1849). RABENH. Deutsch. Kr. Fl. ii, 

P. 3, 120 (1846). 

Oncophorus glaucus BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 41, mon. t. 1-2 (1849). 

Leucobryum glaucum SCHIMP. Coroll. Br. eur. 19 (1855). Synops. 101, et 2 ed. 109. WILS. 
Bry. Brit. 82, t. 16 (1855). JENS. Bry. Dan. t. II, f. 10 (1856). BERK. Handb. Br. m. 
276, t. 23, f. 6 (1863). MILDE Bry. Siles. 79 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. Briol. ital. 285 
(1869). HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 49 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 60 (1873). 

Dioicous; in very dense cushioned tufts, pale glaucous green 
above, pale dirty brown below. Stems 1-6 in. high, dichotomous, fas- 
tigiate, not radiculose. Leaves in 13 rows, soft, patent, rarely sub- 
secund, entire, from an oval-oblong base, lanceolate, tubulose from the 
incurved margins ; lower half with a very narrow lamina of slender 
prosenchymatous cells. Perichastial bracts sheathing, lanceolate-subu- 
late ; seta elongated, rufous, twisted to the right when dry. Calyptra 

LEUCOBRYACE.E.] 87 [Leucobryum. 

subinflated, rostrate. Capsule exannulate, gibbous-ovate or oblong, 
glossy castaneous, when old blackish, cernuous, strumose, 8-striate, 
furrowed when dry ; peristome deep purple, of 16 lanceolate teeth, cleft 
below the middle into two unequal legs ; lid conic, rostrate, longer than 
capsule ; spores ferruginous, smooth. 

Male plants in distinct tufts, more slender, with terminal stellate 
inflorescence ; perigonial bracts 6, ovate, concave, antheridia 10-12, 

HAB. Wet heaths and woods, common. Fr. rare, 103. 

In fruit, Bantry (Miss Hutchins, 1812) ! Near Rufus stone, New Forest (Lycll, 1813) ! 
Cornwall (Tozcr) ! Woods about Beaconsfield and Dropmore (Herb. Hook.) ! Foot of 
Knockindack, Kircudbright (y. Cru, 1840) ! Criffel, Do. (Gardiner, 1840). Clova 
(R. Brown). Bramshill Park, Hants. (R. S. Hill, 1861). Near Exeter (Parfitt, 1855). 
Ardingly (Woods). Chailey Common, Sussex (Mitten). Ulpha moss, Levens (Barnes, 
1866) ! ! Birch wood near Burnham Beeches (Latimer Clark, Howse) ! ! Near Great 
Marlow (T. Walker). Dartmoor (Dr. de Crespigny, 1870). Bog below Lambert's Castle, 
Lyme Regis (A. Lister, 1876). Morden Park, Holwell, Dorset (Revs. H. Wood and 
O. P. Cambridge, 1879) ! ! 

The male plant is very scarce, and the proliferous points of the branches 
may be easily mistaken for male inflorescence ; the fruit appears to be 
produced through a large part of the year. 


Leucobryum glaucum. 

a. b. Female and male plant (Ulpha moss, Barnes), i. Leaf, i a. Apex of same, 
i ab. Areolation of base, i x. Transverse section, showing foramina and chlorophyllose 
ducts. i xv. Vertical section. 2. Perichaetial bract. 3. Male infl. 4. Antheridia, 
paraphyses and bract. 5. Capsules. 6. Calyptra. 7. Operculum. 8. Teeth of peristome. 
p. Young plants and radicular protonema at apex of sterile stem. p*. Single plant from 



T. XUI. 

Leu.c . 

Jt . VrazOcwaiia, del. ad not . J. Mtaer,./, Fitch, VOt,.> Brof hrrp. 


DICRANACE^.J 92 [Archidium. 

or columella ; spores developed in the single sporogonial cell, few, very 
large, smooth. Calyptra saccate, very thin, tearing irregularly and 
adhering in fragments to the capsule. Der. apx^iov the beginning. 


Paroicous ; leaves distant, ovato-lanceolato-acuminate ; perichsetial 
bracts larger, crowded, from a broadly ovate base, lanceolate-subulate, 
with the nerve excurrent, the margin obsoletely toothed. (T. XIV, A.) 

Svu.Phascum alternifolium DICKS. Cr. fasc. I, 2, T. i, fig. 2 (1785). RELH. Fl. cant. Suppl. 

alt. 18 (1788). WITH. Bot. arr. B. Veg. 3 ed. 786 (1796). ABBOT Fl. Bedf. 229 (1798). 

HULL Br. Fl. P. 2, 252 (1799). HEDW. Sp. muse. 24 (1801). SM. Fl. Brit, iii, 1157 

(1804) ; Eng. Bot. t. 2107. SCHWAEGR. Suppl. i, P. I, 10, T. 10 (1811). HOOK. TAYL. 

Muse. Br. 6, t. 5 (1818). GRAY Nat. arr. Br. pi. i, 711 (1821). 
Phase, globiferum BRUCH in Reg. hot. zeit. 1825, I, p. 281, t. i. 
Pleuridium alternif. BRID. p.p. Mant. muse. 10 (1819), et Bry. univ. ii, 161 (1827). 
Phase. Bruchii SPRENG. in L. syst. veg. iv, 142 (1827). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 5 (1833). 
Archid. phascoides BRID. Br. univ. i, 747, t. Suppl. 3 (1826). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. Ill, P. I,t. 

205 (1827). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. i (1837). DE NoT - Sy 11 - n - 39 1 ( l8 3 8 )- 

HARTM. Skand. Fl. C. MUELL. Syn. muse, i, 13 (1849). WILS. Bry. Brit. 24, t. 5 

(1855). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 37 (1873). 
Archid. alternifolium SCHIMP. Syn. 28 (1860), et 2 ed. 23 et 810 (1876). BERK. Handb. Br. 

m. 305, t. 24, f. 10 (1863). MILDE Bry. Siles. 131 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. Bri. ital. 728 

(1869). HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 26 (1873). 

Paroicous or autoicous ; in flat lax dull green patches. Plants 
very small, at first simple, later becoming branched, prostrate with erect 
innovations, and many slender small-leaved flagella. Stem leaves 
remote, minute, narrowly lanceolate, perich. bracts forming a coma, 
crowded, much longer, from an oval concave base, lanceolate-subulate, 
denticulate at apex ; nerve narrow, vanishing in the apex ; areolation 
rectangular at base, rhomboid above. Capsule terminal, or lateral by 
innovation, concealed in the perichaetium, soft, pale yellow, globose, 
breaking up at maturity. Spores very large, about 16, smooth yellowish. 
Antheridia in the axils of the perich. bracts, or at base of perichsetium, 
enclosed in two or more small ovate nerveless bracts. 

HAS. Wet fields and heaths, not rare. Fr. 3 5. 

Gamlingay bogs (Relhan). Stevington bogs (Abbot). Belfast (Drummond) ! Henfield 
(Borrer) ! Hareley wood (Nowcll 1856) ! ! Mere and Ashley, Cheshire (Hunt) ! ! 
Brighton and Tilgate forest (Davies) ! ! Todmorden (Nowell) ! ! Glenprosen (Fergusson). 
Dunnottar, Banchory (Sim 1870) ! Coleshill, Warwick. (Bagnall). 

This curious little moss varies in size, and also in the density, length 
and width of the leaves and extent of the nerve, which is sometimes ex- 
current. Although the capsule differs in structure from all other mosses by 
the absence of a spore sac and columella, its affinity is so close to Pleuridium 
in habit and foliage, that it seems to be better placed near that genus, than to 
regard it with Schimper as the type of a distinct family and order of 

DICRANACE^.J 93 [Pleuridium. 

anomalous mosses. Without the fruit it bears much resemblance to Pleuridium 
alternifolium with which it was confounded by the early botanists. Our species 
is the only one found in Europe, but several closely allied forms occur in 
N. America. 


(Mant. muse. 10 (1819). ) 

Plants very small, often producing flagella. Leaves lanceolate and 
lanceolate-subulate, nerved, glossy. Capsule cleistocarpous, on a short 
pedicel, ovato-globose, with a short point, smooth, glossy. Calyptra 
small, cucullate. Spores rather large, granular. Deriv. TrAev/uSiov at 
the side. 


Perich. bracts like the leaves ; nerve narrow ; cells large, lax. axillare. 

Perich. bracts much longer than the leaves ; nerve broad ; cells small. 

Paroicous, perich. bracts lanceolate-subulate. subulatum. 

Autoicous, perich. bracts oval, suddenly narrowed to a long setaceous 
point. altirnifottmn. 


Paroicous ; leaves and bracts narrowly lanceolate, acute, serrulate, 
pale and glossy, laxly areolate ; nerve thin, vanishing below apex. 
Capsule oval. (T. XIV, B.) 

Sw.Phascum axillare DICKS. Cr. fasc. I, 2, T. i, f. 3 (1785). SM. Eng. Bot. 1. 1036 (1802) ; Fl. 
Brit, iii, 1149 (1804). TURN. Muse. hib. i (1804). WEB. MOHR Bot, Tasch. 63 (1807). 
ROEHL. Ann. Wett. ges. i, 193 (1809), et Deutsch. Fl. iii, 35 (1812). LA PYL. J. Bot. 
(1813). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. Brit. 7, t. 5 (1818). CASSEB. in Ann. Wett. ges. iv, 94 (1819). 
GRAY Nat. arr. Br. pi. i, 711 (1821). HOOK. Fl. Scot. P. 2, 122 (1821) ; Br. Flora ii, 3 
(1833). NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ, i, 6i,t.6,f. 15 (1823). HuEBEN.Bry.germ.4 (1833). 
BALS. DE NOT. Prod. Bry. mediol. 175 (1834). MACKAY Fl. hib. P. 2, p. 8 (1836). 
DE NOT. Syll. muse. n. 401 (1838). 

Pkascum nitidum HEDW. Stirp. cr. i, 92, t. 34 (1787) ; Sp. muse. 19 (1801). TIMM Fl. meg. 
n. 717 (1788). SCHRANK Bayers. Fl. ii, 434 (1789). WITH. Bot. arr. Br.Veg. 3 ed. iii, 
787 (1796). HOFFM. Deutsch. Fl. ii, 20 (1796). Brid. Muse. rec. ii, P. i, 15 (1798) ; Sp. 
muse. I, 6 (1806) ; Mant. 7 (1819) ; Bry. univ. i, 35 (1826). HULL Br. Fl. P. 2, 252 (1799). 
SCHRAD. J. Bot. 1799, p. 55. ROTH Fl. germ, iii, P. i, 113 (1800). ROEHL. Moosg. 
Deutsch. 24 (1800). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 82 (1805). ScHULTzFl. Starg. 272 (1806). SCHKUHR 
Deutsch. Kr. gew. P. II, 4, t. i, f. i (1810). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, p. i, 7 (1811). MART. Fl. 
cr. Erl. 126 (1817). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. i, p. 12, t. 6 (1837). WILS. Bry. brit. 
34, t. 5 (1855). HUSN. Mouss: nord-ouest 35 (1873). HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 30 (1873). 

Phase, curvicollum (non EHRH.) SWARTZ Sum. Veg. Scand. 38 (1814). HARTM. Skand. 
Fl. i8 edd. (1820-61). 

Astomum nitidum HAMPE in Linnaea (1832). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 17 (1849). 
Ephememm nitidum HAMPE in Reg. bot. Zeit. 1837, P I> 2 %5> 
Astomum axillare HAMPE in Linnsa xii, 553 (1838). 
Phase, stagninum WALLR. in Linnsea xiv, 680 (1840). 

DICRANACE^.] 94 [Pleuridium. 

Pleuridium nitidum RABENH. Deuts. Kr. Fl. ii, P. 3, 79 (1848). BR. Sen. Br. eur. fasc. 43 
Suppl. t. i (1850); Synops. 23 (1860), et 2 ed. 24 (1876). BERK. Handb. Br. m. 298 
(1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 132 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. Bri. ital. 731 (1869). 

Pleuridium axillarc LINDB. in Ofver. Vet. Akad. forh. xx, 407 (1863), et xxi, 584. FALK 
Beskrifn. ofver Skand. muse, cleist. 20. 

Paroicous ; plants very small, slender, simple or branched, pale 
glossy green. Leaves and perich. bracts alike, erecto-patent, lanceo- 
late or lineal-lane, acute, serrulate at apex, channelled, carinate ; cells 
large, lax, pellucid, linear-rectangular; nerve slender, vanishing at f 
length of leaf. Capsule on a short pedicel, small, elliptic-ovate, shortly 
rostellate, pale brown, often pseudo-lateral with the seta arcuate. 
Calyptra covering only top of capsule. Spores ferruginous. 

HAB. Wet clay fields and banks and by dried up pools, not uncommon. 
Fr. 10 2. 

Var. /?. strictum (Dicks.) 

Plants smaller, very short, lurid green ; leaves and bracts closer, 
narrower, straight ; capsule nearly spherical. 

SYN. Phascum strictum DICKS. Cr. fasc. IV, i, t. 10, f. i (1801). SM. Fl. Brit, iii, 1151 ; Eng. 

Bot. t. 2093. BRID. Sp. muse. I, 5 ; Mant. 7 ; Bry. univ. i, 34. SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. 

I, n. LA PYL. in Journ. Bot. 1813, p. 281. 

Pleurid. nitidum ft. minimum RABENH. Deutsch. Kr. Fl. ii, P. 3, 79. 
Phase, nitidum Var /?. strictum WILS. Bry. Br. 35. 

HAB. Scotland (Dickson.) 

Repeated innovation takes place on the same stem and thus several 
capsules appear above each other, and being thrust aside by the new growth 
acquire a lateral or axillar appearance. 


Paroicous ; stems short, simple. Perichaetial bracts lanceolate- 
subulate, minutely serrulate, nerve broad, continuous. Capsule 
roundish-ovate. (T. XIV, C.) 

SYN. Muscus trichoides minor acaulos, capillaceis foliis, DOODY. RAY Synops. 2 ed. app. 324 

(1696) ; Hist. PI. iii, 39 (1704). 
Sphagnum acaulon trichoides DILL. Cat. Giss. 229 (1719); in RAY Synops. 3 ed. 105 (1724); 

Hist. muse. 251, T. 32, f. 10 (1741), et Herb. 
Phascum subulatiim HUDS. Fl. angl. 397 (1762). L. Sp. pi. 2 ed. ii, 1570 (1763). OEDER 

Fl. Dan. t. 249 (1766). WITH. Bot. arr. Br. veg. ii, 660 (1776). CURT. Fl. Lond. t. 67 

(1778). RELH. Fl. Cant. Suppl. 16 (1786). SIBTH. Fl. Oxon. 272 (1794). ABBOT Fl. 

bedf. 229 (1798). HULL Br. Fl. P. 2, 251 (1799). SM. Fl. Brit, iii, 1149 (1804); Eng. 

Bot. t. 2177. TURN. Muse. hib. i (1804). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 64 (1807). 

SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. I, 2 (1811). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. Brit. p.p. 6, t. 5 (1818) GRAY 

Nat. arr. Br. pi. i, 711 (1821). HOOK. Fl. Scot. P. 2, 121 (1821); Br. Fl. ii, 3 (1833). 

Hartm. Skand. Fl. NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ, i, 63, p.p. t. 6, f. 16 (1823). BRUCH in 

Reg. bot. Zeit. 1825, P. I, 279, excl. syn. T. i. HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 6, excl. syn. (1833). 

BR. SCHIMP. in Mem. soc. mus. Strasb. ii, 3, t. A. excl. syn. (1835) ; Bry. eur. i, Mon. 

15, t. 7 (1837). MACKAY Fl. hib. P. 2, 7 (1836). DE NOT. Syll. muse. n. 403 (1838). 

FIOR. MAZ. Bry. rom. 2 ed. i (1841). WILS. Bry. Brit. 35, T. 5 d, excl. syn. (1855). 

HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 36 (1873). HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 30 (1873). 
Astomum subulatum HAMPE in Reg. bot. zeit. 1837, P. i, p. 285. C. MUELL. Synops. i, 

14 excl. syn. (1849). 

DICRANACE2E.] 95 [Pleuridium . 

Pleuridium subnlatum RABENH. Deutsch. Kr. Fl. ii, P. 3, 79 excl. syn. (1848). BR. SCH. 

Bry. eur. fasc. 43 Suppl. t. i excl. syn. (1850) ; Synops. 24 (1860), et 2 ed. 25 (1876). 

BERK. Handb. Br. m. 298 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 132 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. Briol. 

ital. 731 (1869). 
Pleuridium acuminatum LINDB. in Ofv. vet. ak. forh. 1863, p. 406, et 1864, p. 585. FALK 

Beskrif. ofver Skand. muse, cleist. 21. 
Phascum acuminatum LINDB. in HARTM. Sk. Fl. 9 ed. ii, 78 (1864). 

Paroicous ; pale green ; stems simple, csespitant. Leaves small, 
ovato-lanceolate ; perich. bracts sometimes subsecund, lanceolate at 
base, gradually subulate, rather glossy, channelled, minutely serrulate ; 
nerve broad and flat, continuous, scabrous at back of apex ; cells at base 
rectangular, empty, upper much narrower, linear. Capsule brownish 
yellow, spherical or oval, rather truncate at base, with a short straight 
apiculus. Calyptra covering of capsule. Spores ferruginous. Anthe- 
ridia naked in the axils of the perich. bracts. 

HAB. Sandy banks, heaths and sides of paths. Common. Fr. 3 4. 


Autoicous ; simple or with longish flagella. Perich. bracts from an 
oval base, abruptly narrowed into a very long subula, nerve broad and 
thick. Capsule oval, apiculate. (T. XIV, D.) 

SYN. Phascum subulatum SCHREB. de Phasco obs. 8 (1770) ; Spic. Fl. Lips. 71 (1771). HEDW. 

Stirp. cr. i, 93 t. 35 (1787) ; Sp. muse. 19. ROEHL. Moosg. Deutsch. i, 26 (1800). ROTH 

Fl. germ, iii, P. i, 109 (1800). HOPPE iu STURM Deutsch. Fl. ii, heft 6 (1803). SCHKUHR 

Deutsch. Kr. Gew. P. II, 4, t. i (1810). BRIDEL p.p. LINDB. in HARTM. Sk. Fl. 9 ed. 

ii, 78 (1864). 
Phascum alternifolium KAULF. in STURM op. cit. heft 15 (1815). BRUCH in Reg. bot. zeit. 

1825, P. i, 273, t. i. HUEBEN. Bry. germ. 4 (1833). BR. SCH. in Mem. soc. mus. 

Strasb. ii, i, t. A (1835) '> Bry. eur. i, 15, t. 7 (1837). DE NOT. Syll. muse. n. 402 (1838). 

WILS. Bry. Brit. 35, t. 37 (1855). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 36 (1873). HOBK. Syn. 

Br. m. 30 (1873). 
Astomum alternifolium HAMPE in Reg. bot. zeit. 1837, P- 2 ^5- C. MUELL. Synops. i, 

14 (1849). 
Pleuridium alternif. RABENH. Deutsch. Kr. Fl. ii, P. 3, 79 (1848). BR. SCH. Br. eur. fasc. 

43, Srppl. t. 2 (1850). SCHIMP. Synops. 24 (1860), et 2 ed. 26 (1876). BERK. Handb. 

Br. m. 299 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 133 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. Briol. ital. 730 (1869). 

BRID. Mant. muse, et Bry. univ. p.p. 
Pleuridium subulatum LINDB. in Ofvers. Vet. ak. forh. 1863, p. 408, et 1864, p. 586. FALK 

Beskrif. ofver Skand. muse. cl. 22. 

Autoicous; pale yellowish or dull green, \ i in. high. Stems 
simple, or with longish small-leaved flagella on the older plants. 
Leaves ovato-lanceolate, with the nerve vanishing ; perich. bracts from 
an oval or elliptic base, scarcely glossy, abruptly attenuated into a very 
long subula, channelled, densely serrulate on the margin and back, 
and mostly formed of the broad thick nerve which is faint at base ; 
basal cells rectangular, chlorophyllose, upper much smaller, subquadrate. 
Capsule immersed, pale brown, spheric-oval, rather longly and obliquely 
apiculate, with a distinct neck. Calyptra broad, covering half capsule. 

DICRANACEJJ.] 9 6 [Ditrichum. 

Male infl. gemmiform, axillar ; the bracts ovate, acuminate, nerve 
HAB. Fallow fields and wet heaths. Not uncommon. Fr. 5 6. 

N. Wales (Bowman). Kinnaird (Gardiner 1844) ! ! Welburn (Spruce). Near Shotover 
(Boswell) \ Hale, Ashley and Helsby (Hunt) ! ! Newtimber and Pylcomb Downs 
(Davits 1862) ! ! Haversham head, Westmoreland (Barnes 1871) ! Mere, Cheshire 
(Wilson 1844) ! ! 

Great confusion exists in the early authors between this species and the 
last, and Archidium alternif. and after the latter is separated, we still find the 
majority of references to PL subulatum belong to the present plant, due no 
doubt to the fact that it is by far the commonest species on the continent, 
while PI. subiilatum is much more frequent with us. Hedwig's beautiful figure 
well shows the male infl. and the position of this, with the long perich. bracts 
suddenly dilated at base, enable us readily to indentify PI. alternifolium. 


(Fl. Megapolit. 216 (1788). ) 

Plants caespitant, dwarf, or tall and slender, living on the ground or 
on rocks. Leaves lanceolate-subulate, smooth and glossy, the areolation 
narrowly rectangular above, lax and hexagono-rectangular at base. 
Calyptra narrow, cucullate. Capsule on a slender straight seta, usually 
erect, oval or subcylindric, annulate ; peristome erect, of 16 longish 
teeth cleft to base into two filiform articulate papillose legs, fixed on a 
short membrane. Spores very small, smooth. Deriv. Sis two, M hair. 

Hampe in Regens. bot. zeit. 1867, p. 181, points out that this genus was 
founded by Timm on D. pusillum, and must supersede his own Lcptotrichum 
not only by right of priority, but also because the latter was already in use 
for a genus of Fungi. About 25 species are known; but L. vaginans of 
Schimper's Synopsis, 2 ed. 140, and of Sullivant's Exsicc. is only a variety of 
D. tortile, and differs from L. vaginans Sull. Icones. (see LINDBERG Revis. 
crit. ic. Fl. Danica, p. 107.) 


Leaves squarrose. Capsule very narrow, cylindraceous. tenuifolium. 

Leaves erecto-patent or secund. Capsule ovate or elliptic. 

Paroicous. Leaves patent, setaceous. subulatum. 

Dioicous. Leaves subsecund or falcate. 

Stems short, straight ; leaves lanceolate-subulate. 

Capsule cylindric, lid shortly rostellate. tortile. 

Capsule elliptic, lid conic, obtuse. homomallum. 

Stems tall, slender, flexuose ; leaves flexuose, falcate. flexicaule. 

Sect. i. TRICHODON (Schimp.). Plants dwarf, slender ; leaves sheath- 
ing at base, suddenly subulate, flexuoso-squarrose. Capsule narrowly cylin- 

DICRANACE^.] 97 [Ditrichum. 


Dioicous ; stem short ; leaves flexuoso-squarrose, sheathing at base, 
subulate. Capsule on a slender pedicel, very narrowly cylindraceous, 
lid conical. (T. XIV, E.) 

SYN. Trichostomum tenuifolium SCHRAD. Journ. Bot. ii, P. i, 58 (1799). 

Trichostomum cylindricum HEDW. Sp. muse. 107, t. 24, f. 7-13 (1801). BRID. Sp. muse. I, 
230 (1806), Mant. 83 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 491 (1826). SCHKUHR Deutsch. Kr. Gew. 
P. II, 79, t. 35 (1810). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. i, 142 (1811). WAHLENB. Fl. lapp. 332 
(1812). FUNCK Moost. 25, t. 16 (1821). 

Dicranum cylindricum WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 202 (1807). ROEHL. Deutsch. Fl. iii, 
70 (1813). 

Didymodon cylindr. WAHLENB. Fl. suec. ii, 754 (1826). SOMMERF. Suppl. Fl. lapp. 52 
(1826). HARTMAN Skand. Fl. HOOK. Br. Fl. ii, 32 (1833). 

Ceratodon cylindr. FURNR. in Reg. hot. zeit. 1829, P. 2, erg. 31. BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 
29-30, t. 3 (1846). WILS. Bry. Brit. 85, t. 39 (1855). HARTM. Skand. Fl. 7 ed. Fl. Dan. 
Suppl. t. 114, f. 2. HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 49 (1873). 

Angstroemia cylindr. C. MUELL. Synops. i, 441 (1849). 

Trichodon cylindr. SCHIMP. Coroll. Br. euf. 36 (1856). Synops. 140(1860), 2 ed. 138 (1876). 

BERK. Handb. Br. m. 275 (1863). MILDE Bry. Siles. 134. (1869). DE NOT. Epil. Briol. 

ital. 570 (1869). 

Trichodon tenuifolius LINDB. Eur. Trich. 225 (1864). 
Ditrichum tenuifolium LINDB. Musci Scand 27 (1879). 

Dioicous ; gregarious or in small yellowish green tufts ; stem short, 
slender, simple or but little divided. Leaves patent, flexuose, squarrose, 
crisped when dry ; the lower small, ovato-subulate, upper lanceolate- 
subulate, perich. bracts from a broad sheathing base, suddenly capillaceo- 
subulate, the nerve broad, forming the whole upper part of subula, and 
denticulate in the upper half; cells firm, narrow, elongated. Capsule 
on a long very slender pale reddish seta, leptodermous, very narrowly 
cylindraceous, slightly incurved in the middle, brown, erect or inclined ; 
lid conic, rather obtuse, red ; annulus broad, revoluble ; teeth of per. 
pale red, the legs long, filiform, rough. 

Male plant more slender, in distinct tufts ; perig. bracts con- 
volute concave, subulate, antheridia numerous with slender paraphyses. 

HAB. Fallow fields and wet sandy ground ; rare. Fr. 5 6. 

Castle Howard woods and Stockton forest, York (Spruce) ! ! Bowdon, Cheshire (Hunt 
1868) ! ! Glen Prosen (Fergusson 1867) '. ! Ardingly and Tilgate, Sussex (Mitten). 
Belfast (Drummond 1830). Lancashire and Derbyshire (Wilson). Fruit very rare. 

This species has been tossed about under various genera, but is clearly 
at home in the present one ; it must be carefully discriminated from Dicranella 
crispa and Grevillei which have similar leaves. 

Sect. 2. EUDITRICHUM Lindb. Plants slender, short or elongated. 
Leaves divergent, subsecund or falcate, lanceolate-subulate. Capsule oval or 

DICRANACE^E.] 98 [Ditrichuiii. 

2. DITRICHUM TORTILE (Schmd.) Hampe. 

Dioicous ; laxly csespitose ; leaves patent or subsecund, lanceolate- 
subulate, serrate at point, recurved at margin. Capsule erect, sub- 
cylindric, lid shortly rostellate. (T. XIV, F.) 

Sw.Trichostomum tortile SCHRAD. Samml. Kr. Gew, n. 49 (1797)- USTERI Neue Bot. Ann. 
Fasc. xx. 108 (1799). BRID. Sp. muse. I, 231 (1806) ; Mant. 82 (1819) ; Bry. univ. 1,488 
(1826). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. I, 139, t. 35 (1811). SCHULTZ Suppl. Fl. Starg. 70 
(1819). FUNCK Moostasch. 25, t. 16 (1821). HUEBEN. Muse. Germ. 300 (1833). BR. 
SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 18-20, p. 14, t. 10 (1846). RABENH. Deutsch. Kr. Fl. ii, P. 3, 116 
(1848). WILS. Bry. brit. 115, t. 41 (1855). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 71 (1873). HOBK. 
Syn. Br. m. 62 (1873). 

Dicranum tortile BRID. Muse. rec. ii, P. I, 129 (1798). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 198, t. 7, 
fig. 12-13 ( I 8o7). VOIT Muse, herbip. 47 (1812). ROEHL. Deutsch. Fl. iii, 70 (1813). 

Mnium tortile GMEL. Syst. nat. ii, 1328 (1791). 

Didymodon tortilis W.-ARN. Disp. meth. 37 (1825). DE NOT. Syllab. muse. n. 367 (1838). 

Leptotrichum tortile HAMPE Linnaea 1847, P- 74- C. MUELL. Syn. i, 454 (1849). SCHIMP. 
Syn. 143 (1860) et 2 ed. 130 (1876). BERK. Handb. Br. m. 262 (1863). MILDE Bry. 
Siles. 136 (1869). DE Noi\ Epil. Briol. ital. 516 (1869). 

Dioicous ; dwarf, laxly csespitose, pale glossy green ; stem simple or 
little divided. Leaves subsecund or patent, curved, lanceolate-subulate, 
margin thickened, reflexed to the middle, serrate at apex, nerve subex- 
current ; perich. bracts similar, but longer and sheathing ; cells at base 
linear, elongated, above small and rounded. Seta subflexuose, slender, 
rufous, twisting to the left. Capsule erect, narrowly cylindraceous, 
regular or slightly curved, leptodermous, pale brown ; annulus broad, 
revoluble ; lid length of caps, red, conic, shortly rostellate ; teeth of 
peristome on a broadish basal membrane, erect, slightly incurved when 
dry, red, the legs free or united here and there, papillose. 

Male plants short, slender, infl. terminal; bracts 6 9, ovate, 
concave, subulate, nerved. 
HAS. Sandy banks, and old stone quarries ; rare. Fr. 10 12. 

Castle Howard (Spruce 1844) ! ! Rusthall common, Tunbridge Wells (Borrer 1846) ! 
Hurstpierpoint (Mitten 1846) ! Sea shore near Whitby (Ibbotson) ! ! 

Var. /?. pusillum (Hedw.) 

Stems shorter, more densely crowded. Leaves shorter, nearly straight. 
Capsule oval or oblong, peristome shorter. 

SYN. Trichostomum pusillum HEDW. Muse, frond, i, 74 t. 28, f. 2, 4, g, 10 (1787). ROTH. Fl. 

germ, i, 469. SM. Fl. Brit, iii, 1237. Eng. Bot. t. 2380. HARTM. SK. Fl. 5 ed. 385. 

HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 298. Fl. Dan. Suppl. t. 45, f. 2. 
Ditrichum pusillum TIMM Fl. megap. n. 777 (1788). 
Bryum pusillum GMEL. Syst. nat. ii, 1333 (1791). 
Bryum didymodon HOFFM. Deutsch. Fl. ii, 43 (1796). 
Didymodon pusillus BRID. Muse. rec. ii, P. I, 115, t. 2, f. 4 (1798), Sp. muse. I, 159 ; Mant. 

101 ; Bry. univ. i, 509. SWARTZ Muse. suec. 29. HEDW. Sp. muse. 104. ROEHL. 

Moosg. D. 242 ; Deutsch. Fl. iii, 56. P. BEAUV. Prodr. 56. WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 

157. SCHULTZ Fl. Starg. 288. SCHKUHR Deutsch. Kr. Gew. P. 2, 67, t. 30. SCHWAEGR. 

Suppl. I, P. I, 176. WAHLENB. Fl. lapp. 316; Fl. carp. 337. HOOK. Br. Fl. ii, 31. 

MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 19. 

DICRANACE^.] 99 [Ditrichum. 

Barbula curia HEDW. Muse. fr. iii, 75, t. 31 B (1792) ; Sp. muse. 115. BRID. Muse. rec. 

ii, P. I, 192. SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. I, 119. SCHULTZ Rev. gen. Barb. 5,1. 32, f. 2. 
Tortula curta SWARTZ Muse. Suec. 41. HOOK. GREV. in Edin. J. Sci. i, 202. 
Dcsmatodon curtus BRID. Mant. muse. 87 ; Bry. univ. i, 526. 
Trichostomum tortile Var /?. pusillum Bry. eur. t. to ft. 

HAD. In similar localities and sometimes intermixed with the type. 

Near Belfast (Drummond). Dodge's glen, Cork (Carrol). Castle Howard (A. O. Black 
1854) ! ! 

Smaller than the next species with much shorter leaves and the lid with 
a more pointed beak. 


Dioicous ; caespitose, dichotomous ; leaves patent or subsecund, 

from an ovate base, subulate, nerve broad, excurrent in a setaceous 

point, entire. Capsule erect, ovate-oblong, lid conical, obtuse. 
(T. XIV, G.) 

SYN. Wcisia hctcromalla HEDW. Muse. fr. i, 22, t. 8 (1787) ; Sp. muse. 72 (1801). SWARTZ 
Muse. suec. 26 (1798). BRID. muse. rec. ii, P. I, 77 (1798) ; Sp. muse. I, 119 (1806); 
Mant. 47 (1819); Bry. univ. i, 361 (1826). ROEHL. Moosg. Deutsch. 161 (1800) ; Deutsch. 
Fl. iii, 51 (1813) ; Ann. Wett. Ges. iii, 109 (1814). SCHULTZ Fl. Starg. 284 (1806). 
SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. I, 68 (1811). WAHLENB. Fl. lapp. 321 (1812). 
Afzelia hcteromalla EHRH. PI. crypt, n. 173 (1787). 

Bryum Weisia DICKS. Fasc. cryp. II, 5 (1790). WITH. Bot. arr. Br. veg. 827 (1796). 

HOFFM. Deutsch. Fl. ii, 33 (1796). HULL Br. Fl. P. 2, 261 (1799). 
Grimmia hetcromalla ROTH Fl. Germ, iii, 145 (1795). SM. Fl. Brit, iii, 1194 (1804), Eng. 

Bot. t. 1899. TURN. Muse. hib. 30 (1804). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 137 (1807). 
Grimmia homomalla SM. loc. c. 
Didymodon homomallus HEDW. Sp. muse. 105, t. 23, f. 1-2 (1801). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 56 

(1805). BRID. Sp. muse. I, 161 ; Mant. 102 ; Bry. univ. i, 510. WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 

156. SCHKUHR Deutsch. Kr. Gew. P. 2, 64, t. 29 (1810). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. I, 

116. VOIT Muse, herbip. 35 (1812). WAHLENB. Fl. lapp. 315. ROEHL. Deutsch. Fl. 

iii, 56; Ann. Wett. Ges. iii, 205. MART. Fl. cr. erl 96 (1817). FUNCK Moost. 21, 

t. 14 (1821). 
Didymodon hcteromallum HOOK. TAYL. Muse. Br. 68, t. 20 (1818). GRAY Nat. arr. Br. 

PI. i, 743 (1821). MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 19 (1836). 

Trichostomum homomallum BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 18-20, p. 16 t. 12 (1843). RABENH. 

Deutsch. Kr. Fl. ii, P. 3, 117 (1848). WILS. Bry. Brit. 116, t. 20 (1855). HUSN. Mouss. 

nord-ouest 72 (1873). HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 63 (1873). 
Leptotrichum homomallum HAMPE Linn. 1847, P- 74- C. MUELL. Synops. i, 453 (1849). 

SCHIMP. Synops. 143 (1860), et 2 ed. 141 (1876). BERK. Handb. Br. m. 263 (1863). 

MILDE Bry. siles. 136 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. Bri. ital. 515 (1869). JENS. Bry. dan. 100. 

Fl. Dan. t. 2688, f. i. 

Dioicous ; laxly caespitose, pale green, subsericeous ; stem simple 
or slightly divided. Leaves subsecund, from an ovate base, lanceolate- 
subulate ; nerve dilated, concave, longly excurrent, quite entire or with 
a few minute crenulations at point ; perich. bracts sheathing, longer, 
subfalcate ; cells firm, very narrow. Seta tall, straight, purple. Capsule 
pachydermous, rufous, erect, ovate-oblong or subcylindric ; annulus 
broad, compound, rolling back spirally ; lid purple, conic, obtuse ; teeth 
of per. purple, without basal membrane, the legs free or united. 

Male plant slender, dichotomous, bracts lanceolate-subulate. 

DICRANACE^E.] ioo [Ditrichum. 

HAB. Broken sandy ground and banks in subalpine districts ; not uncommon. 
Fr. 9 ii. 

Dunkeld (Borrer). Rescobie and Loch Lomond (Gardiner) \ ! Inverness and Helvellyn 
(Greville) \ Pont Aberglaslyn (Wilson) ! ! Repton rocks, Derby (Pnrchas 1862). " 
and Alderly edge (Wilson) \ \ Dunoon (Hrmt 1865). Abernethy, Perth (Howie) ! 
morden and Hebden Valley (Hunt 1867) ! Ashdown Forest (Davies) \ Dartmoor 

and Alderly edge (Wilson) ! ! Dunoon (Hunt 1865). Abernethy, Perth (Howie) ! Tod- 
morden and Hebden Valley (Hunt 1867) ! A ' ' 
(Holmes). Cheviots (Hardy). Ireland (Moore). 

The peristome in this moss is very variable, and led the early bryologists 
to separate it into two species, their Weissia, heteromalla having the legs of the 
teeth united ; in other forms they are more or less joined by transverse bars. 

Var. ft. zonatum (Funck) Lindb. 

Stems elongated, dichotomous, sparingly branched, in very dense tufts, 
i 2 in. high, pale brown and rufescent below, deep green above. Leaves 
shorter, nearly straight, erecto-patent, appressed when dry ; seta and capsule 

SYN. Weissia zonata FUNCK. BRID. Bry. univ. i, 364. 
Leptotrichum nivale C. MUELL. Syn. ii, 611, 

Leptolr. Molendianum LORENYZ MSS. DE NOT. Epil. Bri. ital. 517. 
Leptotr. zonatum LORENTZ Verh. Zool. hot. Ges. Wien. 1867, p. 683, t. 22. 
Leptotr. tenue Var. ft, glaciate SCHIMP. Syn. 142. 
Leptotr. vaginans Var. ft. glaciate SCHIMP. Syn. 2 ed. 140. 

HAB. Mountain rocks. 

Above Ffynon frech, Snowdon (Wilson 1828). Glen Callater (Fcrgusson 1868) ! 1 Clough- 
na-ben (Sim 1869) ! Ben Lawers (West 1880) ! ! Snowdon (Nuttall 1879) ! 

Differing greatly in aspect from the typical state, but the leaves agree 
exactly in structure, even to the apical crenulations. Always barren in 


Paroicous ; slender, short, tufted ; leaves patent or secund, ovate 
at base, suddenly subulate, entire. Capsule oval, erect ; lid conic with 
a short beak. (T. XIV, H.) 

SYN. Trichostomum subulatum BRUCH in SALZM. PL Tingit. (1825). BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 

18-20, p. 17, t. 131(1843). WILS. Bry. Brit. 117, t. 42 (1855). 
Didymodon aureus DE NOT. Spicil. 12 (1837) '> Syll. muse. n. 266 (1838). 
Leptotrichum subulatum HAMPE in Linnaea 1847. C. MUELL. Syn. i, 448 (1849). SCHIMP. 

Synops. 145 (1860), et 2 ed. 143 (1876). BERK. Handb. Br. m. 263 (1863). DE NOT. 

Epil. Briol. ital. 514 (1869). 

Paroicous ; slender, in lax, bright silky, yellow-green tufts ; stem 
simple, naked at base. Leaves patent or secund, straight when dry, 
lower small, lanceolate, upper from an ovate base, subulate; nerve 
broad, excurrent ; cells firm, elongate quadrate. Capsule on a purple 
seta, leptodermous, ovate, erect, golden brown ; annulus indistinct ; lid 
convex conic, shortly rostellate ; teeth bifid, red, very slender, scabrous. 
Antheridia in pairs with paraphyses, in the axils of the upper leaves. 

DICRANACE^.] ioi [Ditrichum. 

HAB. On crumbling rocks of clay-slate ; very rare. Fr. 3 4. 

Trethowell near Truro (Tozer, refound by Mr. Tellam 1871) ! ! Saltash (Brent 1867) ! ! 

A Mediterranean species which like several other plants of that region 
reaches the Cornish shore. Another fine species L. pallidum has not yet been 
added to our list. 

5. DITRICHUM FLEXICATJLE (Schleich.) Hampe. 
Dioicous ; tall, slender, densely tufted ; stems branched, flexuose, 
radiculose ; leaves secund, lanceolate at base, longly subulate, denticu- 
late at margin. Capsule erect, ovate-oblong ; lid . conic, rostellate. 
(T. XV, A.) 

SvN.Didymodon flexicaule SCHLECH. PL cr. helv. Cent. 4, n. 9 (1807). ROEHL. Deutsch. Fl. 

iii, 56 (1813). BRID. Mant. muse. 100 (1819) ; Bry. univ. i, 506 (1826). HUEBEN. Muse. 

germ. 280 (1833). DE NOT. Syll. muse. n. 264 (1838), HARTM. Skand. Fl. 275. 
Cynodontium flexicaule SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. I, 115, t. 29 (1811). FUNCK Moost. 20, t. 

14 (1821). 
Trichostomum flexic. BR. Sen. Bry. eur. fasc. 18-20, p. 15, t. n (1843). WILS. Bry. Brit. 

116, t. 42 (1855). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 72 (1873). HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 62 (1873). 
Leptotrichumflexic. HAMPE in Linn. 1847. C. MUELL. Synops. {,449 (1849). JENS. Bry. 

dan. ioi (1856). SCHIMP. Syn. 144 (1860), et 2 ed. 142 (1876). BERK. Handb. Br. m. 

262 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 137 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. Briol. ital. 514 (1869). Fl. 

Dan. t. 2688, f. 2. 

Dioicous ; I 4 in. high, in dense soft yellow-green, glossy tufts, 
fuscescent below ; stems slender, geniculate, flexuose, branched, very 
fragile, with abundance of fine radicles. Leaves rather lax, secund, 
subfalcate, lanceolate, longly subulate, flexuose when dry ; nerve 
flattened, excurrent in the subula, denticulate at apex; cells short, 
elliptical ; perich. bracts broader and sheathing. Capsule on a slender 
reddish seta, erect, rufous brown, ovate or elliptic, small, leptodermous, 
slightly unequal ; annulus broad, compound ; lid conic, elongated ; teeth 
of per. red, filiform, unequal, fragile and fugacious. 

Male plants slender in distinct tufts, rare ; bracts ovate, subulate, 
the innermost nerveless. 
HAB. Limestone rocks and stony ground ; not uncommon. Fr. 6. 

Sometimes near the sea, as on Southport sands : sands at St. Minver, Cornwall (Tellam 
1871) ; Portmarnock sands, Ireland. Fruit not found in Britain. 

Var. /3. densum (Br. Sch.) 

Compactly tufted ; stems straight, shorter and less branched. Leaves 
erect, shorter, straight. 

SYN. BR. SCH. Bry. Eur. SCHIMP. Synops. 145, et 2 ed. 143. WILS. Bry. Brit. 116. 
HAB. More mountainous districts. 

Ben Lawers (Dr. Stlrton). Chee-dale and Miller's-dale (West) ! ! Helsington Barrows, 
Westmoreland (Barnes) ! 1 Malham moor (Hobkirk 1879) ! ! 

This very pretty moss varies greatly in size, and except in the Jura 
mountains is everywhere rare in fruit. 

DICRANACE^;.] 102 [Swcirtzia 


(PI. crypt, exsicc. n. 164 (1787). ) 

Plants in dense silky tufts ; slender, fastigiate, dichotomous. Leaves 
distichous, spreading from a semiamplexicaul base, subulate, smooth ; 
areolation hexagono-rectangular at base, narrow and quadrate above. 
Calyptra cucullate. Capsule erect or cernuous, glossy, ovate or cylin- 
draceous; lid conic. Teeth 16, not confluent at base, lineal-lanceolate, 
irregularly separated at the divisural line, or variously torn or perforated. 
Spores smooth. Inhabiting rocks or the ground. Deriv. Named in 
honour of Olaf Swartz. 

The close alliance between this genus and Ditrichum flexicauk will be 
seen at a glance, yet Schimper makes it the type of a distinct family, on 
account of the distichous leaves. The name Swartzia was adopted by 
Schreber in 1791 for a genus of Leguminous plants, but it will be seen that 
Ehrhart's name has four years priority, and therefore Schreber's genus must 
not only give way to Ehrhart's but stand under its older designation of 
Tounatea AUBLET (1775.) 


Capsule cylindric, erect. montana. 

Capsule ovate, cernuous. inclinata. 

i. SWARTZIA MONTANA (Lamk.) Lindb. 

Paroicous; leaves from an oblong base, longly subulate, patent. 
Capsule erect, oval-cylindric, teeth of per. short, irregularly cleft. 
(T. XV, B.) 

SvH.Bryam montanum LAMARCK Fl. franc, i, 48 (1778). ALLIONI Fl. pedem. ii, 299 (1785). 
Mnium capillaceum SWARTZ in nov. act. Soc. ups, iv, 241 (1784), excl. syn. Dill. 
Bryum capill. DICKS. PI. cr. Brit. fasc. i, 4, t. i, f. 6 (1785). HOFFM. Deutsch. Fl. ii, 42 

(1796). WITH. Bot. arr. Br. veg. 3 ed. iii, 831 (1796). HULL Br. Fl. P. 2, 262 (1799). 
Swartzia capillacea EHRH. PI. cr. exs. dec. 17, n. 164 (1787). HEDW. St. crypt, ii, 72, t. 

26 (1789). BRID. Muse. rec. ii, P. I, 117 (1798). ROEHL. Moosg. Deutsch. 208 (1800). 

P. BEAUV. Prodr. 90 (1805). 

Didymodon capill. SCHRAD. Spic. Fl. germ. 64 (1794). ROTH Fl. germ, iii, P. I, 199 (1795). 

SWARTZ Muse. suec. 28 (1798). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 155 (1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. 

Cr. Gew. P. II, 65, t. 39 (1810). WAHLENB. Fl. lapp. 314 (1812). VOIT Muse. herb. 34 

(1812). ROEHL. Deutsch. Fl. iii, 55 (1813), Ann. Wett. Ges. iii, 199. HOOK. TAYL. 

Muse. Br. 67, t. 20 (1818). BRID. Mant. 100 (1819) ; Bry. univ. i, 504 (1826). GRAY 

Nat. arr. Br. pi. i, 743 (1821). HOOK. Fl. Scot. P. 2, 136 (1821) ; Br. Fl. ii, 30 (1833). 

HUEB. Bry. ger. 281. MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 18 (1836). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 69 (1873). 
Cynontodium capill. HEDW. Sp. muse. 57 (1801). 
Cynodontium capill. BRID. Sp. muse. I, 158 (1806). SCHULTZ Fl. Starg. 289 (1806). 

SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. I, 114 (1811). MART. Fl. cr. erl. 95 (1817). FUNCK. Moost. 21, 

t. 14 (1821). 

Trichostomum capill. SM. Fl. Brit, iii, 1236 (1804) ; Eng. Bot. t. 1152. TURN. Muse. hib. 
35 (1804). 

DICRANACE.E.] 103 [Swartzia. 

Distichium capill. BR. Sen. Bry. eur. fasc. 29-30, p. 4, t. i (1846). RABENH. Deutsch. Kr. 

Fl. ii, S. 3, 118 (1848). C. MUELL. Syn. i, 40 (1849). WILS. Bry. Brit. 104, t. 20 (1855). 

SCHIMP. Synops. 135 (1860), et 2 ed. 146 (1876). BERK. Handb. Br. m. 266 t. 22 f. 7 

(1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 138 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. 660 (1869). HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 

58 (1873). 
Lcptotrichum capill. MITT. Muse. Ind. or. 10 (1859). 

Paroicous; tall, slender, dichotomous, i 4 in. high ; in dense silky 
green tufts, ferruginous below, interwoven with rufous tomentum. 
Leaves from a pale sheathing ovate base, flexuoso-patulous, lanceolate, 
longly subulate, with a flattened nerve, entire, or with a few teeth at 
apex; cells narrow and pellucid at base, oblique and thin walled at the 
margin where the narrow part begins, rounded-quadrate, chlorophyllose 
and subpapillose in the subula ; perich. bracts two, longly sheathing. 
Capsule on a firm red seta, twisting to the right when dry, erect or 
occasionally subcernuous, leptodermous, ovate-oblong or cylindraceous, 
regular or slightly curved on one side, glossy, rufous ; lid red, conic ; 
annulus breaking up. Teeth of peristome narrow, pale red, cleft in the 
divisural line, or with the legs adhering or perforated. Antheridia naked 
in the axils of the upper leaves with long paraphyses. 

HAB. Wet crevices of rocks on all our mountains. Miller's dale, Derby- 
shire (Mr. Holt) ! ! Fr. 57. 

Very variable in size according to the locality, sometimes only reaching 
an inch in height, at others as much as 5 in., the colour also in the older 
plants becomes of a straw tint. Schimper confidently cites the reference 
" Mnium capillaceum LINN. Fl. lapp," but the plant does not appear in that 
work, and in the 2nd ed. of it by Smith (1792), it is entered at p. 333 as 
" Mnium foliis capillaceis, capsulis erectiusculis oblongis, operculo conico." 

Var. /?. compacta (Hueben.) 

Plants short, densely tufted, the leaves short and crowded, suberect, 
capsule short, elliptical. 

SYK.Didymodon subulatus SCHKUHR Deutsch. Kr. Gew. P. II, 65, t. 28 (1810). WALLR. Fl. 
cr. germ, i, 182. 

Dldym. distichus Brid. Mant. muse. 101 ; Bry. univ. i, 507. 
Didym. capillaceus Var. /2. compactus HUEBEN. Bry. germ. 282. 

Distichium capill. Var. (3. brevifolium BR. SCH. Bry. eur. WILS. Bry. brit. 105. SCHIMP. 
Synops. DE NOT. Epil. 

HAB. Higher mountains in the North. Rocks above Loch-na-Gat, Ben 
Lawers (Bmithwaite 1862.) 


Autoicous; in small dull green tufts; leaves shorter, narrower, 
more serrate at point. Capsule ovate, cernuous ; teeth of peristome 
broader, two-legged. (T. XV, C.) 

DICRANACE^E.] 104 [Dicranella. 

SYN. Afzelia inclinata EHRH. PI. cr. exs. n. 193 (1787). 

Swartzia inclinata EHRHART. HEDW. Stirp. crypt, ii, 74, t. 27 (1788). BRID. muse. 

rec. ii, P. I, 119 (1798). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 90 (1805). 
Bryum inclin. DICKS. PI. crypt, fasc. II, 9 (1790). LAICHARD. PI. eur. 479 (1794). WITH. 

Bot. arr. Br. Veg. 3 ed. iii, 835 (1796). HULL Br. Fl. P. 2, 264 (1799). 
Didymodon inclin. SWARTZ muse. suec. 28 (1798). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 153 (1807). 

SCHKUHR Deutsch. Kr. Gew. P. 11,641.28 (1810). WAHLENB. Fl. lapp. 314 (1812). 

ROEHL. Deutsch. Fl. iii, 55 (1813) ; Ann. Wett. Gesell. iii, 198. HOOK. TAYL. Muse. 

Brit. 65, t. 20 (1818). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. 2, 135 (1821) ; Br. Fl. 11,28 (1833). GRAY Nat. 

arr. Br. pi. i, 742 (1821). MACK. Fl. hibern. P. 2, 17 (1836). HARTM. Sk. Fl. 4 ed. 

379 (1843)- 

Cynontodium inclin. HEDW. Sp. muse. 58 (1801). 
Grimmia inclinata SM. Fl. Brit, iii, 1193 (1804) ; Eng. Bot. t. 1824. 

Cynodontium inclin. BRID. Sp. muse. I, 155 (1806). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. I, in (1811). 
FUNCK Moost. 20, t. 14 (1821). 

Cynodon inclin. BRID. Mant. muse. 99 (1819) ; Bry. univ. i, 501 (1826). 

Ceratodon inclin. HUEBEN. Bry. germ. 273 (1833). 

Distichium inclin. BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 29-30, p. 5, t. 2 (1846). RABENH. Deutsch. Kr. 
Fl. ii, S. 3, 118 (1848). C. MUELL. Syn. i, 41 (1849). WILS. Bry. Brit. 105, t. 20 (1855). 
SCHIMP. Syn. 136 (1860), et 2 ed. 147 (1876). BERK. Handb. Br. m. 267 (1863). MILDE 
Bry. siles. 139 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. 661 (1869). HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 58 (1873). 

Leptotrichum inclin. MITT. Muse. Ind. or. 10 (1859). 

Autoicous ; in small irregular olivaceous-green tufts ; stems i in. 
high, little branched. Leaves densely crowded, narrower, shorter, 
minutely serrate at point ; cells longer ; perich. bracts three, longer. 
Capsule pachydermous, cernuous, ovate, olive colored, when empty 
brown with a glossy red mouth ; annulus broad ; lid conic, attenuated. 
Teeth of per. broader, red, cleft into 2 or 3 legs or perforated, jointed. 

Male infl. below the female, bracts i 3, ovate, concave, subulate. 
HAB. Rocks or stony ground in alpine districts ; rare. Fr. 6 7. 

Sands of Barrie, Dundee (Don) \ \ Tent's moor, Fife (Black 1853) ! ! Aberdour, Fife 
(Howie 1861) ! Ben Lawers and Clova (Fergusson 1868) ! Connemara, Ben Bulben and 
Ballycastle, Ireland. 

Subf. 2. DICRANELLE&. Plants small, scarcely branched; 
leaves smooth, lanceolate-subulate, cells parenchymatous, without basal 
angular ones of a different form. Peristome of 16 teeth, dicranoid, the 
legs filiform, rough. 


(Coroll. Bry. Eur. 13 (1855). ) 

Small mosses with short slightly branched stems ; leaves from an 
oval base, abruptly subulate, channelled, with the margin plane and 
nerve broad, flattened and indistinct below. Capsule when empty 
plicato-striate, leptodermous, erect or suberect, regular or slightly 
oblique, the cells of the exothecium irregularly oblong and curved, with 
flexuose walls. Peristome smaller, thinner, paler and scarcely papillose. 
(Lindberg.)Denv. Diminutive of Dicranum. 

DICRANACE^;.] 105 {Dicranella. 

After some hesitation I have adopted Mr. Mitten's genus Anisothecittm, 
usually combined with Dicranella, not so much from the convenience it affords 
in dividing some 80 species, as from the belief that it is a natural one, though 
difficult to define in words ; in both genera, the absence of inflated cells at 
the basal angles of the leaf will at once separate the species from Dicmnum. 


Seta red. 

Leaves divaricate, flexuose. crispa. 

Leaves secund. 

Capsule cernuous, perich. bracts sheathing. secunda. 

Capsule suberect, perich. bracts not sheathing. curvata. 

Seta pale straw color. 

Capsule oblong, tapering at neck. heteromalla. 

Capsule gibbous, strumose at neck. cerviculata. 


Autoicous or dioicous ; small, slender, leaves from a semivaginant 
base, subulate, flexuoso-patent. Capsule erect, oval, striate ; lid rostrate. 
(T. XV, D.) 

SYN. Dicranwn crispum EHRH. MSS. HEDW. Stirp. cr. ii, 91, t. 33 (1788) ; Sp. muse. 133 (1801). 
SWARTZ Muse. suec. 37 (1798). BRID. Muse. rec. ii, P. I, 161 (1798), Sp. muse. I, 199 
(1806), Mant. 64 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 451 (1826). ROEHL. Moosg. Deutsch. 334 (1800), 
Deutsch. Fl. iii, 70 (1813). 'SM. Eng. Bot. t. 1151 (1803), Fl. Brit, iii, 1207 (1804). 
TURN. Muse. hib. 65 (1804). P- BEAUV. Prodr. 53 (1805). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 
185 (1807). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. I, 179 (1811). WAHLENB. Fl. lapp. 341 (1812). 
HOOK. TAYL. Muse. Br. 56, t. 17 (1818). GRAY Nat. arr. Br. pi. i, 737 (1821). HOOK. 
Fl. Scot. P. 2, 133 (1821) ; Br. Fl. ii, 41 (1833). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 265 (1833). 
MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 23 (1836). RABENH. Deutsch. Kr. Fl. ii, S. 3, 139 (1848). BR. SCH. 
Bry. eur. fasc. 37-40, p. 20, t. 8 (1847). WILS. Bry. Brit. 70, t. 17 (1855). HUSN. Mouss. 
nord-ouest 48 (1873). HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 41 (1873). 

Bryum vaginale DICKS. PI. cr. Brit. fasc. Ill, 8 (1793). WITH. Bot. arr. Br. veg. 3 ed. iii, 

827 (1796). HULL Br. Fl. P. 2, 261 (1799). 
Angstrocmia crispa C. MUELL. Synops. 439 (1849). 
Dicranella crispa SCHIMP. Coroll. 13 (1855), Synops. 69 (1860), et 2 ed. 70 (1876). BERK. 

Handb. Br. m. 280 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 57 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. Bri. ital. 

641 (1869). 

Autoicous or dioicous ; small, slender, laxly caespitose, glossy 
yellowish ; leaves from a broad semivaginant base, abruptly subulate, 
flexuoso-patulous or subfalcate, crisped when dry, minutely toothed at 
apex ; cells elongated. Capsule rufous, erect, obovate or oval, striate, 
sulcate when dry, on a purple seta ; lid with a subulate beak, crenulate 
at base ; annulus very narrow ; teeth red, cleft to middle. Male on a 
proper branch or on a distinct plant ; bracts resembling the leaves of 
HAB. Wet sandy ground ; not common. Fr. 8. 

N. of Ireland (Miss Hutchins 1808) ! Belfast (Temple ton). Herringfleet (Turner 1809) ! 
Birmingham (Mackay). Near Paisley (D. Don). Kenmore (Hooker 1829). Forfar 
(Arnott 1825). Gale green, Pilkington, Orford mount and Thelwall, Warrington (Wilson 
1847) ' ' Broken brow, Prestwich and Alderley edge (Hunt 1863) I 1 

DICRANACE^E.] io6 [Dicranella. 

The adoption of the genus Anisothecium enables us to retain the specific 
name crispum for this plant, which otherwise would have to give way to 
Dickson's and be termed D. vaginalis, for Dicranella Schreberi was named 
crispum seventeen years before the present plant was known. 

2. DICRANELLA SECTJNDA (Swartz.} Lindb. 

Dioicous ; slender, leaves lanceolate at base, longly subulate, 
channelled, entire; perich. bracts longly subulate, convolute and 
sheathing. Seta red; capsule cernuous, ovate, gibbous; lid convexo- 
conic, longly subulate. (T. XV, E.) 

SYN. Dicranum secundum SWARTZ in Vet. Ak. Ha^dl. 1795, p. 244. 

Dicramim sttbulatum HEDW. Sp. muse. 128, t. 34, f. 1-5 (1801). SM. Fl. Brit, iii, 1206 (1804) ; 

Eng. Bot. t. 1273. TURN. Muse. Hib. 68 (1804). BRID. Sp. muse. I, 181 (1806), Mant. 

59 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 426 (1826). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. I, 175 (1811). ROEHL. 

Deutsch. Fl. iii, 72 (1813). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. Br. 59, t. 18 (1818). FUNCK Moost. 28, 

t. 20 (1821). GRAY Nat. arr. Br. pi. i, 739 (1821). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 258 (1833). 

MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 24 (1836). DE NOT. Syll. muse. n. 293 (1838), Epil. Bry. ital. 634 

(1869). RABENH. Deutsch. Kr. Fl. ii, S. 3, 141 (1848). BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 37-40, 

p. 24, t. 13 (1847). WILS. Bry. brit. 70, t. 18 (1855). HARTM. Skand. Fl. HOBK. Syn. 

Br. m. 43. 
Dicranum sudcticum SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. I, 175, t. 45. BRID. Mant. 61 ; Bry. univ. i, 

432. HUEBEN. op. cit. 260. 

Angstroemia subulata C. MUELL. Synops. 433 (1849). 
Dicranella subulata SCHIMP. Coroll. 13 (1855), Synops. 74 (1860), et 2 ed. 75 (1876). BERK. 

Handb. Br. m. 283 (1863). MILDE Bry. Siles. 60 (1869). 

Dioicous ; slender, closely crowded, silky yellowish-green, ^ i in. 
high ; leaves from a lanceolate subvaginant base, longly subulate, chan- 
nelled, falcato-secund, entire ; nerve thin excurrent ; lower cells toward 
margin narrow and elongated, upper oblong; perich. bracts convolute 
sheathing, longly subulate. Capsule on a purplish seta, subcernuous, 
ovate, gibbous, glossy rufo-fuscous, obsoletely striate, sulcate when 
dry ; annulus revoluble, of two rows of cells ; lid convex-conic, longly 
subulato-rostrate ; perist. pale red, teeth incurved. Male plant more 
slender, innovating ; bracts ovato-subulate, very concave. 
HAB. Wet stony ground in mountainous districts. Fr. 9. 

Ben Lawers, Mael Girdy and Ben More (Wilson) \ \ Aberfeldy (Borrer). Gale green 
and Pilkington (Wilson 1844) ! Belfast (Miss Hutchins) ! Gibson wood, Heptonstall 
(Nowell 1860) ! ! Dunoon (Hunt 1865) ! ! Craigailleach (Braithwaite 1865) ! ! 

Resembling the much commoner D. heteromalla, but easily distinguished 
by the red seta and smaller firmer capsule. 

3. DICRANELLA CURVATA (Hedw.} S chimp. 
Dioicous; slender, resembling D. secunda ; perich. bracts semivagi- 

nant, falcate. Capsule erect, oblong. (T. XV, F.) 

SYN. Dicranum ciirvatum HEDW. Sp. muse. 132, t. 31, f. 7-12 (1801). BRID. Sp. muse. I, 179 
(1806), Mant. 58 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 425 (1826). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. I, 172 (1811). 
ROEHL. Deutsch. Fl. iii, 72 (1813). FUNCK Moost. 29, t. 19 (1821). BR. SCH. Bry. Eur. 
fasc. 37-40, p. 24 t. 14 (1847). HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 44 (1873). 

Dicranum subulatum Var. curvatnm HUEBEN. Bry. Germ. 259 (1833). RABENH. Deutsch. 
Kr. Fl. ii, S. 3, 141 (1848). 

DICRANACE^E.] 107 [Dicranella. 

Angstroemla curvata C. MUELL. Synops. i, 433 (1849). 

Dicranella curvata SCHIMP. Coroll. 13 (1855), Synops. 75 (1860), et 2 ed. 76 (1876). MILDE 
Bry. siles. 60 (1869). 

Dioicous ; slender, laxly csespitose, dull yellowish-green ; leaves 
from a shorter semivaginant ovate base, setaceous, falcato-secund, 
channelled, minutely denticulate at apex; cells elongated, very narrow 
toward margin ; perich. bracts thinner and with longer lamina. Capsule 
on a pale red seta, erect or a little inclined, ovate-oblong, equal, pale 
brown, annulate, striate ; lid, peristome and male plant as in D. secunda. 
HAB. Wet sandstone rocks and sides of hollow ways ; rare. Fr. 10 i. 

Cwm Gafr near Llanberis (Wilson 1830) ! ! Dolgelly (Wilson). Hills of Dunoon, 
Greenock (Drummond Brit. Mosses 115). 

Very close to the preceding and probably often confounded with it ; 
in Europe it appears to be confined to the more southern portion of the 
central part. 

Dioicous ; densely caespitose, silky green ; leaves arcuato-secund, 
lanceolate, suddenly setaceous. Seta yellowish. Capsule suberect, 
oblong, slightly curved ; lid subulate. (T. XV, G.) 

SYN. Muscnstrichoides,foliis capillaccis,capitulis minoribus. DOODY, RAY Syn. stirp. Brit. App. 

243 (1690). 

Bryum trichoides, reclinatis caulicnlis, capitnlis erectis acutis DILL, in Ray Syn. 3 ed. 96, 
n. 23 (1724). 

Bryum hetcromallum DILL. Hist. muse. 375, t. 47, f. 37 (1741). L. Sp. pi. ii, 1118 (1753) ; 
Fl. suec". 999. HUDS. Fl. angl. 408 (1762). OEDER Fl. dan. t. 479 (1769). NECK. Meth. 
muse. 209 (1771). WITH. Bot. arr. Br. veg. ii, 674 (1776). LIGHTF. Fl. scot, ii, 726 
(1777). RELHAN Fl. cant. 404 (1785). HOFFM. Deutsch. Fl. ii, 38 (1796). HULL. Br. 
Fl. P. 2, 263 (1799). ABBOT Fl. Bedf. 240 (1798). 

Hypnum heterom. WEISS Cr. Goett. 215 (1770). WEBER Spic. Fl. Goett 72 (1778). 

Fnscina heterom. SCHRANK Bayers. Fl. ii, 454 (1789), Pr. Fl. Salisb. n. 829 (1792). 

Dicranum heterom. Hedw. Stirp. cr. i, 68, t. 26 (1787), Sp. muse. 128 (1801). ROTH Fl. 
germ, i, 460 (1788), iii. 160. SIBTH. Fl. oxon. 282 (1794). SWARTZ Muse. Suec. 37 
(1798). BRID. Muse. rec. ii. P. i, 128, t. 3. f. 18 (1798), Sp. muse. I, 181 (1806), 
Mant. 69 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 423 (1826). ROEHL. Moosg. Deutsch. 319 (1800), 
Deutsch. Fl. iii, 72 (1813). SM. Fl. Brit, iii, 1204 (1804) ; Eng. Bot. t. 1272. 
TURN. Muse. hib. 61 (1804). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 54 (1805). SCHULTZ Fl. Starg. 
296 (1806). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 190 (1807). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. I, 
173 (1811). VOIT Muse, herbip. 42 (1812). MART. Fl. cr. erl. 98 (1817). HOOK. TAYL. 
Muse. Brit. 59, t. 18 (1818). FUNCK Moost. 28, t. 19 (1821). GRAY Nat. arr. Br. pi. i, 
738 (1821). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. 2, 134 (1821) ; Br. Fl. ii, 42 (1833). HUEBEN. Muse, 
germ. 257 (1833). MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 24 (1836). DE NOT. Syll. muse. n. 292 (1838), 
Epil. Bri. ital. 634 (1869). RABENH. Deutsch. Kr. Fl. ii, S. 3, 141 (1848). BR. SCH. 
Bry. eur. fasc. 37-4. P- 2 5. * J 5 ( l8 4?)- WILS. Bry. Brit. 73, t. 18 (1855). HUSN. 
Mouss. nord-ouest 51 (1873). HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 44 (1873). 

Angstroemia heterom. C. MUELL. i, 433 (1849). 

Dicranella heterom. SCHIMP. Coroll. 13 (1855), Synops. 75 (1860), et 2 ed. 77 (1876). BERK. 
Handb. Br. m. 283, t. 23, f. 8 (1863). Milde. Bry. siles. 61 (1869). 

Dioicous ; in dense silky bright green or yellow-green patches. 
Stem erect 2 in. high, slender, with rufous radicles at base, simple or 
bipartite; leaves arcuato or hamato-secund, from a broad lanceolate 
base, suddenly setaceous, channelled, the point nearly entire or minutely 

DICRANACE^.] 108 \Dicranella. 

denticulated ; cells at base about 14 rows, elongated rectangular, short 
and elliptic toward margin at the shoulder ; perich. bracts with longer 
sheaths. Capsule on a slender pale yellow seta, erect, suberect or 
inclining, obovate or oblong, a little curved, glossy rufous-brown, 
obsoletely striate ; when dry and empty, elongated, longitudinally plicate, 
with the mouth incurved ; annulus very narrow, adherent ; lid hemis- 
pherico-conoid at base, longly rostrate ; teeth of peristome red, cleft to 
middle into two or sometimes 3 unequal legs. 

Male plant shorter, in distinct tufts or mixed with the female, 
bracts ovate and concave at base, subulate. 
HAB. Damp banks, hollow roads and sandstone rocks; very common. 

Fr. 113. 

Var. /3. stricta Schimp. 

Leaves straight, erecto-patent ; seta elongated, flexuose. 

SYN. Dicranum hcterom. Var ft, strictum BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. 1. c. 
Angstroemia heterom. (3, stricta C. MUELL. Synops. 
Didymodon chlorophyllosus WEB. MOHR. 

HAB. Gortagoree, Killarney (Taylor 1840)! Inverness, Carse of Ardersier, Inverness (Croall 
1847) 1 

Var. y. interrupta (Hedw.) 

Stem taller, more branched ; leaves uniform, or interrupted, patent or 

SYN. Dicranum intermptum BRID. Muse. rec. ii, P. I, 159 (1798), Sp. muse. I, 179; Mant. 65, 
Br. univ. i, 438. HEDW. Sp. muse. 129, t. 19 f. 8-12. SM. Fl. Brit, iii, 1205. Eng- Bot. 

t. 2508. SCHWAEGR. Op. C. 172. 

Dicranum caducum BRID. Bry. univ. i, 425. 

Dicranum heterom. ft. interruptum HUEBEN. 1. c. BR. SCH. Bry. eur. WILS. Bry. Brit. 
SCHIMP. Synops., &c. 

HAB. Scotland (Winch 1803). Ardingley, Sussex (Dames) \ Marsden moor (West 1880) ! ! 

Var. 8. sericea Schimp. 

In small, bright, green, silky tufts. Leaves soft, longer and narrower, 
spreading or subsecund. 

SYN. Dicranum trichodes WILS. MSS. 

Dicranodontium sericeum SCHIMP. BRY. EUR. Suppl. fasc. 1-2. HUSN. mouss. nord-ouest 56. 
Dicranella heteromalla Var. 8 sericea SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 78. 

HAB. Sandstone rocks, almost always barren. 

Rattand Clough and Green's Clough, Todmorden (Now ell 1858) ! Alderley edge (Hunt 
1863) ! ! Astley chapel and Rochdale (Dr. Wood) \ Entwistle, Bolton (Whitehead 
1865) ! ! Colintraive, Argyle (Hunt 1866) ! 

Wilson's specimens named Dicr. trichodes are closely intermixed with 
Blindia acuta, and the leaves of the latter had no doubt been submitted to the 
microscope, as they have enlarged angular cells as in Dicranum. 

DICRANACE.E.] 109 [Dicranella. 

Dioicous ; widely casspitose ; leaves lanceolate-subulate, flexuose, 
patent, with a flattened nerve. Capsule on a yellow seta, cernuous, 
ovate, gibbous, slightly strumose at neck ; lid subulate, rostrate. 
(T. XVI, A.) 

SYN. ZhVrciwttm cervlculatum HEDW. Stirp. cr. iii, 89, T. 37, A (1792), Sp. Muse. 149 (1801). 

SWARTZ Muse. suec. 36 (1798). BRID. Muse. rec. ii, P. I, 180 (1798), Sp. muse. I, 221 

(1806), Mant. 53 (1819). ROEHL. Moosg. Deutsch. 379 (1800), Deutsch. Fl. iii, 74 (1813). 

SM. Fl. Brit, iii, 1220 (1804) ; Eng. Bot. 1661. TURN. Muse. hib. 64 (1804). P. BEAUV. 

Prodr. 53 (1805). SCHULTZ Fl. Starg. 302 (1806). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 193 (1807). 

SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. I, 221 (i8n). VOIT Muse, herbip. 48 (1812). HOOK. TAYL. 

Muse. Brit. 53, t. 16 (1818). MART. Fl. cr. Erl. 106 (1817). FUNCK Moost. 31, t. 22 

(1821). GRAY Nat. arr. Br. pi. i, 734 (1821). HOOK. Fl. Scot. P. 2, 132 (1821), Br. 

Fl. ii, 37 (1833). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 226 (1833). MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 22 (1836). 

HARTM. Skand. Fl. Fl. Dan. t. 2310, f. i. RABENH. Deutsch. Kr. Fl. ii, S. 3, 140 (1848). 

BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 37-40, p. 22, t. 9 (1847). WILS. Bry. Brit. 72, t. 16 (1855). DE 

NOT. Epil. Briol. ital. 634 (1869). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 50 (1873). HOBK. Syn. 

Br. m. 42 (1873). 
Bryum cerviculatum DICKS. PI. cr. fasc. iii, 7 (1795). WITH. Bot. arr. Br. veg. 3 ed. iii, 

813 (1796). ABBOT Fl. Bedf. 237 (1798). HULL Br. Fl. P. 2, 257 (1799). 
Bryum uncinatum DICKS. Op. c. iv, n, t. n, f. 8 (1801). 

Dicranum uncinatum SM. Fl. Br. 1207. Eng. Bot. t. 2261. BRID. Sp. muse. 224. 
Dicranum fla-uidum WEB. MOHR Reis. Schwed. 128 (1804). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 192, 

t. 44 (1811). Eng. Bot. t. 2261. 
Oncophorus cervic. BRID. Bry. un. i, 391 (1826). 
Angstroemia cervic. C. MUELL. Synops. i, 430 (1849). 

Dicranella cervic. SCHIMP. Coroll. 13 (1855), Synops. 72 (1860) et 2 ed. 73 (1876). BERK. 
Handb. Br. m. 282 (1863). MILDE Bry. Siles. 58 (1869). 

Dioicous; in dense, widely extended, yellowish green patches; leaves 
semivaginant at base, flexuoso-patent or secund, lanceolate-subulate, 
concave, entire, glossy ; nerve flattened, dilated at base ; cells elongated 
hexagono-rectangular. Capsule on a yellow seta, cernuous, ovate, 
gibbous, with a short slightly strumose neck, not striate, yellow-brown, 
when old fuscous ; annulus of a single row of cells ; lid long as capsule, 
conoid, rostrate ; teeth of peristome dull red. 

Male plant smaller, bracts ovate, concave at base, linear-subulate. 
HAB. Wet heaths and sides of ditches ; frequent. Fr. 6 7. 

Var. (3. pusilla (Hedw.) Schimp. 

Stems short, simple, leaves smaller, suberect ; capsule smaller, less 

SYN. Dicranum pusillum HEDW. Stirp. ii, 80, t. 29, f. 13. Sp. muse. 139. SCHRAD. Sp. Fl. 
germ. 91. BRID. op. cit. SWARTZ op. c. 38. SCHWAEGR. op. c. 193. SM. Fl. Br. 
1219; Eng. Bot. t. 2491. 

Bryum parvulum DICKS. PI. cr. fasc. 3, p. 7. HOFFM. Deutsch. Fl. ii, 34. WITH. HULL. 
Dicran. cerviculatum Var. pusillum WEB. MOHR Tasch. 193. HOOK. TAYL. WILS. 


Oncophorus pusillus BRID. Bry. univ. i, 390. 
Dicranella cervic. Var. (3. pusilla SCHIMP. 1. c. 
HAB. In similar localities as the type and sometimes intermixed with it. 

This species is readily known by the neat roundish capsules, strumose 
at base, and is attached to bare spots where peat has been cut. 

DICRANACE^E.] no [Anisothecium. 


(Journ. Lin. Soc. Dot. xii, 39 (1869). ) 

Mosses resembling Dicranella in habit ; leaves gradually narrowed, 
or from a sheathing base abruptly subulate, carinate, with the margin 
plane or recurved, and nerve narrow and well defined below. Capsule 
always smooth, pachydermous, curved as in Hypnwn, rarely suberect 
or less oblique, the cells of the exothecium regularly rectangular- 
quadrate, with non-flexuose walls. Peristome larger, thicker, deep 
purple, more papillose. (Lindberg). Deriv. avisos unequal, 7?*?? a capsule. 


Leaves not sheathing, erecto-patent. 

Capsule cernuous, curved. rubrutn. 

Capsule suberect, ovate. rufescens. 

Leaves from a sheathing base, squarrose. 
Leaves abruptly subulate. 

Neck of capsule substrumose, apex of leaf entire. Grevillci. 

Neck of capsule equal, apex of leaf serrulate. crispum. 

Leaves broad, obtuse. squarrosum. 


Dioicous ; small, simple ; leaves erecto-patent, lanceolate-subulate, 
nerve slightly excurrent. Capsule cernuous, ovate, subincurved, rufous ; 
seta red ; lid large, short-beaked. (T. XVI, B.) 

SYN. Bryum trichoides, obscure virescens, capitulis cermtis. DILL. Cat. Giss. 226(1719), et in 

RAY Synops. 3 ed. 100 (1724). 
Bryum trichoides, capsulis rubris cernuis. DILL. Hist. muse. 390, T. 50, f. 59 (1741) : et 

Bryum rubrum HUDS. Fl. Angl. 413 (1762). L. Mant. alt. 309 (1771). GMEL. Syst. nat. 

ii, 1331 (1791). LAICH. PI. Eur. 473 (1794). 
Bryum simplex L. Sp. pi. 2 ed. ii, 1587 (1763) ; Syst. nat. ii, 702. NECK. Meth. muse. 202 

(1771). HUDS. op. c. 2 ed. 486 (1778). EHRH. Hann. mag. 1780, p. 236. ROTH Fl. 

germ, i, 474 (1788). HOFFM. Deutsch. Fl. ii, 35 (1796). 

Dicranum simplex HEDW. Fund. P. 2, 92 (1782). SIBTH. Fl. Oxon. 282 (1794). 
Fuscina simplex SCHRANK Baiers. Fl. ii, 453 (1789), Fl. Salisb. n. 828. 
Dicranum varium HEDW. St. cr. ii, 93, t. 34 (1789), Sp. muse. 133 (1801). ROTH Fl. Germ. 

iii, 370 (1795). BRID. Muse. rec. ii, P. I, 169 (1798), Sp. muse. I, 187 (1806), Mant. 61 

(1819), Bry univ. i, 435 (1826). SWARTZ Muse. suec. 57 (1798). ROEHL. Moosg. Deutsch. 

370 (1800), Deutsch. Fl. iii, 71 (1813). SM. Fl. Brit, iii, 1209 (1804), Eng. Bot. t. 1215. 

TURN. Muse. hib. 65 (1804). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 55 (1805). SCHULTZ Fl. Starg. 300 

(1806). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 286 (1807). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. I, 174 (1811). 

WAHLENB. Fl. lapp. 341 (1812), Fl. carp. 346. VOIT Muse. herb. 47 (1812). MART. Fl. 

cr. Erl. 99 (1817). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. Brit. 58, t. 17 (1818) ; FUNCK Moost. 28, t. 20 

(1821). GRAY Nat. arr. Br. pi. i, 738 (1821). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. 2, 134 (1821) ; Br. Fl. 

ii, 42 (1833). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 260(1833). MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 24 (1836). HARTM. 

Skand. Fl. DE NOT. Syll. muse. n. 295 (1838). Fl. Dan. t. 2310, f. 2. RABENH. 

Deutsch. Kr. Fl. ii, S. 3, 140 (1848). BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 37-40, p. 20 t. 10 (1847). 

WILS. Bry. Brit. 70, t. 17 (1855). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 50 (1873). HOBK. Syn. Br. 

m. 42 (1873). 

DICRANACE^E.] in [Anisothecium. 

Dicranum rigidulum SWARTZ op. c. 38 et 89, t. 3, f. 7. HEDW. Sp. muse. 134, t. 32, f. 8-12. 

SM. Fl. Br. 1211 : Eng. Bot. t. 1439. TURN. Muse. hib. 62. BRID. Sp. muse. I, 186 ; 

Mant. 61 ; Bry. univ. i, 433. WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 188. SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. I, 

174. SCHULTZ Suppl. Fl. Starg. 72. 
Dicranum varium a. viride HOOK. TAYL. Muse. Brit. 
Angstrocmia varia C. MUELL. Synops. i, 435 (1849). 

Dicranella varia SCHIMP. Coroll. 13 (1855), Synops. 72 (1860), et 2 ed. 74 (1876). BERK. 
Handb.' Br. m. 282 (1863). MILDE Bry. Siles. 59 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. Bri. ital. 639 

Anisothecium varium MITT. op. c. 40. 

Anisothecium rubnim LINDB. Utk. till en nat. grupp. Eur. bladm. med topps. frukt 33 (1878). 

Dioicous ; short, yellowish green, densely gregarious, or csespitose, 
dividing at base. Leaves erecto-patent, rarely subsecund, oblong at 
base, not sheathing, gradually lanceolate-subulate, carinate, entire or 
obsoletely denticulate at apex, opake, nerve semiterete, slightly excur- 
rent ; cells thin, elongated ; perich. bracts semivaginant. Seta deep 
red. Capsule cernuous, ovate, subincurved, reddish-brown, exannulate, 
contracted below the mouth after the lid falls ; lid large, short-beaked ; 
peristome large, deep purple, connivent. Male plant smaller, bracts 

HAB. Damp clay fields, banks of ditches, sometimes on rocks ; common. 
Fr. 10 2. 

Var. ft. tenuifolium (Bruch). 

Leaves more distant, thinner, narrower, obsoletely nerved, the points 
less elongated, the cells laxer. Capsule nearly symmetric, paler and thinner. 

SYK. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. et Synops. WILS. Br. Brit. 
Dicranum subulatum SM. Eng. Bot. t. 1273. 
Dicranum tenuifolium BRUCH. in F. MUELL. Muse. Sardois. 
Dicranella fallax WILS. MSS. 

HAB. Anglesea and Bangor ferry (Wilson) ! ! Cotterall Clough (Wilson). By the Esk, 
Yorks. (Spruce 1842) ! Parkgate, Cheshire (Miss Jelly) \ ! Henfield (Borrer) ! 
Milnthorpe (Barnes) ! Banchory (Sim). 

Usually taller than the ordinary form with a longer seta and more 
drooping capsule, but not affording any permanent characters for specific 
distinction ; it is most frequent in Southern Europe. 

Var. y. tenellum ScUmp. 

Stem slender, nearly simple, leaves falcato-secund, narrower, more 
laxly areolate, margin remotely toothed. 
SYN. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. et Synops. WILS. Bry. Brit. 
HAB. In drier grassy places, with the normal form. 

Var. 8. callistomum (Dicks.} 

Stem branched ; leaves patent. Capsule on a short seta, erect, minute, 
truncate-obovate ; lid broadly conical, almost as large as capsule. 

SYN. Bryum callistomum DICKS. Cr. Brit. fasc. 3, p. 5, t. 7, f. 10 (1795). HULL Br. Fl. P. 2, 258. 
WITH. 3 ed. iii, 818. BRID. Muse. rec. ii, P. Ill, 57. 

DICRANACE^E.] ii2 [Anisothecium. 

Dicranum callistomum SM. Fl. Brit, iii, 1211. TURN. Muse. hib. 63. BRID. Sp. muse. 
I, 187. 

Dlcran. rigidulum (3. callistomum BRID. Mant. 61 ; Bry. univ. i, 434. 
Dicranella varia var. . callistoma SCHIMP. Syn. 73. 

HAS. On rocks in subalpine districts. 

Scotland (Dickson). Anglesea (Dames). Near Derry and Colin Glen (Scott 1802). 

This species is very variable in size and tint, and several forms may be 
found growing together in one tuft. 


Dioicous ; simple, rufescent ; leaves secund, lineal-lanceolate, 
remotely toothed, laxly areolate ; nerve strong, vanishing at apex. 
Capsule erect, ovate ; lid widely conic, acutely pointed. (T. XVI, C.) 

SYN. Bryum rufescens DICKS. PI. crypt, fasc. 3, p. 6, t. 8, f. i (1795). WITH. Bot. arr. Br. veg. 
3 ed. iii, 818 (1796). HULL Br. Fl. P. 2, 258 (1799). BRID. Muse. rec. ii, P. Ill, 
55 (1803). 

Dicranum rufescens SM. Eng. Bot. t. 1216 (1804), Fl. Brit, iii, 1210 (1804). TURN. muse. 
hib. 66 (1804). BRID. Sp. muse. I, 188 (1806), Bry. univ. i, 437 (1826). SWARTZ in 
SCHRAD. Bot. Journ. iv. 173 (1801). MART. Fl. cr. Erl. 85 (1817). HUEBEN. Muse, 
germ. 264 (1833). DE NOT. Syllab. n. 296 (1838). RABENH. Deutsch. Kr. Fl. ii, S. 3, 
140 (1848). BR. SCH. Bry. Eur. fasc. 37-40, p. 22, t. 12 (1847). WILS. Bry. Brit. 71, 
t. 12 (1855). HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 43 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 50 (1873). 

Dicranum carneum BLANDOW in STURM Deutsch. Fl. 2, n. 10. 

Dicranum varium (3. rufescens. ROEHL. Deutsch. Fl. iii, 71 (1813). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. 
Br. 58, t. 17, fig. med. (1818). BRID. Mant. 62 (1819). GRAY Nat. arr. Br. pi. i, 738 
(1821). HOOK. Fl. Scot. P. 2, 134 (1821) ; Br. Fl. ii, 42 (1833). 

Angstroemia rufcsc. C. MUELL. Synops. i, 436 (1849). 

Dicranella rufesc. SCHIMP. Coroll. 13 (1855), Synops. 74 (1860), et 2 ed. 75 (1876). BERK. 

Handb. Br. m. 283 (1863). MILDE Bry. Siles. 60 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. Bri. ital. 

639 (1869). 

Dioicous; rufescent, densely gregarious or csespitulose, slender, 
simple, erect ; leaves less crowded, subfalcato-secund, lineal-lanceolate, 
remotely toothed ; nerve strong, subterete at base, flattened above, 
vanishing in apex ; cells lax, elongated, rectangular. Seta red. Capsule 
erect or inclined, very small, ovato-elliptic, rufous ; annulus none ; lid 
broadly conic, acutely apiculate. Peristome large, red. Male plant 
slender, inflor. terminal, antheridia numerous, orange, bracts ovate, 

HAB. Wet clay banks and stony ground ; not rare. Fr. 911. 

Scotland (Dickson). Killarney, Lough Bray and Kelly's Glen, Ireland. Henfield and 
Blackdown, Sussex (Borrer 1826) ! Hurstpierpoint (Mitten 1847) ' Blackburn, Prestwich 
Clough and Ashley (Hunt) ! ! Cockmill Wood, Whitby (Braithwaite 1850) ! ! Quirang, 
Skye (Hunt) ! Banchory (Sim). Hampstead canal bank, Stafford (Bagnall 1870). 

Readily known from A . rubrum by turning pale vinous red in drying ; 
the male infl. is so conspicuous, that when growing alone it has the aspect 
of a Phascum in fruit. 

DICRANACE^E.] 113 [Anisothecium. 


Dioicous; leaves sheathing, suddenly subulate, flexuoso-patulous, 
glossy, entire; perich. longly sheathing. Capsule cernuous, obovate, 
subgibbous, with a tumid neck ; lid subulate rostrate. (T. XVI, D.) 

^N. Dicranum Schrcberlanum GREV. Scott. Cr. Fl. t. 116 (1824). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. Brit. 

2 ed. 95, t. Suppl. 3. (1827). HOOK. Br. Fl. ii, 38 (1833). 
Dicranum Schrcberi var. Grevilleanum BRID. Bry. univ. i, 450 (1826). 

Dlcranum Grevilleanum BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 37-40, p. 19, t. 7 (1847). WILS. Bry. 

Brit. 69, t. 33 (1855). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 49 (1873). 
AngstroemiaGrcvilleanaC. MUELL. Synops. i, 439 (1849). 
Dlcranella Grevilleana SCHIMP. Coroll. 13 (1855), Synops. 70 (1860), et 2 ed. 71 (1876). 

BERK. Handb. Br. m. 281 (1863). DE NOT. Epil. Bri. ital. 640 (1869). HOBK. Syn. 

Br. m. 41 (1873). 
Anisothecium Grevillei LINDB. op. c. 26 (1878). 

Dioicous or autoicous ? densely casspitulose, glossy yellowish green ; 
leaves from a wide sheathing base, suddenly narrowed into a flexuose- 
patulous subula, margin subundulate, quite entire or with 2 or 3 
irregular serratures at apex; basal cells elongated, upper oblong; 
perich. bracts more sheathing. Capsule cernuous, on a purple seta, 
obovate or oval, subgibbous, faintly striated, solid, exannulate, with a 
short tumid or obsoletely strumose neck ; lid with a subulate beak. 
Male infl. gemmiform, terminal ; bracts convolute, lanceolate-subulate. 
HAB. Damp clay soil in mountain districts ; rare. Fr. 9. 

Old road in Gen Tilt, Blair Atholl (Hooker and Gremlle 1823) ! ! Glenshee (Fergnsson). 

Both Wilson and Schimper describe this moss as monoicous, but De 
Notaris (Epilogo p. 641) as dioicous, observing that he could detect no male 
infl. on fruiting plants, and this is also my experience both with original 
specimens from Glen Tilt, and Finland ones from Lindberg. The latter also 
have the lid conical and only slightly rostellate, so that it is evident this part 
varies considerably, as it is usually subulate and decurved. 


Dioicous ; leaves from a dilated base, narrowly lanceolate, irregularly 
denticulate at point. Capsule ovate-oblong, cernuous, not striate ; lid 
large, rostrate. (T. XVI, E.) 

SYN. Dicranum crispum SCHREB. Spic. Fl. Lips. 79 (1771). THUNB. Prodr. Fl. cap. ii, 174. 

Dicranum Schreberi SWARTZ Muse. Suec. 37, t. 2, f. 6 (1798). HEDW. Sp. muse. 144, t. 33, 
f. 6.10 (1801). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 55 (1805). BRID. Sp. muse, i, 198 (1806), Mant. 64 
(1819), Bry. Univ. i, 449 (1826). SCHULTZ Fl. Starg. 199 (1806). WEB. MOHR 184 
(1807). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. I, 179 (1811). VOIT Muse, herbip. 45 (1812). 
WAHLENB. Fl. lapp. 340 (1812), Fl. carp. 345 (1814). ROEHL. Deutsch. Fl. iii, 74 
(1813). MART. Fl. cr. Erl. 103 (1817). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 262 (1833). HARTM. 
Skand. Fl. RABENH. Deutsch. Kr. Fl. ii, S. 3, 139 (1848). BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 
37-40, p. 18, t. 6 (1847). WILS. Bry. Brit. 69 (1855). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 
49 (1873). 

Dicranum recognitum ROEHL. Moosg. Deutsch. 377 (1800). 

Angstroemia Schreberi C. MUELL. Synops. i, 438 (1849). 

DICRANACEJE.] 114 [Anisothccium. 

Dicranclla Schreberi SCHIMP. Coroll. 13 (1855), Synops. 70 (1860), et 2 ed. 72 (1876). 

BERK. Handb. Br. m. 281 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 57 (1869). Hobk. Syn. Br. m. 

42 (1873). 
Anisothecium crispum LINDB. op. c. 26 (1878). 

Dioicous ; gregarious and caespitulose, | i in. high ; yellowish green. 
Leaves squarrose, from a dilated semivaginant base, narrowly lanceolate, 
carinate, irregularly denticulate toward apex, not glossy ; areolation 
firm, narrow, elongated ; perich. bracts more shortly sheathing. Capsule 
on a purple seta, cernuous, oblong with scarce any neck, not striate, 
exannulate ; lid conic, obliquely rostrate, large, purple ; peristome 
purple. Male plant small, simple. 

HAB. Damp clay soil, sides of ditches and bare places in fields ; not 
common. Fr. 9. 

Mangerton (Miss Hutchins). S. of Ireland (Mackay). Loch More, Ross (Hooker 1828) ! 
Glen Lena, Argyle (Hooker 1837) ! Cauldron Snout, Teesdale (Black 1854) ! Ramsden 
Clough, Todmorden (Nowell) \ \ Banks of R. Bollin at Bowdon and Ashley (Hunt 
1864) ! ! Lancaster (Hunt 1865) ! Rochdale (Holt 1878) ! ! Killin and Stirling (Holt 
1880) ! ! 

Var. /?. elatum (Schimp.) 

Densely caespitose ; much taller ; leaves broader, more laxly areolate, 
more distinctly serrated. 

SYN. Dlcranella Schreberi Var. ft. data SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 72. 
Dicranella lenta WILS. MSS. 

HAB. Stirrup wood, Mottram (Nowell 1860) ! Walton Swamp, Warrington (Wilson) ! ! Broken 
brow, Prestwich (Hunt 1863) ! ! By R. Bollin at Ashley (Hunt) ! Near Melrose 
(Jerdon) \ The Dran, Rochdale (Holt 1880) ! ! 

The variety exactly resembles in appearance a poor starved form of the 
next species, but is readily separated by the structure of the leaf point ; fertile 
specimens are rare and approach nearer the typical form. 

Dioicous ; tall, robust. Leaves squarrose, broadly oblong at base, 
oblongo-lanceolate, obtuse and eroso-crenulate at apex ; nerve narrow, 
vanishing at apex. Capsule cernuous, ovate, with a short neck, lid 
conic, obtuse. (T. XVI, F.) 

SYN. Muscus trichoides palustris, capsulis erectis, foliis rcflexis DOODY. RAY Syn. St. Brit. 2 ed. 
app. 338 (1696). 

Bryum erectis capitulis brcvibus, foliis rcflexh DILL, in RAY Syn. 3 ed. 95, n. 18 (1724) ; 

Hist. muse. 365, T. 46, f. 24 (1741). 
Bryum pellucidum (3. L. Sp. pi. ii, 1118 (1753)- 
Bryum palustre DICKS. PI. crypt, fasc. iv, n (1801). 
Dicranum squarrosum STARKE in. litt. SCHRAD. Journ. Bot. v, 68 (1802). SM. Fl. Brit. 

iii, 1215 (1804) ; Eng. Bot. t. 2004. TURN. Muse. hib. 69 (1804) BRID. Sp. muse, i, 194 

(1806) ; Mant. 55 (1819). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 183 (1807). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. 

I, 182, t. 47 (1811). VOIT Muse, herbip. 49 (1812). ROEHL. Deutsch. Fl. iii, 73 (1813). 

HOOK. TAYL. Muse. Brit. 55, t. 17 (1818). FUNCK Moost. 30, t. 21 (1821). GRAY Nat. 

arr. Br. pi. i, 736 (1821). HOOK. Fl. Scot. P. 2, 133 (1821.) ; Br. Fl. ii, 40 (1833). 

HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 271 (1833). MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 23 (1836). RABENH. Deutsch. 

Kr. Fl. ii, S. 3, 138 (1848). BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 37-40, p. 17, t. 5 (1847). WILS. Bry. 

Brit. 68, t. 17 (1855). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 49 (1873). HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 42 (1873). 

DICRANACE.E.] 115 [Seligeria. 

Oncophorus squarrosus BRID. Bry. univ. i, 404 (1826). 
Diobelon squarrosum HAMPE in litt. 

Angstroemia squarrosa C. MUELL. Synops. i, 438 (1849). 
Dichodontium squarrosum SCHIMP. Coroll. 13 (1855). 

Dicranella squarrosa SCHIMP. Synops. 71 (1860), et 2 ed. 72 (1876). BERK. Handb. Br. m. 
281 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 58 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. Bri. ital. 642 (1869). 

Dioicous ; caespitose, i 4 in. high, soft, bright green or yellow- 
green, fuscous at base ; stem erect, sparingly branched. Leaves lax, 
flaccid, squarrose, octofarious, from an erect broadly oblong, sheathing 
base, divaricate, reflexed, oblongo-lanceolate, muticous or pointed, the 
margin wavy, the apex eroso-crenulate, nerve narrow, vanishing at 
apex, smooth, rather glossy ; areolation lax, hexagono-rectangular above, 
elongated at base, with a sinuous primordial utricle ; perich. bracts 
resembling the leaves. Capsule on a stout purple seta, cernuous, ovate 
with a short neck, subturgid, solid, fuscous brown; annulus none; lid 
conic, obtuse ; peristome large purple, 2 3-fid to the middle. 

Male plants similar, the infl. capituliform, bracts concave, broadly 
lanceolate, paraphyses numerous. 

HAB. Stony ground and by streamlets on moors ; common, not frequent in 
fruit. Fr. 89. 

In fr. Loch Broom (Borrcr) \ Staley brushes (Hobson). Ramsden Clough (Now ell 1864) ! ! 
Ogden Clough (Scholefield) ! Quirang, Skye (Hunt 1863) ! Rattand Clough, Todmorden 
(Hunt 1869) ! ! Hill bell, Westmoreland (Stabler 1868) ! Den of Lawers (Braithwaitc 

1865) ! ! Saltersgate beck, Yorks. (Rev. J. F. Crouch) ! ! Wheeldale, Yorks. (Braithwaitc) ! ! 
Cautley spout, Yorks. (West 1879) ! ! 

The lively green tufts of this moss in the barren state, are a conspicuous 
ornament to our moorlands, and much more robust than the fertile plant, 
which is attached to gravelly clay where water stagnates. In habit it differs 
considerably from the species which precede it. 

Subf. 3. SELIGERIE&. Plants small; scarcely branched; leaves 
smooth, narrowly lanceolate-subulate, minutely areolate above, laxer below, 
without distinct basal angular cells, or sometimes with them. Peristome of 
1 6 lanceolate flat smooth teeth, entire, sometimes cleft or perforated, or 


Bry. Eur. Fasc. 3336 (1846). 

Plants very small, gregarious or caespitant, growing on rocks. 
Leaves in many rows, lanceolate or subulate, nerved, cells minute and 
quadrate above, large and rectangular at base, sometimes with colored 
angular cells as in Dicranum. Calyptra cucullate, capsule ovate or 
globose with a distinct neck, often turbinate when empty, peristome 
of 16 lanceolate flat smooth rigid teeth, rarely cleft, sometimes none ; 
spores smooth. Deriv. After the Silesian pastor Seliger. 

DICRANAC^.] 116 [Seligeria. 

The pretty little species which constitute the genus Seligeria have a 
great resemblance to each other and require care to discriminate. Besides 
our native species there are also found in Europe 5. crassinervis LINDB. 
diversifolia LINDB. and subimmersa LINDB. from Scandinavia, with 5. polaris 
BERGGR. from Spitzbergen ; the two latter have colored angular cells as in 
Dicranum, and form the transition to the genus Blindia. 


Peristome none. Donii. 

Peristome present. 

Seta straight when moist. 
Capsule turbinate. 

Leaves ovato-lanceolate, rather obtuse. calcarca. 

Leaves lanceolate, subulate. 

Perich. bracts reaching to capsule. acutifolia. 

Perich. bracts not reaching capsule. 

Leaves shortly lanceolate, in 3 ranks. trifarla. 

Leaves longer, setaceous in upper half. pusilla. 

Capsule narrowly pyriform. paucifolia. 

Seta arcuate when moist. sctacea. 

i. SELIGERIA DONII (Sm.) C. Muell. 

Autoicous ; leaves lanceolate, subulate, minutely serrate at base. 
Capsule erect, truncate, ovate, gymnostomous ; lid broadly conic. 
(T. XVI, G.) 

SvN.Gymnostomum Donianum SM. Eng. Bot. t. 1582 (1806). HOOK TAYL. Muse. Br. 13, t. 7 

(1818). GRAY Nat. arr. Br. pi. i, 716 (1821). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. 2, 123 (1821) ; Br. Fl. 

ii, 10 (1833). BRID. Bry. univ. i, 66 (1826). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. Ill, P. I, 6, t. 207 

Anodus Donianus BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 33-6, p. 3, t. i (1846). RABENH. Deutsch. 

Kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 131 (1848). WILS. Bry. br. 56, t. 7 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 112 (1860) ; 

et 2 ed. 124 (1876). BERK. Handb. br. m. 287 (1863). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 38 (1873). 
Seligeria Doniana C. MUELL. Syn. i, 420 (1849). HARTM. Skand. fl. 5 ed. 397 (1849). 

SPRUCE in Ann. Mag. Nat. hist. 2 ser. iii, 479 (1849). JURATZ. Laubm. Oester.-Ung. 

68 (1882). 
Seligeria Donii LINDB. in Oefver. K. Vet. akad. Foerhand. 1864, p. 187. MILDE Bry. 

Siles. 86 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. Bri. ital. 656 (1869). 

Autoicous ; very small, gregarious, yellowish-green ; stem very 
short, simple. Leaves erect, straight, from an ovate-oblong serrulate 
base, lanceolate-subulate, deeply channelled, acute, crenulate ; nerve 
occupying all upper part of subula; cells of base rectangular, incrassate, 
pellucid, upper smaller quadrate, chlorophyllose. Perich. bracts more 
obtuse, semivaginant at base ; capsule on a straight yellowish seta, 
erect, minute, truncate-ovate, with a short tumid neck, pale olivaceous, 
leptodermous, gymnostomous, exannulate ; lid broadly conic, sub- 
oblique, columella exserted after the lid falls. Male infl. on a basal 
branch, without paraphyses, bracts oblongo-lanceolate nerveless. 
HAB. On limestone and sandstone rocks. Fr. 8. 

DICRANAC.E.] 117 [Seligeria. 

Den of Dupplin, Perth (Don) ! Den of Airlie and Norran water (Drummond) \ Glen 
Shira, Inverary (Rev. C. Smith) ! Winch bridge, Teesdale (Black 1854) ! Cawsey 
Dene; Newcastle (Bowman). Mowthorpe dale and Crambeck (Spruce) ! Fern, Brechin 
(Fergusson) 1868. Blair Athol (Miss Mclnroy 1859) ! Woolsonburyhill, Sussex (Mitten 
1859). Rocks below Rolston Scar, Yorks. (Baker 1855). Todmorden, High green 
Wood, and Mitholme Clough, Heptonstall (Nowell 1854) ! ! Hardcastle crag, Hebden 
bridge (Hunt 1867) ! ! Castleton, Derby (Whitehead 1868) ! ! 

One of the most elegant of our minute mosses, and probably often 
overlooked from its inconspicuous appearance. 

2. SELIGERIA PUSILLA (Ehrh.) Br. Schimp. 

Autoicous ; very short. Leaves lanceolate-subulate, acute, faintly 
crenulate above, with minute pellucid areolation. Capsule pyriform, 
oval ; lid conic, obliquely subulate. (T. XVI, H.) 

SYN. Afzelia pusilla EHRH. PI. cr. n. 183 (1787), et Beitr. vii, 100 (1792). 

Weissia pusilla HEDW. Stirp. cr. ii, 78, t. 29 (1789), Sp. muse. 64 (1801). BRID. muse, 
rec. II, P. I, 76 (1798); Sp. muse. I, 114 (1806); M ant. 43 (1819); Bry. univ. i, 349 
(1826). ROEHL. Moosg. Deutsch. 155 (1800) ; Ann. Wett. ges. iii, 106 ; et Deutsch. Fl. 
iii, 50 (1812). LA MARK & CAND. Fl. franc, i, 455 (1805). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 68 
(1811). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 47, 1. 15 (1818). FUNCK Moost. 14, t. 9 (1821). GRAY 
Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 732 (1821). NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ, ii, 102, t. 34 f. 25 (1831). 
HOOK. Br. fl. ii, 23 (1833). HUEB. muse. germ. 142 (1833). MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, p. 15 
(1836). DE NOT. Syll. muse. 227 (1838). 

Bryum pusillum HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 33 (1795). 

Grimmia pusilla SCHRAD. Syst. samml. kr. gew. i, 10 (1796), et Journ. Bot. ii, P. I, 56 
(1799). ROTH Tent. fl. germ, iii, P. I, 147 (1800). SM. Fl. brit. iii, 1184 (1804). WEB. 
MOHR Bot. Tasch. 140 (1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. Kr. gew. P. 2, 57, t. 25 (1810). 

Grimmia parasitica Vorr in STURM Deutsch. Fl. ii, heft n (1810). 

Weissia par asitica ROEHL. Deutsch. Fl. iii, 51. 

Seligeria pusilla BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 33 6, mon. 4, t. i (1846). RABENH. Deutsch. 
Kr. Fl. ii, P. 3, 132 (1848). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 418 (1849). WILS. Bry. brit. 54, 1. 15 
(1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 113 (1860), et 2 ed. 124 (1876). BERK. Handb. br. m. 288 
(1863), LINDB. in Oef. K. Vet. ak. 1864, p. 187. MILDE Bry. siles. 86 (1869). DE NOT. 
Epil. Bri. ital. 655 (1869). HUSN. mouss. nord-ouest 44 (1873). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 37 
(1873). JURATZ. Laubm. Oesterr. Ung. 68 (1882). 

[Grimmia Seligcri WEB. MOHR Tasch. 140 et 459. Weissia Seligeri WAHL. Fl. lapp. 322 
(1812). NEES HORNSCH. Bry. Germ, ii, 105, t. 34, f. 26, is a small dark green form with 
shorter leaves, according to Schimper's examination of an original specimen.] 

Autoicous ; in loose dwarf silky dark-green tufts. Stem very short, 
simple or divided ; lower leaves short, narrowly lanceolate, upper long, 
lineal setaceous, margin minutely crenulate ; nerve thin, vanishing at 
apex or slightly excurrent, wings very narrow, distinct to apex, cells at 
base pellucid, elongato-rectangular, upper smaller, quadrate, nearly 
empty. Perich. bracts semivaginant below, lanceolate-subulate, nerve 
narrower, indistinct at base ; capsule erect, on a straight pale yellow 
seta, twisting to left when dry, ovate, olivaceous, when dry and 
deoperculate strongly turbinate, sulcate, fuscous ; lid with an oblique 
subulate beak, teeth of per. orange, flat, remotely articulated, inflexed 
when moist, irregular at margin. Male infl. gemmaceous, on a distinct 
branch or at base of female, bracts minute, ovate, concave apiculate. 

HAB. Damp shady rocks of sandstone or limestone, not uncommon. 
Fr. 5-6. 

DICRANACE^E.] n8 [Seligeria. 

Belfast (Drummond). Buxton (Wilson) ! Malham (Nowcll 1858) ! ! Rosedale Abbey and 
Goathland, Yorks. (Braithwaite 1858) ! ! Matlock (Holmes). Youlgreave, Derby 
(Bowman). Gordale (Hunt) \ Hampton rocks, Bath (Hunt 1867) ! ! Blair Atholl (Miss 
Mclnroy)\ Levens Park (Barnes) \ ! Litton, Yorks (Whitehead and Ashton 1878)! ! 
Castleton, Derby (Whitehead 1880)!! Dent, Yorks. '(West 1879). Castleton, Braemar 
Fergusson) . 

Variable in size and colour, and also in the length and width of the 
leaves. Lindberg refers Gr. Seligeri. to SeL setacea as a Var. pumila, yet in 
W. & M. we find " A Grimm, recurvata foliorum figura, seta madida recta," 
and have therefore followed Schimper on this point. 


Autoicous ; resembling S. pusilla. Leaves more acutely subulate. 
Capsule larger, scarce emerging above the elongated perichsetial bracts. 
(T. XVI, I.) 

SYN. Seligeria acutifolia LINDB. in HARTM. Skand. fl. 9 ed. ii, 75 (1864), et in Not. ur 
Sallsk. Fl. Fn. fenn. forh. ix. 261 (1868); Muse. Scand. 26 (1879). BRAITHW. in Journ. 
Bot. 1870, p. 226. HOBK. Syn. br. m. 37 (1873). 
Sel. pusilla ft. Lacroixiana DE NOT. Epil. Briol. ital. 656 (1869). 
SeL pusilla Var. ft. acutifolia SCHIMP. Syn. 2 ed. 125 (1876). 

Autoicous, very small, deep green. Upper leaves and perich. bracts 
from a more or less sheathing base, abruptly narrowed into a subterete, 
setiform, very acute, fragile, crenulate subula, formed almost entirely 
by the nerve ; cells all rectangular and pellucid. Seta very short and 
slender, capsule small, the mouth scarce overtopping the apices of 
perich. bracts, leptodermous, pale and pellucid, shortly pyriform with 
a short neck, turbinate and wide mouthed when empty ; lid with a very 
short, scarcely oblique beak ; teeth of per. short, rather obtuse. 

Var. ft. longiseta Lindb. 

Plant larger, with a longer seta elevating the capsule beyond the perich. 
"bracts ; lid with a longer oblique beak. 
SYN. Sel. pusilla Var./oZ. perich. longioribus setaceis WILS. MSS. 

Sel. acutifolia Var. ft. longiseta LINDB. in Not. Sallsk. Fl. Fn. fenn. 1. c. et in Journ. Lin. 
Soc. xi, 467 (1870). 

HAB. Fissures of calcareous rocks. Fr. 5 6. 

The Var ft. at Lover's leap near Buxton (Wilson 1831). Arncliff, Yorks. (Whitehead 
1868) ! ! Ashwood dale and near Warmhill, Cheedale (Whitehead 1880) ! ! Tideswell 
dale, Derby (Whitehead 1881) ! ! 

The type of the species was first found in the island of Gotland, and 
does not occur here; it stands intermediate between S.paucifolia and 5. pusilla, 
agreeing with the former in the leaves and bracts, and with the latter in the 
capsule ; a gradual transition into the. more elongated form takes place, but 
all our British specimens have the rostellate lid. 


Autoicous, densely caespitose, resembling S. pusilla, leaves in three 
ranks, straight, lanceolate-subulate, rather obtuse, short ; capsule 
thicker. (T. XVI, K.) 

DICRANACE^E.] 1 19 [Seligcria. 

SYN. Wcissia trifaria BRID. in SCHRAD. Journ. Bot. iii, P. II, 283 (1801). 

Wcissia tristicha BRID. Sp. muse. I, 116 (1806) ; Mant. 44 (1819) ; Bry. univ. i, 355 (1826). 

ROEHL. Deutsch. Fl. iii, 50 (1813) ; Ann. Wett. Gesells. iii, 107. NEES HORNSCH. 

Bry. germ, ii, S. 2, 108. T. 34, f. 28 (1831). MONT, in Arch, de Bot. i, 213 (1833). 

HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 145 (1833). DE NOT. Syll. muse. 228 (1838). 
Grimmia trifaria WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 143 et 460 (1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. kr. gew. 

P. II, 58, t. 25 (1810). 
Grim, tristicha SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. I, 84, t. 26 (1811). KAULF. in STURM Fl. germ. 2, 

16. FUNCK Moost. t. 12 (1821). 
Selig. tristicha BR. SCH. Bry. eur. f. 33 6, mon. 5, t. 2 (1846). RABENH. Deutsch. Kr. Fl. 

ii, S. 3, 132 (1848). C. MUELL. Syn. i, 420 (1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 114 (1860) et 2 ed. 

126 (1876). BERK. Handb. br. m. 289 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 87 (1869). DE NOT. 

Epil. 654 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 37 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. Oesterr. ung. 69 


Selig. trifaria LINDB. in Oefv. Vet. Akad. forh. 1863, p. 413, et 1864, p. 189. 

Autoicous ; densely csespitose, dull yellow-green, rather rigid, 
slender, with fastigiate branches. Leaves in three ranks, crowded, 
straight, erect, from a lanceolate concave whitish base, gradually nar- 
rowed into a short broad obtuse entire subula : nerve thin below, dilated 
above ; cells pellucid, large and elongate-rectangular at base, quadrate- 
rectangular and incrassate above. Perich. bracts longer, the nerve 
excurrent in a longer subula, slightly recurved at apex. Capsule on a 
yellow seta, pachydermous, subspherical with a swollen neck, when dry 
and deoperculate, truncate smooth brownish-yellow ; lid large, orange, 
with a long oblique acute beak ; teeth of per. bright red, narrower, 
sometimes perforated. 
HAB. Dripping calcareous rocks ; very rare. Fr. 5 6. 

ir Athole, with S. pusilla (Miss Mclnroy 1858)!! Litton, Yorks. (Ashton 
'.d 1878) ! ! Miller's dale, Derby (Cnnliffe 1880) ! ! 

The longer slender branches, which in the moist state show distinctly 
the trifarious arrangement of the leaves, afford a ready means of identification. 


Autoicous ; very short. Leaves lanceolate below, subulate above, 
with larger areolation. Capsule on a long seta, oblong, small mouthed, 
subcernuous ; lid with a long slender beak. (T. XVII, A.) 

SYN. Bryum paucifolium DICKS. Cr. brit. fasc. 4, p. 7, t. ii, f. 3 (1801). 
Gymnostomum paucif. SMITH Eng. Bot. t. 2506 (1813). 
Seligeria calcicola MITT. MSS. et in SEEM. Journ. Bot. ii, 194, t. 19, f. i 6 (1864). BERK. 

Handb. br. m. 289 in obs. 

Set. calycina MITT. MSS. LINDB. in Oefv. v. ak. Forh. xxi, 188 (1864). 
Sel. subcernua SCHIMP. Bry. eur. Suppl. fasc. i 2. t. i (1864) ; Synops. 2 ed. 128 (1876). 
Sel. paiicifolia CARRUTH. in Journ. Bot. iv, 39 (1866). BRAITHW. in Journ. Bot. 1870, p. 
226. HOBK. Syn. br. m. 37 (1873). 

Autoicous ; densely gregarious, pale green ; stem very short, 
simple. Leaves crowded, erecto-patent, lowest lanceolate, upper from 
a narrowly oblong base, longly subulate, quite entire ; nerve vanishing 
at base, gradually stronger, semiterete, faint but distinct nearly to end 

Glent Tilt, Bla 
and Whitehead 

DICRANACE^.] 120 [Seligena. 

of subula ; perich. bracts broader at base with shorter points ; cells 
rectangular pellucid. Capsule light brown, on a longish pale yellow 
seta, pachydermous, narrowly elliptic, occasionally somewhat asym- 
metric with a small mouth, slightly cernuous ; lid pale red, with a long 
slender slightly oblique pale beak ; teeth of per. purple, lanceolate, 
remotely articulate. Male infl. at base, bracts three, short. 
HAB. Detached chalk blocks partially imbedded in soil, rare. Fr. 5 6. 

On brick rubbish, Wetherby, Yorks. (Dickson) \ On chalk, north side of S. Downs, Sussex. 
Stanmer (Jenncr 1840) ! ! Woolsonbury hill (Mitten) ! Lewes (Unwin) ! ! Box hill, 
Surrey (Mitten). Dunton Green, Kent (Holmes). 

Schimper recognized original specimens of Dickson's B. paucifolium to 
be this plant, yet he makes no reference to it in his publications, though 
Mr. Carruthers has given a clear history of the species in his paper in Journ. 
Bot. Dickson's figure is very incomplete, and it is probable that he distri- 
buted for B. paucifolium, other small mosses which resembled it. It is best 
distinguished by the elongated capsule, which becomes darker and more 
pyriform when old. 

6. SELIGERIA CALCAREA (Dicks.) Br. Sch. 

Autoicous ; resembling S. pusilla. Leaves ovate at base, narrowly 
lanceolate, rather obtuse. Capsule larger, turbinate. (T. XVII, B.) 

SYN. Bryum calcareum DICKS. PI. cr. Brit. fasc. II, 3, t. 4, f. 3 (1790). RELH. Fl. Cant. Suppl. 

3, p. 9 (1793). SM. Eng. Bot. t. 191 (1794). WITH. Bot. arr. br. veg. 3 ed. iii, 812 (1796). 

ABBOT Fl. Bedf. 243 (1798). HULL Br. Fl. P. 2, 257 (1799). 
Grimmia calcarea SM. Fl. Brit, iii, 1187 (1804). TURN. muse. hib. 25 (1804). 
Weissia calcarea HEDW. Sp. muse. 66, t. n, f. i 5 (1801). BRID. Sp. muse. I, 115 (1806), 

Mant. 43 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 351 (1826). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. I, 115 (1811). ROEHL. 

Deutsch. Fl. iii, 50 (1813). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. Brit. 47, t. 15 (1818). FUNCK Moost. 

13, t. 9 (1821). GRAY Nat. arr. Br. pi. i, 732 (1821). NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ. 

ii, 2, p. 10, t. 31, f. 24 (1831). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 144 (1833). HOOK. Br. Fl. ii, 

23 (1833)- 
Seligeria calcarea BR. SCH. Bry. Eur. fasc. 33 36 p. 4, t. i (1846). RABENH. Deutsch. 

Kr. Fl. ii, S. 3, 132 (1848). C. MUELL. Syn. i, 419 (1849). WILS. Bry. Brit. 54, t. 15 

(1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 114 (1860) et 2 ed. 125 (1876). BERK. Handb. Br. m. 288, t. 

24, f. 2 (1863). LINDB. in Oefv. v. ak. Forh. 1864, p. 188. MILDE Bry. siles. 87 (1869). 

HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 38 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 45 (1873). 

Autoicous ; densely gregarious, dull blackish green. Stem very 
short. Leaves short, broad, lower ovato-lanceolate. upper from an 
oval oblong base, abruptly narrowed into a rather obtuse shortish 
curved subula, quite entire ; nerve flattish, faint at base, stronger 
toward apex and occupying all upper part ; cells at base shortly 
rectangular, thin pellucid, upper quadrate, incrassate, highly chlorophyl- 
lose. Perich. bracts subvaginant, from a broadly oval base, longly 
acuminate, of laxer texture and with thinner nerve. Capsule on a 
thicker yellowish-brown seta, larger, more solid, the lid more shortly 
rostrate ; teeth of per. broader and more obtuse, more densely articu- 
late ; spores larger. Male infl. with longer bracts. 
HAB. Chalk cliffs and calcareous rocks. Fr. 4 5. 

Die RAN ACE M.] I2i [Seligeria. 

Common in Kent, Sussex and Surrey. Newmarket heath (Dickson). 
Barton hill, Beds. (Abbot). 

7. SELIGERIA SETACEA (Wulf.) Lindb. 

Autoicous ; with habit of S. pusilla. Leaves lanceolate-subulate. 
Capsule on a flexuose-arcuate seta, subpyriform oval, mouth narrower ; 
lid subulate, nearly straight. (T. XVII, C.) 

SYN. Bryum trichoides acaulon palustrc minimum, setis et capsulis brevissimis DILL. Hist. 

muse. 387, t. 49, f. 53 (1741), et herb. 

Bryum paludosum L. Sp. pi. ii, IIIQ (1753). HULL Br. Fl. P. 2, 257 (1799). 
Bryum setaceum WULFEN in JACQ. Miscell. ii, 96, t. 12, f. i (1781). L. Syst. Veg. 949. 

GMEL. in L. Syst. nat. 13 ed. ii, 1331 (1790). HULL Br. Fl. P. 2, 265 (1799). 
Grimmia recurvata HEDW. Stirp. i, 102, t. 38 (1787) ; Sp. muse. 75 (1801). BRID. Muse. 

rec. ii, P. I, 59 (1798) ; Sp. muse. I, 101 (1806). ROTH Fl. germ, iii, P. I, 141 (1800). 

ROEHL. Moosg. Deutsch. 122 (1800). SMITH Fl. brit iii, 1183 (1804); Eng. Bot. t. 

1489. TURN. Muse. hib. 24 (1804). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 145 (1807). SCHKUHR 

Deutsch. kr. gew. P. 2, 60, t. 25 (1810). SCHWAEGR, Suppl. I, P. I, 83 (1811). SCHLEICH. 

Cat. pi. helv. 29. MART. Cr. erl. 113 (1817). FUNK Moost. 16, t. n (1821). 
Bryum recurvatum DICKS. PI. cr. Brit. fasc. II, 7 (1790). HOFFM. Deutsch. Fl. ii, 31 

(1795). WITH. Bot. arr. br. Veg. 3 ed. iii, 838 (1796). 
Bryum Wulfenii LAICH. PI. eur. 482 (1794). 
Weissia recurvata ROEHL. Deutsch. fl. iii, 51 (1813); Ann. Wett. ges. iii, P. I, 101. 

WAHLENB. Fl. suec. ii, 757 (1826). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 47, t. 15 (1818). BRID. 

Mant. 43 (1819) ; Bry. univ. i, 352 (1826). HOOK. Fl. Scot. P. 2, 131 (1821). GRAY 

Nat. arr. Br. pi. 5,732 (1821). NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ ii, S. 2, 97, t. 34, f. 27 (1831). 

HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 141 (1833). BALS. DE NOT. Pr. bry. Med. 140 (1834). MACK. 

Fl. hib. P. 2, 15 (1836). DE NOT. Syll. muse. 228 (1838). HOOK. Br. Fl.ii, 23 (1833). 
Grimmia pusilla SM. Eng. bot. t. 2551. 
Seligeria recurvata BR. SCH. Bry. eur. f. 33 6 Mon. p. 6, t. 3 (1846). RABENH. Deutsch. 

Kr. Fl. ii, S. 3, 133 (1848). C. MUELL. Syn. i, 419 (1849). WILS. Bry. brit. 55, t. 15 

(1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 115 (1860), et 2 ed. 127 (1876). BERK. Handb. br. m. 289 

(1863). DE NOT. Epil. 655 (1869). MILDE BRY. siles. 87 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 

38 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 45 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. Oesterr. ung. 70 


Selig. sctacca LINDB. in Oefv. vet. ak. forh. 1863, p. 413 et 1864, p. 189. 

Autoicous ; widely csespitose, olivaceous-green. Stem very short, 
fragile, simple or dichotomous. Lower leaves oblongo-lanceolate, upper 
from an erect ovato-lanceolate base, longly subulate, flexuose, acute, 
entire; nerve semiterete, longly excurrent ; cells at base pellucid, 
elongated rectangular, above incrassate, subquadrate, chlorophyllose ; 
perich. bracts from a sheathing base subulate-setaceous, all subflexuose. 
Calyptra rather large. Capsule on a slender yellowish seta, arcuate 
when moist, erect when dry, subspheric oval or oblong, with a swelling 
neck, inclined, leptodermous, yellow-brown with a red mouth ; lid con- 
vexo-conic at base, with a straight subulate beak ; teeth of per. lineal, 
obtuse or lanceolate, sometimes cleft at apex, deep orange. Male as in 
S. pusilla. 
HAD. Shaded sandstone rocks or stones. Fr. 4 5. 

Forfar and Bilston burn (Don) ! By the Calder and Kilbride, Glasgow. Brandon hill, 
Ireland (Mackay). Braemar (Croall 1856). Todmorden (Noivell 1858)! ! Den of Airlie 
(Coward 1858) ! Pentlands and Cleish hills (Arnott). Hardcastle crag (Hunt 1867) ! ! 
Greenfield, Yorks. (Whitehead 1867)!! Kentmere, Westmoreland (Stabler 1867)! 
Ashdown forest (Holmes 1877). Near Denbigh (Davies). Monsal Dale, Derby (White- 
head 1881) ! ! Devil's kitchen, Twll Dhu (Holmes) \ ! 

DICRANACE^.] 122 [BracJtydontium. 

This species may be readily distinguished from S. pusilla by its longer 
leaves and the seta becoming flexuose and arched when moist ; the capsule 
also is smaller and more globose than in the other species. 


(Fiirnr. in Flora 1827, P. II, 37.) 

Plants very small, densely gregarious ; leaves resembling those of 
Seligeria. Calyptra mitriform, 5-lobed, conical. Capsule erect, oblong, 
substriate, with a very broad persistent annulus ; teeth of per. confluent 
at base, broad, truncate, very short and thin, dotted, and with a few 
perforations. Deriv. /fy> a x us short, oSous a tooth. 

Schimper states that this genus was founded by Bruch, whose pupil 
Fiirnrohr published the manuscript notes in Bruch's herbarium without 
acknowledgment, and perhaps for this reason afterwards altered the name to 
Brachyodus. The genus Campylostelium, usually associated with this, finds a 
more natural place with Glyphomitrium. 

Autoicous ; very small, simple. Leaves lanceolate-subulate, 
straight. Capsule cylindric-oblong, erect ; lid convex, rostellate. 
(T. XVII, D.) 

SYN. Gymnostomum trichodes WEB. MOHR Ind. mus. pi. cr. 3 (1803) et Arch. syst. naturges. i, 
P. I, 124, t. 4, f. i a d (1804) ; Bot. Tasch. 85 (1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. kr. gew. 
P. II, 23, t. 10 (1810). ROEHL. Deutsch. Fl. iii, 39 (1813). BRID. Mant. u (1819) ; Bry. 
univ. i, 58 (1826). NEES HSCH. Bry. germ, i, 184, t. 12, f. 29 (1823). 

Ancectangium trick. SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 33, t. 10 (1811). 

Grimmia trich. Eng. Bot. t. 2563 (1813). 

Weissia trich. HOOK. TAY. Muse. br. 45, t. 15 (1818). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 730 

(1821). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 138 (1833). HOOK. Br. Fl. ii, 21 (1833). MACK. Fl. hib. 

P. 2, 14 (1836). 
Brachydontium trichodes FURNR. in Flora X, P. II, Beil. I, p. 37 (1827). MILDE Bry. 

siles. 89 (1869). 
Brachyodus trichodes FURNR. op. c. p. 112, et xii, P. II, 594 (1829). NEES HSCH. Bry. 

germ, ii, P. II, 3, t. 25 (1831). BR. SCH. Bry. eur. f. 33 6, Mon. 3, t. i (1846). 

C. MUELL. Syn. i, 416 (1849). WILS. Bry. br. 53, t. 14 (1855). SCHIMP. Syn. 117 

(1860), et 2 ed. 132 (1876). BERK. Handb. br. m. 289, t. 24, f. 3 (1863). DE NOT. 

Epil. 667 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 36 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. Oesterr. ung. 71 


Autoicous ; plants gregarious, minute, very slender. Leaves 
erecto-patent, lanceolate, the nerve excurrent in a semiterete slightly 
channelled subula; areolation quadrato-hexagonal above, rectangulo- 
hexagonal at base. Capsule oblong, cylindric, narrowed at base, indis- 
tinctly striate, when old plicate, leptodermous, pale brown ; seta pale, 
slender, twisted to the right below and to the left above when dry ; 
calyptra reaching half down capsule, conical, split into 3 5 lobes ; 
annulus broad, of 3 series of large cells, separating in fragments ; lid 
conic, red at base with a straight subulate beak ; teeth 16, very irregular, 

DICRANACE.E.] 123 [Blindia. 

lanceolate, truncate, of 2 5 joints, perforated, pale, smooth ; spores 
small, pale. Male infl. on a short radical branch, gemmaceous, bracts 
broad, ovate, nerveless. 
HAB. Wet sandstone rocks. Fr. 4. 

Ben Buy and Ben Nevis (Rev. C. Smith). Greenfield, Yorks. (Hobson 1835) ! Henfield 
and Black down, Sussex (Borrcr) \ Todmorden (Nowcll 1849) ! Park quarry, 
Castle Howard (Baker 1858) ! ! Tebay (Barnes 1868) ! Alderley edge, Cheshire (White- 
head 1865) ! ! Bolton and Ainsworth (Scholefield 1861) ! Grayrigg forest, Westmoreland 
(Stabler 1868) ! Fern, Brechin (Fergusson 1868) ! Westward, Cumbd. (Rev. R. Wood 
1880) ! ! Near Lough Bray (Taylor). Kelly's Glen, Dublin (Moore 1863). 

Subf. 4. DICRANEM. Plants small, or tall and robust; leaves 
lanceolate, often falcato-secund and serrated, glossy, smooth or some- 
times papillose ; cells narrow and elongate above, those at the basal angles 
larger, vesicular, colored or pellucid. Capsule often subcylindric and curved, 
lid rostrate, teeth of per. 16, solid, lanceolate, trabeculate, usually cleft or 
perforated in the divisural line, rarely wanting. 


Bry. eur. f. 3336 (1846). 

Plants densely caespitant, dichotomous, fastigiate ; leaves quinque- 
farious, lanceolate-subulate, nerved, smooth, cells narrow, quadrate 
above, linear at base, with large, colored, vesicular angular cells. 
Calyptra dimidiate-cucullate ; capsule immersed or exserted, sub- 
spherical with a turgid neck, pachydermous. Peristome none or simple, 
teeth 16, lanceolate, remotely jointed, slender, smooth, cartilaginous. 
Deriv. After pastor Blind of Munster. 


Dwarf. Capsule immersed, gymnostomous. ccespiticia. 

Taller. Capsule exserted, peristomate. acuta. 

i. BLINDIA C-ffiSPITICIA (Schwaeg.) Lindb. 

Autoicous ; leaves oblong, subulate, entire with hyaline points. 
Capsule immersed, gymnostomous. (T.-XVII, E.) 

SYN. Ancectangium ccespiticium SCHWAEGR. in SCHRAD. neu Jour, iv, 13, t. II, A (1801) ; Suppl. 

I, P. I, 35, t. 12 (1811). FUNCK Moost. 7, t. 5 (1821). HOPP. HORNSCH. PI. cr. Dec. i 

Gymnostomum ccesp. WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 77 et 453 (1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. Kr. 

gew. 28, t. n, c. (1810). Eng. Bot. t. 2778. HOOK. br. fl. ii, 6 (1833). HUEBEN. Muse. 

germ. 57 (1833). DE NOT. Syll. 288 (1838). 
Schistidium c<zsp. BRID. Mant. 21 (1819) ; Bry. un. i, 119 (1827). NEES HORNSCH. Bry. 

germ, i, 94, t. 8, f. 2 (1823). 
Stylostegium casp. BR. SCH. Bry. eur. f. 3336, p. 3, t. i (1846). Synops. 118 (1860) ; 

2 ed. 130 (1876). HARTM. Sk. Fl. RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, P. 3, 131 (1848). WILS. 

Bry. br. 56, t. 38 (1855). BERK. Handb. br. m. 287 (1863). DE NOT. Epil. Bri. ital. 657 

(1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 38 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. Oesterr. ung. 73 (1882). 
Blindia Stylostegium C. MUELL. Synops. i, 345 (1849). 
Blindia cczspiticia LINDB. Muse. Scand. 25 (1879). 

DICRANACE.E.] 124 [BUndiet. 

Autoicous ; densely csespitose, in dwarf rigid tufts ; about in. 
high, dull yellow-green above, fuscescent below, rigid dichotomous and 
fastigiate. Leaves crowded, erecto-patent, or slightly falcato-secund 
above, oblong, subulate, ending in a very short hyaline point, entire, 
thin-nerved ; cells at base narrow linear-oblong, angular enlarged brown 
incrassate, upper narrow smaller flexuose. Perich. bracts much larger, 
sheathing. Capsule immersed, obovate-globose, truncate, gymnosto- 
mous, pachydermous, pale brown ; calyp. covering only the lid which 
is orange, depressed, obliquely rostrate, and adnate to the columella. 

Male infl. gemmaceous, at base of fertile branches ; bracts concave, 
ovate, acuminate. 

HAB. Crevices of wet mountain rocks ; rare. Fr. 7 9. 

Summit of Ben Lawers (Hooker 1830) ! ! 

2. BLINDIA ACUTA (Huds.) Br. Sch. 

Dioicous ; leaves oblongo-lanceolate, linear-subulate, acute. 
Capsule exserted, pyriform ; with 16 lanceolate entire or perforated 
teeth. (T. XVII, F.) 

SYN. Bryum pilosum, sphagni subulati facie DILL. Hist. muse. 374, t. 47, f. 34 (1741) et herb. 
Bryum verticillatum LIGHTF. Fl. Scot, ii, 733 (1777). 
Bryum acutum HUDS. Fl. angl. 2 ed. 484 (1778). WITH. Bot. arr. br. veg. 3 ed. iii, 823 

(1796). DICKS. Herb. sice. fasc. 17, n. 20. HULL Br. fl. P. 2, 260 (1799). P. BEAUV. 

Prodr. 45 (1805). 

Weissia acuta HEDW. Stirp. cr. iii, 85, t. 35 (1792) ; Sp. muse. 71 (1801). BRID. Muse. 

rec. II, P. I, 78 (1798); Sp. muse. I, no (1806) ; Mant. 47 (1819); Bry. univ. i, 362 

(1826). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 69 (1811). ROEHL. Deutsch. fl. iii, 51 (1813); Ann. 

Wett. ges. iii, 112. WAHL. Fl. lapp. 322 (1812). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 48, t. xv. 

(1818). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 732 (1821). HOOK. Fl. Scot. P. 2, 131 (1821) ; Brit. fl. 

ii, 24(1833). FUNCK Moost. 14, t. 9(1821). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 146 (1833). MACK. Fl. 

Lib. P. 2, 16 (1836). DE NOT. Syll. muse. 230 (1838). 
Weissia rupestris HEDW. Sp. muse. t. 14. 

Grimmia rupincola WEB. MOHR Reise Schwed. t. 2, f. 3 a d (1804). 
Grimmia acuta SM. Fl. brit. iii, 1192 (1804); Eng. Bot. t. 1644. TURN. Muse. hib. 29 

(1804). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 145 (1807). SCHKUHR D. kr. gew. P. 11,50, t. 26 (1811). 
Weissia fastigiata NEES HSCH. Bry. germ, ii, t. 35, f. 31 (1831). 
Blindia acuta BR. SCH. Bry. eur. f. 33 36, p. 3, t. i (1846). C. MUELL. Syn. i, 342 (1849). 

RABEN. Deutsch. Kr. fl. ii, s. 3, 133 (1848). WILS. Bry. brit 58, t. 15 (1855). SCHIMP. 

Syn. 119 (1860), et 2 ed. 131 (1876). BERK. Handb. br. m. 286, t. 24, f. i (1863). MILDE 

Bry. siles. 88 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 39 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. Oesterr. ung. 

72 (1882). 

Seligeria acuta DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 653 (1869). 

Dioicous : laxly casspitose, in compact fragile tufts i 4 in. high, 
yellow-green above, olivaceous or black below ; the young stem pale 
red. Leaves crowded, erecto-patent, the apical sometimes secund, 
oblongo-lanceolate, linear-subulate, acute, entire, convolute-concave ; 
angular cells large, orange-brown ; nerve thin, excurrent. Perich. 
bracts from a broad sheathing base, suddenly plicato- subulate. Caps, 
on a short purple seta, pachydermous, pyriform oval, erect, pale brown, 

DICRANACE^.] 125 [Didymodon. 

cyathiform and black when old ; calyp. reaching middle of capsule ; ' 
lid orange, depressed, with an oblique subulate beak ; teeth of per. erect, 
lanceolate, entire or perforated here and there, or cleft at apex, purple, 

Male pi. shorter, infl. terminal, gemmae, with ovate acuminate 

HAB. Crevices of alpine rocks, and among stones by mountain rills ; 

frequent. Fr. 7. 

In exposed places the plants become dwarfed, and the seta so short as 
scarcely to elevate the capsule above the leaves ; tall plants are generally 
decumbent and denuded of leaves at the base. 


(Bot. Tasch. 1807.) 

Plants slender, csespitose, dichotomous, interwoven with radicular 
tomentum ; leaves secund, lanceolate setaceous, with a broad nerve ; 
angular cells dilated. Caps, straight oblong or cylindric, on a cygneo- 
flexuose seta ; calyp. cucullate, entire at base ; per. arising below mouth 
of caps, of 16 teeth, cleft to base into two nearly equal, linear-subulate 
legs, remotely articulate, erect, connivent when moist. Deriv. gi%u>s 
twin, oSovs a tooth. 

The genus Didymodon was established by Hedwig in 1792 for D. rigidulus, 
to which in 1801 he added D. homomallus ; the former is now referred to 
Barbtila, the latter to Ditrichum. In 1807 Weber and Mohr placed under it 
the two species of Swartzia, Ditrichum pusillum and glaucescens and a new species 
longirostmm which Bridel had a year previously named Dicramcm denudatum. 
It is clear this last remains the type of the genus, and cannot be set aside for 
the modern Dicmnodontium, than which it is also far more appropriate, for the 
teeth are not like those of Dicmnum, and by the peristome alone can it stand 
separate from the latter genus. Closely allied is the Mexican Atvactylocavpns 
MITT, of which a third species is the Metzlevia alpina SCHIMP. found in Switzer- 
land and Austria. 


Dioicous ; leaves from an oblong base longly subulate, slightly 
denticulate above, with hyaline angular cells. Caps, on a cygneous 
seta, subcylindric, lid with a long straight beak. (T. XVII, G.) 

SYN. Dicrannm flcxuosum BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. I, 163 (1798). ROEHL. Moosg. deutsch. 329 

Dicranum denudatum BRID. Sp. muse. I, 184 (1806) ; Mant. 61 (1819). C. MUELL. Synops. 

i, 403 (1849). JENS. Bry. dan. 95 (1856). 
Didymodon longirostmtn WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 155 et 463 (1807). ROEHL. Deutsch. fl. 

iii, 56 (1813). FICIN. Fl. dresd. ii, 43 (1823). BRID. Bry. ur.iv. i, 512 (1826). DUBY 

Bot. gall, ii, 567 (1830). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 279 (1833). DE NOT. Syll. muse. 196 

Cynodontium long. SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, I, in, t. 29 (1811). MART. Fl. cr. erl. 94 (1817). 

DICRANACE^B.] 126 [Didymodon. 

Dicranodontlum longirostre BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 41, p. 2, t. i (1848). RABENH. 
Deutsch. Kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 149 (1848). WILS. Bry. brit. 86, t. 39, (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 
96 (1860), et 2 ed. 99 (1876). BERK. Handb. br. m. 274 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles-75 
(1869). DE NOT. Ep. bri. ital. 636 (1869). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 55 (1873). HOBK. 
Syn. br. m. 49 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr. ung. 52 (1882). 

Trichostomum longirostre HARTM. Skand. fl. 
Didymodon denudatus LINDB. Muse, scand. 25 (1879). 

Dioicous; in soft tufts, i 3 in. high, erect or ascending, almost naked 
at base, pale or glossy yellow-green above, interwoven with rufous 
tomentum. Leaves readily deciduous, falcato-secund, from a subva- 
ginant base, longly subulate, involute-concave, serrate or entire at 
apex, smooth at back; basal auricles suddenly inflated, equal to all 
base of wing, hyaline and usually rufescent toward margin, upper cells 
small, quadrate ; nerve broad flattened, half width of base, excurrent. 
Perich. bracts longly sheathing, suddenly subulate with the excurrent 
nerve, laxly areolate below; seta pale, flexuose. Capsule small, sub- 
cylindric, leptodermous, pale brown, nearly equal ; lid straight, rostrate, 
long as capsule ; peristome pale red. Male infl. terminal, gemmaceous. 

HAB. On turfy banks and rotten wood in subalpine districts. Fr. very 
rare. 8. 

Cromagloun (Taylor 1841). O'Sullivan's cascade (Hunt 1867) ! Stirrup wood, Mottram 

DO) ! ! Highgreen wood, Heptonstall (Nc 
Staley brushes (Hunt 1865) ! ! Bolton (Dr. Wood). Trefriew, Carnarvon (Dr. Wood 

(Whitehead 1860) ! ! Highgreen wood, Heptonstall (Newell) ! ! Hebden valley and 

1863) ! Bowness (Hunt 1871) ! Trossachs (Wilson 1858) ! ! Campsie (McKinlay) \ 
Ben Arthur (Dr. Stirton 1866) ! Barmouth (Whitehead 1877) ! ! Skye, in fruit (Prof. 
Law son 1872) ! ! 

Var. ft. alpinus (Schimp.) 

Plants taller and more robust ; leaves not deciduous, erect or subsecund 
rather rigid. 

SvTX.Campylopus alpinus SCHIMP. Bry. eur. Suppl. I-II (1864). BRAITHW. Journ. Bot. 1870, 

p. 389. HOBK. Syn. br. m. 51 (1873). 

Camp, pachyneuros MOLENDO Moos-stud, aus dem Alg. alp. 63 (1865). 
Camp, intermedius WILS. MSS. 

HAB. Twll-Du near Llanberis (Wilson) ! Arrochar, with fruit (McKinlay). Callander (Stirton). 
Glen Callater and Stronaclacher (Hunt) ! ! Ben More in Glen Dochart (Schimper 
1865) ! Summit of Ingleboro (Hunt 1867) ! ! Powerscourt, Lough Bray, Kelly's Glen, 
Cushendall and Kylemore (Moore) \ ! Cader Idris (Whitehead 1879) ! ! Ben Wyvis 
(Howse 1870) ! 

This very variable moss resembles Ditrichum flexicaule, from which it is 
easily separable by the different areolation of the leaf at base. 

In Bot. Zeit. 1870, p. 392, Milde has an excellent paper " ueber Dicrano- 
dontium," in which he shows that Camp, alpinus must be referred as a variety 
to the present species, as Juratzka had already done in Hedwigia, 1867, 
p. 1 80, the rhombic and oval upper cells of a Campylopus being absent. He 
enumerates five other varieties, one of which circinatum, must be restored to 
specific rank, and placed, as Mitten has done, under Dicranum uncinatum. 

The second species Die. aristatum SCHIMP. must also be referred without 
the slightest doubt to Dicranum asperulum MITTEN, with fertile Indian plants 
of which ours agrees precisely in leaf-structure. 

DICRANACE^;.] 127 [Campylopus. 


Mantissa 71 (1819). 

Mosses resembling Dicranum in habit. Leaves with a broad nerve 
of several strata of cells, furrowed or smooth at back ; basal cells 
dilated, hyaline or brown at the excavated angles. Calyptra cucullate, 
fringed at base. Caps, on an arcuate or flexuose or rarely straight seta, 
equal, pachydermous, generally striated, deeply sulcate when dry. 
Annulus of i 3 series of cells. Peristome dicranoid. Inhabiting turfy 
ground and rocks. Der. ra/xTruXos curved, TTOUS a foot. 

Nearly 200 species are referred to this genus, some of which are no 
doubt synonymous, and a great number are only known in a sterile state ; 
more than one-third of them are natives of central America. C. Mueller and 
some other bryologists retain the genus as a section of Dicranum, yet it has 
a peculiar facies readily recognized after a little practice, by which we may 
with certainty separate the two. Several species produce slender flagelliform 
branches, by which they propagate, and very frequently the stems are matted 
together by an abundance of branched radicles produced from the axils or 
backs of the leaves. The leaves themselves are densely crowded, imbricated 
when dry, erecto-patent when moist, and frequently terminate in a white 
hair ; above the base the marginal cells are extremely narrow, and they 
become wide and rectangular towards the nerve, the transverse walls being 
frequently incrassate, in the narrow part of the lamina they are much smaller, 
quadrate, rhombic or oval, and often crammed with chlorophyl ; the structure 
of the nerve is best seen in transverse section, the back of it being often 
furrowed by the projection of alternate rows of cells, which sometimes even 
extend into lamellae. The curious falling off of the leaves in several species 
of this genus and in the last is attributed by Lindberg to some change in the 
contents of the basal cells, akin to the fatty degeneration in animal tissues, 
the result being the arrest of circulation through those cells and their separa- 
tion from the stem. 

Leaves concolorous. 

Leaves not auricled at base. 

Nerve J width of leaf-base. pyriformis. 

Nerve more than J width of leaf-base. 
Stems tomentose above. 

Nerve width of base ; basal cells large, lax, hyaline. fragllis. 

Nerve f width ; basal cells small and narrow. Schimperi. 

Stems not tomentose above, very short. subitlatus. 

Leaves auricled at base. 

Stems not tomentose above, nerve above half width of base. 
Leaves dense, nearly entire. 

Leaves shortly and gradually subulate, margin inflexed 

from above base. Schwarzii. 

Leaves longly subulate by the margin being inflexed 

suddenly at \ their length. Shawii. 

Leaves distant, serrate above. setifolius. 

Stems tomentose throughout, nerve one-third width of base. 

Leaves long, suddenly subulate for $ length of leaf. fiexuosus. 

Leaves short, gradually narrowed into a subula half their length, paradoxits. 
Leaves with hyaline points. 
Point of leaf a hoary hair. 

Leaves auricled at base ; nerve J width. atrovirens. 

Leaves not auricled ; nerve width. introflexus. 

Hyaline point very short ; nerve j width of base. bravipilus. 

DICRANACE.E.] 128 [Campylopus. 


Dioicous ; densely caespitose, not tomentose above ; leaves erecto- 
patent, lanceolate-subulate, longly setaceous, denticulate at point. 
Caps, oval, pale, lid conico-subulate, red. (T. XVII, I.) 

SYN. Dicranum ftcxuosum HEDW. Sp. muse. t. 38 (1801). 

Dicranum flexuosum Var. SCHULTZ Fl. starg. 298 (1806). 

Dicranum pyrif or me SCHULTZ Suppl. Fl. starg. 73 (1819). FUNCK Moost. 31,1.21 (1821). 

SPRENG. in L. Syst. veg. iv. 167 (1827). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 268 (1833). MITT. 

Journ. Lin. soc. i, Suppl. 17 (1859). 
Campylopus flcxuosus BRID. Bry. univ. i, 469, p.p. 
Campylopus pyriformis BRID. Bry. univ. i, 471 (1826). BRAITHW. in Journ. Bot. 1870, 

p. 393. HOBK. Syn. br. m. 54. 
Camp, turfaceus BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 41, p. 4, t. 3 (1848). WILS. Bry. brit. 89, t. 40 

(1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 98 (1860), et 2 ed. 103 (1876). BERK. Handb. br. m. 272 (1863). 

MILDE Bry. siles. 77 (1869). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 58 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. 

oesterr. ung. 56 (1882). 

Thysanomitrium pyriforme RABENH. Deutsch. Kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 149 (1848). 
Dicranum turfacenm C. MUELL. Synops. i, 399 (1849). 
Dicr. pinetorum GRIFF. Not. pi. as. P. II, 419 (1849) ; Ic. pi. as. ii, T. 94, f. 3 (1849). 

Dioicous ; densely caespitose, in large low olivaceous or bright green 
or tawny tufts ; stems ^ i in. high, erect, radiculose only at base. 
Leaves gradually longer to the coma, erecto-patent, lower lanceolate, 
median lane, subulate, upper from an ovato-lanceolate base, suddenly 
setaceous, denticulate at point ; nerve width of base, sulcate at back, 
in section of 3 strata of cells, the two anterior lax, echlorophyllose ; 
angular cells small, lax, inconspicuous, the rest small, quadrate, very 
minute above. Caps, on a pale flexuose cygneous pedicel, deflexed, 
elliptic-oblong, pale olive, becoming pale brown when empty; lid conico- 
subulate, red, darker at base, with a broad annulus ; calyptra blackish 
at apex ; teeth red at base, pale above, cleft to middle ; perich. bracts 
convolute, sheathing, gradually subulate, laxly areolate at base. 

Male plant dwarf; inner bracts from a broad base shortly 

HAS. Heaths, moorlands and by sides of ditches; not uncommon. Fr. 


This may be easily confused with some forms of C. fragilis, but the 
leaves are more irregularly divergent, and with longer setaceous points, the 
lamina ends more abruptly above, and is not narrowed at the base, the whole 
dilated part being scarce J length of leaf. The var. M 'Alien (C. Mnllevi 
JURATZKA), is only a form with the fringe of the calyptra imperfectly developed ; 
Mr. Holt finds it at Delamere, Cheshire, as frequent as the ordinary state. 


Dioicous ; pale green, densely leafy above ; leaves straight, narrowly 
lanceolate, very thin and pale at base. Caps, bent down among the 
leaves, oval olivaceous ; lid pale red. (T. XVIII, A.) 

DICRANACE.E.] 129 [Campylopus. 

SYN. Bryum fragile DICKS. PI. cr. brit. Fasc. Ill, 5 (1793). HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 38 (1796). 
Dicranum flcxuosum ft. fragile TURN. Muse. hib. 74 (1804). SM. Fl. brit. iii, 1229 (1804), 

p.p. HUEB. Muse. germ. 267 (1833). 

Dicran. densum SCHLEICH. Cr. helv. FUNCK Cr. gew. n. 634. 
Campylopus penicillatus BRID. Mant. 73 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 478 et 815 (1826). 
Camp, fragilis BR. Sen. Bry. eur. f. 41, p. 4, t. 2 (1848). SCHIMP. Synops. 97 (1860), et 

2 ed. 102 (1876). Bry. eur. suppl. f. i 2, p. 4, t. i, f. 6 (1864). MILDE Bry. siles. 77 

(1869). DE NOT. Epil. bri. it. 649 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 53 (1873). HUSN. 

Mouss. nord-ouest 57 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr. ung. 56 (1882). 
Dicr. Funkii et D. Schleicheri C. MUELL. Synops. i, 392 (1849). 

Campyl. densus BR. SCH. op. c. 6, t. 5. WILS. Bry. br. 88, t. 40 (1855). BERK. Handb. 

br. m. 272 (1863). 
Thysanomitrium flexuosum R. saxicola RABENH. Deutsch. Kr. fl. ii, s. 3, 149 (1848). 

Dioicous; densely caespitose, % 2 in. high, pale or yellow-green 
above, pale brown with rufous tomentum at base ; innovations pro- 
ducing at apex fragile fasciculate branches with long narrow leaves. 
Leaves very dense, erecto-patent, straight, fragile deciduous, very thin 
and whitish at base, with a silky gloss, narrowly lanceolate, shortly 
setaceous, denticulate towards point ; nerve lightly sulcate at back, of 
3 strata of cells, the two anterior large and hyaline ; cells at base lax 
and rectangular, above the marginal are very narrow and elongated, the 
rest subquadrate, upper oblong elliptic. Caps, bent down among the 
comal leaves by the cygneous seta, oval subpyriforum, lightly sulcate, 
olivaceous ; calyp. sparingly fringed ; lid conico subulate, pale red, 
oblique ; annulus broad. Male pi. resembling that of C. pyriformis. 
HAB. Sandstone rocks and turfy soil in subalpine districts. Fr. 12 4. 

Bantry (Miss Hutchins 1808) ! Muckruss, Glengariff and Howth (Hunt 1864) ! Alderley 
Edge and Frodsham, Cheshire (Wilson) ! Todmorden (Nowcll 1851) ! ! Ardingley 
(Mitten) ! Trefriew (Wood 1863) ! Mt. Edgcombe (Holmes 1867) ! Ben Lomond 

(Stirton 1866) ! Ben Ledi (Braithwaite 1865) ! ! Glen Prosen (Fergusson 1868) ! ! 

Hunt 1866) ! ! Cwm Bycl 
(Whitehead 1878) ! Kinder scout, Derby (Whitchead (1881) ! ! Verwood, Dorset 

Tarbet, Gairloch and Loch Goil head (Hunt 1866) ! ! Cwm Bychan, Harlech 
(Whitehead 1878) ! Kinder scout, Derby (Whitchead (1881) ! ! 
(Rev. H. Wood) \ Arncliff wood, Whitby (Rev. J. F. Crouch 1859) ! 

Plants more robust and leafy than the last, and with fine branched pale 
radicles on the stem, the expanded lamina narrower at base, J or ^ length 
of leaf, and gradually narrowed in the upper part with coarser areolation. 
Considerable variation in height and density is met with in this species but 
no definite line can be drawn between the two forms densus and fragilis. 


Dioicous ; in dense tufts interwoven with rufous tomentum ; leaves 
erect, straight, lanceolate-subulate, subtubulose, not auricled, the point 
with a few small teeth ; nerve f width of base ; basal cells lax, 
rectangular. (T. XVIII, C.) 

SVN. Campylopus Schimperi MILDE Bot. Zeit. 1864, Beil. p. 13. Hedwigia 1865, n. 2. DE 
NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 650 (1869). BRAITHW. Journ. Bot. 1870, p. 392, T. in, fig. 3. 
HOBK. Syn. br. m. 54 (1873). SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 107 (1876). JURATZ. Laubm. 
oesterr. ung. 55 (1882). 

Camp, compactus SCHIMP. in lit. 

DICRANACE^;.] 130 [Campylopus. 

Dioicous ; in very dense compact tufts interwoven with rufous 
tomentum, fastigiate, i 3 in. high. Stems slender, cuspidate, light 
silky green above, fuscous below, dichotomous, with alternate innova- 
tions which are easily detached. Leaves appressed when dry, erecto- 
patent, straight, rigid, narrowly lanceolate-subulate, with a few small 
teeth at extreme apex, channelled in the lower part, becoming tubulose 
above from the incurved wings ; nerve very broad, f width of base, of 
3 4 strata of cells, anterior lax and hyaline, posterior turgid and 
prominent ; cells at extreme base brown and vesicular, above hyaline, 
very narrow at margin, elongate-rectangular towards nerve, the upper 
small and elliptic. Perich. bracts sheathing, suddenly narrowed into a 
long subula ; caps, pale, ovate, striate, annulus broad, lid half length of 
caps, beaked, peristome small, the teeth cleft to middle ; spores large. 

HAB. Highland mountains, on the ground and wet rocks ; not common. 
Fr. 8. 

Ben Challum (McKinlay 1863) ! Ben Lawers (Braithwaite 1865) ! ! Ben Ledi and 
Ben Lomond (Stirton 1865) ! ! Bressay, Shetland (Shaw 1864) ! The Ptarmigan mtn. 
(Holt 1880) ! ! 

A pretty species, readily known by its very compact tufts, closely 
interwoven with fine branched radicles, which principally arise from the cells 
at back of the nerve. The fruit has only been found by Breidler on the 
Venediger near Zell-am-see. 


Dioicous; dwarf, densely gregarious, eradiculose ; leaves short 
erect, lanceolate-subulate, nearly entire at apex, nerve half width of 
base, of 4 cell-layers. (T. XVIII, B.) 

SYN. Campylopus subulatus SCHIMP. in litt. ad Milde. MILDE in RABENH. Bryoth. n. 451 

(Jan. 1862) ; Bot. Zeit. 1862, p. 460. LINDB. Muse, scand. 25 (1879). 

Camp, brevifolius SCHIMP. Bry. eur. suppl. fasc. i 2(1864); Synops. 2 ed. 106 (1876). 
DE NOT. Epil. briol. ital. 650 (1869). MILDE Bry. siles. 78 (1869). BRAITHW. in Journ. 
Bot. 1870, p. 393. HOBK. Syn. br. m. 55 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord.ouest. 58 (1873). 
JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr. ung. 55 (1882). 

Orthopus brevifolius WULFSB. in Christian. Vid.-selsk. forh. 1875, p. 351. 

Dioicous ; densely gregarious, yellow green above, fuscescent 
below, stem in. high, not radiculose, simple or dichotomous, with 
caducous ramuli. Leaves enlarging upward, erect short rigid, 
lanceolate-subulate, deeply concave, not auricled, entire or with a few 
teeth at extreme apex, which is also sometimes hyaline ; nerve very 
broad, ending with the apex, of 4 strata of cells, the two anterior larger 
and empty, two posterior smaller, the innermost of these least and 
chlorophyllose ; cells at base lax, thin, very narrow at margin, rectan- 
gular toward nerve, upper small rhombic or straight. Seta straight. 
HAB. Dry sandy or gravelly banks by roadsides ; rare. 

D ICRANACE.E.] 131 [Campylopus. 

By the bridge on the road between the Hunting tower and Cromagloun, Killarney 
(Schimper and Wilson June 1865) ! Near Fern, Brechin (Fergusson 1876) ! 

This little plant is a miniature of C. Schwarzii from which it can only be 
distinguished by the auricled leaves in the latter species, to which indeed 
McKinlay's Perthshire specimens referred here, truly belong. Wulfsberg found 
the plant with young fruit Sept. 1874 at Skcelnes in the island* of Varaldsoe, 
Norway, having a straight seta, and on this character alone, founded the 
genus Orthopus ; this cannot be maintained, as several exotic species have a 
straight seta, and the point is too trivial for generic distinction. 


Dioicous ; densely tufted, scarcely radiculose ; leaves erecto-patent, 
lanceolate-subulate, subtubulose, auricled at base, the point with a few 
teeth ; nerve f width of base. (T. XVIII, D.) 

SYN. Campylopus Schwarzii SCHIMP. Bry. eur. suppl. fasc. i 2 (1864) ; Synops. 2 ed. 105 
(1876). DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 651 (1869). BRAITHW. in Journ. Bot. 1870, p. 391. 
LINDB. Muse, scand. 25 (1879). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr. ung. 58 (1882). 
Camp, auriculatus WILS. MSS. 

Dioicous ; in dense soft silky yellowish-green tufts, fuscous below. 
Stems 2 3 in. high, slender, repeatedly dichotomous, erect, sparingly 
radiculose. Leaves erecto-patent, straight or slightly secund above, 
lanceolate-subulate, concave below, subtubular above, with a few 
small teeth at apex ; nerve f width of base, of 3 4 strata of 
cells, anterior lax, hyaline, the rest small, chlorophyllose, often 
producing fine reddish radicles from the back ; wings dilated at basal 
angles into auricles of lax thin cells, partly brown, partly hyaline, the 
cells above small, narrow and elongated, becoming subquadrate upward. 
Female infl. aggregated at top of stem, bracts dilated at base, suddenly 
HAB. Alpine rocks. Not common. 

Nephin mountain, Mayo (Moore 1852) ! ! Connor hill, Dingle and Carrantuohil mtn. 
Kerry (Moore 1857) ' ' Brandon mtn. (Schimper 1865) ! Gap of Dunloe and Mangerton, 
Killarney (Hunt 1872) ! Muckishmtn., Donegal (Moore 1866). Ben Ledi, Ben Voirlich, 
Balquidder, Arrochar and Dunoon (McK inlay 1863) ! Glencoe and Kinlochewe, Ross 
(Hunt 1866) ! ! Borrowdale, Cumberland (Hunt 1871) ! ! Head of Clova (Fergusson) ! ! 
Hills behind Callander \Stirton 1864). Inverness, Sutherland and Caithness. 

This moss varies considerably in size and colour, and is always more 
slender and attenuated at the points than the next species, with the leaves 
more distantly placed on the stem. 


Dioicous ; in dense tufts, with few radicles ; leaves erecto-patent, 
very dense, straight or secund above, lanceolate-subulate, with a few 
teeth at point; nerve f width of base. (T. XIX, A.) 

SYN. Campylopus Shawn WILS. MSS. BRAITHW. in Journ. Bot. 1870, p. 389, T. in, {. i. 
HOBK. Syn. br. m. 51 (1873). SCHIMP. Syn. 2 ed. 851 (1876). 

DICRANACE.E.] 132 \Campylopus. 

Dioicous ; densely tufted, fastigiate, yellowish green above, brown 
below, i 3 in. high ; stems straight, sparingly dichotomous, with fine 
brown radicles at base of leaves. Leaves densely crowded, erecto- 
patent straight rigid, from a somewhat contracted auricled base, 
lanceolate, longly subulate, contracted below the middle and involute in 
a semitubular subula, apex acute with a few minute teeth ; nerve very 
broad, f f width of base and occupying all upper part, smooth at back, 
of 3 strata of cells, anterior large lax and hyaline, the other two small 
and chlorophyllose ; angular cells very lax, hyaline or partly fuscous, 
above rectangular, becoming rhomboido-elliptic and oval upward. 

HAD. Bogs near Loch Maddy, N. Uist (Shaw 1866), also in S. Uist and 
other Hebridean Islands. 

Var. (3. hamatus Schimp. Synops. I.e. 

Stems shorter, more robust; leaves very densely crowded, broader, 

In N. Uist with the type. 

This fine plant approaches very close to C. Schwarzii, from which it can 
best be distinguished by the tomentose stem and suddenly inflexed margin of 
the leaves ; the hoary poii t of C. atrovirens separates it from that species. 


Dioicous; in dense glossy yellow-green tufts, interwoven with 
rufous tomentum ; leaves lanceolate-subulate, denticulate at point, 
angular cells lax, fuscous, upper minute, elliptic, incrassate. Caps, ovato- 
elliptic, pale, sulcate; lid conico-subulate, concolorous. (T. XVIII, F.) 

SYN. Muscus trichoides pediculo contorto, D. Shcrardi. DOODY, RAY Syn. St. brit. 2 ed. app. 339 

Bryum trichoides, capitulis ercctis, pediculis intortis tenuibus vlrcntibus. DILL. Cat. Giss. 
225 (1719) ; in RAY Syn. 3 ed. 97 (1724). 

Bryum pilosum molle, setis intortis. DILL. Hist. muse. 373, t. 47, f. 33 A E (1741) p.p. 
Bryum flexuosum L. Sp. pi. 1118 (1753); Syst. nat. ii, 702; Syst. veg. 948. Huns. Fl. 

angl. 407 (1762). NECK. Meth. muse. 205 (1771). WITH. Bot. arr. br. veg. 674 (1776). 

LIGHTF. Fl. scot, ii, 725 (1777). ROTH Tent. fl. germ. 473 (1788). HULL Br. fl. P. II, 

264 (1799). HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 384(1796). 
Dicranum flexuosum BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. I, 163 (1792) excl. syn. Sp. muse. I, 208 (1806) ; 

ROTH Fl. germ, ii, P. I, 162 (1789). SWARTZ Muse. suec. 34 (1799). ROEHL. Moosg. 

deutsch. 339 (1800) ; Deutsch. fl. iii, 69. SMITH Fl. brit. iii, 1229 (1804) ; Eng. Bot. t. 

1491. TURN. Muse. hib. 74, p.p. t. 5, f. 2a (1804). SCHULTZ Fl. starg. 298 (1806). 

WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 169 (1807). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 189 (1811). VOIT Muse. 

herb. 44 (1812). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 53, t. 16 (1818), p.p. FUNCK Moost. 31, t. 21 

(1821). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 735 (1821). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. 2, 132 (1821) ; Br. Fl. 

ii, 38 (1833). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 267 (1833). MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 22 (1836). C. 

MUELL. Syn. i, 400 (1849). JENS. Bry. dan, 94 (1856). 
Campylopus flex. BRID. Mant. 71 (1819), Bry. un. i, 469 (1826), p.p. BR. SCH. Bry. eur. 

fasc. 41, t. i (1847). WILS. Bry. brit. 90, t. 16 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 97 (1860), et 

BERK. Handb. br. m. 273, 
HOBK. Syn. br. m. 52 (1873). HUSN. Mous. nord-ouest 57 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. 

2 ed. 102 (1876). BERK. Handb. br. m. 273, t. 23, f. 4 (1863). MILDE Bry. sil. 76 (1869). 

oesterr. ung. 54 (1882). 

Thy sanomitrium flex. ARN. Disp. mouss. 33 (1825), excl. var. RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, 
P. 3, 149 (1848). 

DICRANACE^.] 133 [Campylopus. 

Dioicous ; in dense rigid tufts, i 3 in. high, glossy yellow-green 
above, reddish below; stems covered with rufous tomentum arising 
from back of leaf at base ; ramuli with small leaves, caducous. Leaves 
crowded, erecto-patent or secund above, solid, lanceolate-subulate, 
channelled, serrulate at apex, excavate at basal angles ; nerve broad, 
nearly | width of leaf-base, occupying all the denticulate apex, furrowed 
at back, in section of 3 strata of nearly equal cells, the two anterior lax 
and empty; angular cells lax vesicular brown, the rest subquadrate 
pellucid, upper minute, elliptic, incrassate. Perich. bracts with a long 
convolute sheathing base, suddenly subulate, denticulate at apex; 
capsules often aggregated, seta pale brown, cygneous, finally erect, 
caps, ovate rather gibbous, pachydermous, pale brown, slightly 
furrowed ; annulus broad, lid conico-subulate, oblique, concolorous ; 
teeth red, cleft to middle, with slender hyaline legs. Male plant short, 
inflor. often aggregated at apex, bracts broad, acuminate. 
HAB. On turfy ground and moist sandstone rocks. Fr. n 2. 

Var. ft. paludosus Schimp. 

Taller and more slender, with fewer radicles ; leaves more distant, more 
elongated, with a narrower nerve. 

SYN. Dicranum palustre LA PYL. BRID. Bry. univ. i, 814. 

Campylopus paradoxus p.p. SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 108. 
HAB. Boggy heaths in subalpine districts. 

Barmouth (Dr. Wood 1875) ! in Herb. Schimp. as C. paradoxus. Foot of Cader Idris 
(Pcrclval 1876) ! ! Near Llyn Ogwen (Boswcll 1874) ! ! Loch Maree (Boswell 1875) ! ! 

Much more robust than the ordinary form and 3 4 in. high, with the 
bases of leaves often tinted with purple. 


Dioicous ; in loose dull-green tufts with a few rufous radicles. 
Leaves lanceolate, shortly subulate, rather obtuse, the nerve lost in the 
apex ; angular cells fuscous, becoming smaller rhomboidal and quadrate 
above. (T. XVIII, G.) 

SYN. Campylopus paradoxus WILS. MSS. HARDY in Berwick. Nat. Club Hist. 1868, p. 448. 
BRAITHW. in Journ. Bot. 1870, p. 390, t. in, f. 2. HOBK. Syn. br. m. 52 (1873). 
SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 108 (1876). 

Dioicous ; densely tufted, i 2 in. high, dull deep green above, pale 
fuscous below ; stems fastigiate, dichotomous or with short lateral 
ramuli, and only a few rufous sparingly branched radicles. Leaves 
erecto-appressed when dry, erecto-patent when moist, lowest ovate 
obtuse, becoming lanceolate above, the uppermost shortly lanceolate- 
subulate, concave and subtubular in upper part, apex with a few 
irregular teeth ; nerve ^ width of base, vanishing at apex, composed of 

DICRANACE.E.] 134 [Campylopns. 

3 strata of cells, two anterior larger and empty, posterior small and 
chlorophyllose ; basal cells rectangular hyaline, becoming fuscous when 
old, above these smaller and quadrate, becoming incrassate and 
irregularly rhomboidal and oval toward apex. 
HAB. Peaty soil in subalpine districts ; rare. 

With Dicranella heteromalla in Trickley planting, top of Whiteside hill, Wooler, 
Northumberland (Hardy and Boyd 1868) ! ! Ulpha bog near Levens, Westmoreland 
(Barnes 1868)! ! Glencoe (Prof. Barker 1870). Morwell rocks near Tavistock, Devon 
(Holmes 1873) ! ! Rumbold's moor, Ilkley, Yorks. (Wesley 1878) ! ! Summit of Kinder 
Scout, Derby (Whitehead 1881) ! ! 

Close as this species stands to C flexuosus, it has so peculiar an aspect, 
that we prefer to keep them separate, basing the distinction on the short 
straight leaves of C. paradoxus, with t he lamina distinct to the apex. The 
original specimens are scarcely an inch in height, and amongst the stems 
are some with terminal rosettes of short ovate leaves more laxly areolate, 
these are probably abortive males ; Whitehead's specimens are 2^ in. high, 
and Wesley's nearly as tall. It is probable that it may eventually have to 
sink to a Var. of C. flexuosus. 


Dioicous ; tall and slender, without radicles ; leaves long, lax, 
lanceolate-subulate, serrate, with large inflated auricles; caps, ovato- 
pyriform, lid conico-rostellate. (T. XVIII, E.) 

SYN. Campylopns setifolius WILS. Bry. br. 89, t. 40 (1855). BERK. Handb. br. m. 272 (1863). 
SCHIMP. Bry. eur. suppl. fasc. 3 4, t. 6 (1866). Syn.musc. 2ed. 106 (1876). BRAITHW. 
in Journ. Bot. 1870, p. 391. HOBK. Syn. br. m. 53 (1873). 

Dioicous ; laxly tufted, glossy yellowish-green above, dark brown or 
blackish below, stems slender 3 10 in. high, dichotomous, with a few 
radicles only at base. Leaves rather distant, longly lanceolate-subulate, 
with large inflated auricles, very concave and subtubulose, serrated 
toward apex, subula formed of the excurrent nerve, hispid at back ; 
basal cells hexagono-rectang. empty, upper rhombic, chlorophyllose; 
nerve half width of base, of 3 strata of cells, outer minute chlorophyllose, 
middle equal hyaline, inner twice as large hyaline. Fruit aggregated, 
about 4 together, perich. bracts oblong, convolute sheathing, suddenly 
narrowed into a setaceous subula ; seta short flexuose, reddish brown, 
cygneous when moist ; caps, suberect, pale brown, ovato-pyriform, 
becoming cylindraceous when old, sulcate, annulus very broad, breaking 
up, lid conico-rostellate, half length of capsule, per. erect, dark reddish- 
brown, cleft above half way, the legs yellow, spores pale. 

Male plant slender, infl. 3 4 in a capitulum, gemmiform, outer 
bracts ovate, subulate, inner ovate-oblong, muticous, nerveless. 
HAB. Rocks among grass and heath ; rare. Fr. 6. 

Carrig mountain, Dunkerron (Taylor 1836). Powerscourt and near Seven Churches, 
Wicklow (Moore 1864) ! ! Cromaglown in fruit, intermixed with C. atrovirens and C.] 135 [Campylopus. 

flcxuosus in fruit (Capt. Hutton 1865) ! Eagle's nest, Pass of Dunloe and Kenmare 
Road, Killarney (Carrington and Hunt 1861) ! ! Kylemore Castle, Connemara (Moore 
1870) ! ! Sligichan, Skye (Hunt 1863) ! ! Island of Lewis, Hebrides (Moore 1868) ! 
Cwm Bychan near Harlech, in fruit (George 1878). 

The fertile plant is shorter and more densely leafy than the sterile or 
male, and the species is easily recognized by the large inflated auricles, and 
serrated hispid subula. 


Dioicous; in dense dark green cushions; leaves lanceolate-subulate, 
auricled, ending in rough white points. (T. XIX, B.) 

SYN. Dicranum flexuosum y, piliferum TURN. Muse. hib. 74, p.p. t. 5, f. 2 b,c. (1804) 
Dicr. flexiiosum R. nigro-viride HOOK. TAY. Muse. brit. 2 ed. 94, p.p. (1827). 
Campylcptis longipilus BRID. Bry. univ. i, 477 (1826) p.p. WILS. Bry. brit. go, t. 40 (1855). 

BERK. Handb. br. m. 273 (1863). SCHIMP. Bry. eur. suppl. fasc. i 2, t. 3 (1864) ; 

Synops. 2 ed. 103 (1876). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr. ung. 58 (1882). 
Campylopus atromrens DE NOT. Syll. muse. 221 (1838) ; Epil. bri. ital. 648 (1869). BR. 

SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 41, p. 6, t. 4 (1847), P-P- Synops. 98 (1860). SPRUCE in Ann. 

mag. Nat. hist. 2 ser. iii, 483 (1849). BRAITHW. in Journ. Bot. 1870, p. 387. HOBK. 

Syn. br. m. 50 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 59 (1873). 
Dicranum atromrens C. MUELL. Syn. i, 414 (1849). 

Dioicous ; in dense silky cushions, lurid green or yellow-green 
above, black below ; stems slender, i 5 in. high, repeatedly dichoto- 
mous, dense-leaved, sparingly radiculose. Leaves gradually larger 
towards apex, erecto-patent, lanceolate, canaliculate-subulate, straight ; 
nerve dilated, J width of base, sulcate at back, excurrent in a long hoary 
denticulate arista, in section of 4 strata of cells, the anterior and 
posterior rather larger than the two median layers ; basal cells lax 
subrectangular, those of auricles vesicular lax brown, upper oblong and 
HAD. Wet rocks and peaty ground on all our mountains ; common. Near 

Penzance (Curnow) ! ! 

Var. (3. falcatus Braithw. 

Stem short, more robust ; leaves dense, broader, falcato-secund, cir- 
cinate, very concave. 
HAS. Connemara (Prof. Barker 1868) ! ! 

A form parallel to the variety of C. Shawii. The comal leaves of the 
ordinary state are frequently more or less secund, and slender flagelliform 
ramuli are also common. When the fragile hair points are lost, it is best to 
examine the young apical leaves, on which they are usually retained, other- 
wise there might be a difficulty in the determination of the species. 

Dioicous; olivaceous green, rigid; leaves not auricled, lanceolate 
subulate, terminating in a spinulose hoary point, basal cells hyaline ; 
capsules aggregated, rugulose at base. (T. XIX, C.) 

g YN> Dicranum introflexum HEDW. Sp. muse. 147, t. 29 (1801). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 190 

(1811). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 405 (1849). 
Dicr.Jlexuosum y. piliferum TURN. Muse. hib. p.p. 

DICRANACE.E.] 136 [Campylopus. 

Dicr. capitiflorum P. BEAUV. Prodr. 53 (1805). 

Campylopus intrqflexus BRID. Mant. 72 (1819) ; Bry. univ. i, 472. MITT. Journ. Lin. soc. 

xii, 84 (1869). BRAITHW. in Journ. Bot. 1870, p. 388. HOBK. Syn. br. m. 50 (1873). 
Camp, pilifcr BRID. Mant. 72 (1819). 
Camp, longipilus BRID. Bry. un. i, 477, p.p. DE NOT. Syll. muse. 221 (1838). WILS. Bry. 

br. p.p. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 41, t. 5, et Synops. 99, p.p. 
Camp, poly trichoides DE NOT. Syll. muse. 222 (1838); Epil. bri. ital. 645 (1869). BERK. 

Handb. br. m. 273 (1863). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 58 (1873). SCHIMP. Bry. eur. 

suppl. fasc. i 2, t. 4 (1864), Synops. 2 ed. 104 (1876). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr. ung. 

57 (1882). 

Dicran. longipilum C. MUELL. Synops. i, 411 (1849). 
Dlcran. erlcetorum MITT. Journ. Lin. soc. i, suppl. 20 (1859). 

Dioicous ; in crowded gregarious tufts, olive green above, reddish 
brown below, not unfrequently scorched at tips, somewhat glossy ; 
stems i 2 in. high, rigid, erect, dichotomous or fasciculate, tomentose 
with scattered radicles. Leaves erecto-patent, subimbricate when dry, 
lanceolate-subulate, channelled, uppermost broader, the margin inflexed 
and semitubular toward apex; nerve about f width of base, lamelligerous 
at back, ending in a diaphanous strongly spinuloso-denticulate hair- 
point, below of 4 strata of cells, the anterior one larger and empty ; the 
rest chlorophyllose ; basal cells hyaline, hexagono-rectangular, passing 
obliquely toward margin as they ascend, angular cells few large brown, 
above small, chlorophyllose, obliquely rhomboid-oval. Perich. bracts 
convolute, oblong, subulate at apex with the narrow excurrent nerve, 
cells thin elongated pellucid ; capsules aggregated, seta short, flexuose, 
pale brown ; capsule oval, rather unequal, olivaceous, smooth, 
transversely rugulose and darker at base, lid oblique rostellate, fuscous ; 
peristome orange red. 

Male plant short, simple, the inflorescence in a capitulum, inner 
bracts colored, broad, convolute, with short points, nerve obsolete. 
HAS. Heaths, stony ground and rocks ; not common. 

Kymyal cliff, Tregarnow cliff, and Trungle moor, Cornwall (Curnow 1861) ! ! Cromaglown, 
Killarney (Carrington 1861) ! Glengariff (Hunt 1864) ! ! Barmouth (Whitchead, 
1877) ! ! Jersey (Holmes 1873) ! ! 

The discovery of the fruit of this plant near Oporto by Mr. Isaac 
Newton in 1879, confirms the accuracy of its reference to the tropical C. 
introflexus, the only difference we find being that in the European forms the 
arista is straight, but in the southern it is generally reflexed at an angle 
from the lamina ; the chief peculiarity of the species is seen in the male 
plants, in which the leaves on the innovations are quite short and lax, 
gradually becoming more elongated and crowded to the coma, and thus 
strongly resembling a Polytrichum, e.g., P. pilife mm. 


Dioicous ; densely tufted, the stems almost free from radicles, with 
fasciculate-leaved innovations ; leaves narrowly lanceolate-subulate, the 

DICRANACE^;.] 137 [Dicranoweissia. 

point denticulate, hyaline, basal cells quadrate, hyaline, upper 
rhomboidal, flexuose. (T. XIX, D.) 

Svx.Campylopus brevipilus BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 41, p. 7, t. 4 (1847), et Suppl. fasc. i 2, 
t. 2, f. i2 (1864). WILS. Bry. br. 91, t. 40 (1855). JENS. Bry. dan. 95 (1856). SCHIMP. 
Syn. 100 (1860), 2 ed. 106 (1876). BERK. Handb. br. m. 274 (1863). DE NOT. Epil. bri. 
ital. 647 (1869). MILDE Bry. siles. 78 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 50 (1873). HUSN. 
Mouss. nord-ouest 58 (1873). 

Dlcranum brevipilum C. MUELL. Syn. i. 412 (1849). 
Camp, decipiens et Molkenbocri VAN DER SANDE LAC. 

Dioicous ; in dense tufts cohering only at base, glossy yellow-green 
above, fuscescent below; stems slender, fragile, i 3 in. high, with 
scarcely any radicles, fasciculate-leaved. Leaves lanceolate below, 
becoming lanceolate-subulate above, and forming a coma, tipped with a 
short denticulate hyaline point, the margin recurved above the middle ; 
nerve ^ width of base, in section of 3 strata of narrow cells, the central 
larger and hyaline, back of apex roughish ; auricles generally slightly 
developed, basal cells rectangular, hyaline or partly fuscous, upper 
narrow rhomboidal, flexuose, marginal very narrow. Bracts of female 
infl. broad, sheathing, the margin subrevolute, nerve narrow. 
HAB. Moist heaths; not rare. 

Prestwick Carr, Northumb. (Thornhill 1813) ! Clonmel and Killarney (Carrington 1860) 
Skipwith common, York and Oakmere (Wilson 1863) ! ! Glengariff and Arran (Hunt 
1864) ! ! Trungle moor, Penzance (Curnow 1865) ! ! Pilmoor (Baker 1867). Trowls- 
worthy bog, Devon (Holmes). Bloxworth, Dorset (Rev. H. Wood). Pressridge warren, 
Sussex and Matley, New Forest (Da-vies) ! ! Howth and Kylemore (D. Orr). Bressay, 
Shetland (McKinlay 1864). North Uist (Shaw 1866) ! Glen Prosen (Fergusson). 
Groudale, I. of Man (Holt 1881) ! ! 

This species differs both in habit and areolation from all the others, the 
upper cells having a distinct sigmoid curve, and the rough back of the leaf 
near the apex must not be overlooked. The hoary point to the leaf is 
very variable and sometimes is reduced to 2 3 cells or may be quite 


(Oefvers. K. vet. akad. foerh. 1864, p. 230.) 

Plants tufted, fastigiate ; leaves lanceolate, curled when dry, 
smooth, with distinct basal angular cells. Perichaetium distinct, 
sheathing; capsule erect, smooth, calyptra cucullate, teeth of per. 
erect, lanceolate, with 10 or 12 striate articulations, trabeculate internally, 
cleft at apex or undivided. Der. A compound of the two genera. 

This is wisely separated from the old genus Weissia, as it is clear its 
affinities are much closer to Dicranum, of which it may perhaps be regarded 
as a section. 


Capsule elongate-oval, annulate ; leaves lanceolate, margins reflexed. cirrata. 

Capsule ovate, exannulate ; leaves lanceolate-subulate, margins plane. crispula. 

DICRANACE^.] 138 [Dicranoweissia. 


Autoicous ; laxly pulvinate, dichotomous ; leaves lanceolate, rather 
obtuse with revolute margins, angular cells indistinct ; capsule sub- 
cylindric, annulate. (T. XIX, F.) 

SYN. Bryum trichoides exile, erectis capitulis in pediculis longioribus rubris DILL. Cat. Giss. 

224 (1719), et in RAY Syn. 3 ed. 97, n. 25 (1724). 

Bryum cirratum et stellatum, tenuioribus foliis DILL. Hist. muse. 379, t. 48, f. 42 (1741). 
Mnium cirratum L. Sp. pi. mi (1753) 5 Syst. Veg. 946. OEDER Fl. dan. t. 538, f. 4 

(1770). POLL. PI. palat. n. 986, f. 9 (1777). WITH. Bot. arr. br. veg. ii, 666 (1776). 

HULL Br. fl. P. II, 250 (1799). 
Bryum cirr. HUDS. Fl. angl. 409 (1762) ; NECK. Meth. muse. 213 (1771). LIGHTF. Fl. 

scot, ii, 728 (1776). HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 54 (1796). ABBOT Fl. Bedf. 238 (1798). 
Hypnum cirr. WEISS Cr. Gott. 207 (1770). 

Leersia cirr. WILLD. Pr. fl. berol. n. 902 (1787). ROTH Tent. Fl. germ i, 455 (1788). 
Dicranum cirr. TIMM Fl. megap. n. 783 (1788). 
Gymnostomum cirr. ScHRANK^Baiers. Fl. ii, 436 (1789). 
Afzelia cirr. EHRH. PI. crypt, n. 232 (1790). 
Encalypta cirr. SWARTZ Muse. suec. 25 (1799). 
Weissia Dicksoni WILLD. op. c. n. 907. ROTH op. c. 456. HOFFM. op. c. 32. BRID. 

Muse. rec. II, P. I, 72 (1798). 
Grimmia Dicks. ROTH op. c. iii, P. I, 143 (1793). SM. Fl. brit. 1188 (1804) ; Eng. bot. 

t. 1420. TURN. Muse. hib. 27 (1804). 
Barbula cirr. BRID. op. c. 203. ROEHL. Moosg. deutsch. 230 (1800). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 

92 (1805). 
Grimmia cirr. SCHRAD. Journ. bot. 1799, II, 58. WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 134 (1807). 

SCHKUHR Deutsch. Kr. gew. P. II, 54, t. 27 (1810). SM. Comp. fl. brit. 181 (1825). 
Weissia cirr. HEDW. Sp. muse. 69, t. 12, f. 7 12 (1801). BRID. Sp. muse. I, 109 (1806) ; 

Mant. 41 (1819) ; Bryuniv. i, 343 (1826). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. 1,75 (1811). WAHLENB. 

Fl. lap. 303 (1812) ; Fl. carp. 340 (1814). ROEHL. Deutsch. fl. iii, 49 (1813) ; Ann. wett. 

ges. iii, 104. MART. Fl. cr. erl. in (1817). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 46, t. 15 (1818). 

SCHULTZ Fl. starg. suppl. 67 (1819). FUNCK Moost. 15, t. 10 (1821). GRAY Nat. arr. 

br. pi. i, 731 (1821). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. II, 130 (1821); Br. Fl. ii, 21 (1833). NEES 

HORNSCH. Bry. germ, ii, P. II, 61, t. 29, f. 14 (1831). HUEBEN. muse. germ. 127 (1833). 

MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, p. 14 (1836). DE NOT. Syll. 232 (1838) ; Epil. bri. ital. 596 (1869). 

BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 33 36 p. 9, t. 6 (1846). WILS. Bry. br. 47, t. 15 (1855). RABENH. 

Deutsch. Kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 127 (1848). JENS. Bry. dan. 120 (1856). SCHIMP. Synops. 56 

(1860). BERK. Handb. br. m. 292 (1863). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 34 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. 

nord-ouest 43 (1873). 
Blindia cirr. C. MUELL. Syn. {1,585 (1851). 

Dicranoweissia cirr. LINDB. loc. cit. et Muse, scand. 25 (1879). MILDE Bry. 
siles. 49 (1869). SCHIMP. Syn. 2 ed. 55 (1876). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr. ung. 21 

Autoicous ; laxly pulvinate, soft, dull or yellowish green above, 
brown or blackish below; stems flaccid, dichotomous, slightly 
radiculose, i i in. high. Leaves curled, patulous, from a longish 
concave base, gradually lineal-lanceolate, rather obtuse, smooth, entire, 
revolute at margin; nerve vanishing just below apex; cells at base 
transp. rectangular, above incrassate roundish quadrate, at angles less 
distinct, lax quadrate. Perich. bracts shorter, broader, sheathing, 
nerve thin ; caps, on a pale seta, erect, subcylindraceous, leptodermous, 
pale brown with a red mouth, annulus of 2 3 rows of cells ; lid pale red 
shorter than caps, subulate, slightly oblique; teeth lanceolate, undivided, 
purple below, finely papillose and pale above, inserted below the mouth. 

DICRANACE^E.] 139 [Dicmnoweissia. 

Male infl. gemmaceous, below fern, the bracts concave, ovate, 

HAB. On old wooden fences, tree roots, or sometimes on rocks ; common. 

Fr. 123. 

The capsule varies in length and occasionally is found rather curved or 
unsymmetric ; Oncoplioms Bmntoni appears to have been confounded with this 
by the old authors, but is readily distinguished by the different peristome and 
the denticulate apex of the leaf. 

Autoicous ; more densely casspitose ; leaves lanceolate-subulate, 
acute with plane margins, angular cells quadrate, brown ; capsule oval, 
not annulate. (T. XIX, E.) 

SYN. Weissia crispula HEDW. Sp. muse. 68, t. 12, f. i 6 (1801). BRID. Sp. muse. I, no 
(1806); Mant. 42 (1819); Bry. univ. i, 346 (1826). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 75 (1811). 
ROEHL. Deutsch.fl. iii, 49 (1813) ; Ann. Wett. ges. iii, 103. HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 46, 
t. 12 (1818). FUNCK Moost. 15, t. 10 (1821). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 731 (1821). HOOK. 
Fl. scot, P. II, 131 (1821) ; Br. Fl. ii, 22 (1833). DUBY Bot. gall, ii, 571 (1830). NEES 
HSCH. Bry. germ, ii, P. II, 65, t. 30. f. 15 (1831). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 129 (1833). 
DE NOT. Syll. 230 (1838) ; Epil. bri. ital. 595 (1869). BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 3336, 
p. 9, t. 3 (1846). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, 8.3, 127 (1848). WILS. Bry. brit. 48, t. 
15 (1855). SCHIMP. Syn. 55 (1860). BERK. Handb. br. m. 293 (1863). HOBK. Syn. br. 
m. 34 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 43 (1873). 

Grimmia crisp. SM. Fl. brit. 1192 (1804) ; Eng. Bot. t. 2203. TURN. Muse. hib. 28 (1804). 
WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 134 (1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. kr. gew. P. II, 53, t. 23 (1810). 
VOIT Muse. herb. 30 (1812). SM. Comp. fl. brit. 181 (1825). 

Weissia, cirrhata ft. crispula WAHLENB. Fl. lapp. 323 (1812). HARTM. Skand. Fl. 388. 
Weissia falcata NEES HSCH. Bry. germ, ii, P. II, 71, t. 31, f. 16 (1831). 
Blindia crisp. C. MUELL. Syn. ii, 584 (1851). 

Dicranowcissia crisp. LINDB. loc. cit, et Muse, scand. 25 (1879). MILDE Bry. siles. 49 
(1869). SCHIMP. Syn. 2 ed. 54 (1876). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr. ung. 19 (1882). 

Autoicous ; in densely pulvinate soft yellow-green tufts, dark brown 
or blackish below, i 2 in. high. Leaves divergent, generally secund 
above, crisped when dry, flexuose when moist, from a longer, broad 
concave base, lanceolate-subulate, quite entire, the margin not revolute ; 
nerve vanishing in the long acute point ; areolation denser, papillose at 
back toward apex, basal cells narrow and elongated, angular distinct, 
brown, quadrate, upper roundish quadrate, chlorophyllose. Perich. 
bracts sheathing, convolute, pale, oblong obtuse ; caps, on a longer pale 
seta, erect, leptodermous, at first pale brown and narrowly oblong, 
afterwards reddish brown, broadly ovate and wrinkled, slightly con- 
tracted at mouth, exannulate ; lid conico-subulate, oblique, shorter 
than capsule ; teeth lanceolate, purple, with 10 12 joints, papillose, 
often cleft and paler at point. 

Male infl. gemmaceous, at apex of innov. bracts ovate, obtuse. 
HAB. Mountain rocks. Fr. 5 7. 

Ben Lawers and Craig Chailleach (Hooker) ! ! Anglesea (Davics). Pentland hills 
(Arnott). Snowdon (Wilson) ! ! Braemar (Hunt) \ ! 

DICRANACE^.] 140 [Dicranwn. 

Readily distinguished from the last by its longer acute leaves, distinct 
perichaetium and shorter capsule, and it is also confined to the more elevated 
mountains. When growing exposed to the constant drip of snow water it 
assumes a black colour and the leaves and capsules are shorter, it then 
becomes the var. atrata NEES HSCH. and connects itself to D. compacta 
(SCHLEICH.), which has been recorded from Ben Lawers, but the specimen 
we have received is not the plant; D. compacta also is properly regarded by 
Lindberg as a var. of D. crispula. 


Fund. muse. II, 91 (1782). 

Plants usually tall and handsome, dichotomous, rooting only at 
base, or the whole stem covered with radicular tomentum. Leaves 
patent or falcato-secund, smooth or rarely papillose, glossy or opake, 
long and lanceolate or lanceolate-subulate ; nerve semiterete or more or 
less dilated ; areolation narrow and elongated rectangular in the lower 
part, with the angular cells quadrate dilated vesicular and colored 
orange or brown, above lineal-oblong quadrate or elliptic, often 
flexuose ; perich. bracts sheathing. Caps, erect or cernuous, rarely 
striate, with a short equal neck, rarely strumose, generally annulate ; 
lid rostrate ; teeth 16, orange or deep red, confluent at base, cleft half 
way or more into 2 rarely 3 unequal subulate legs, striolate at 
base, trabeculate internally ; calyptra cucullate, rostrate, usually falling 
with the lid. Male infl. gemmaceous. Inhabiting the ground, rocks or 
rarely trunks of trees. Deriv. SiKpavov a fork. 

This very natural genus comprises about 100 species, varying 
considerably in size ; and also in general aspect. As originally established 
by Hedwig, when the peristome was regarded as affording almost the sole 
essential character, it included a miscellaneous collection Ceratodon purp., 
Leucobryum, Grimmia acicularis, Dicranella heteromalla, Dichodontium pellucidum 
and Dicranum scoparium the last being retained as the type of the genus. 
In the highest developed forms D. undulatum, Bonjeani, scoparium, &c. 
constituting Lindberg's section Eudicranum, the longitudinal walls of the 
leaf-cells will be seen, by proper amplification, to be perforated by fine pores, 
by means of which the cells communicate ; these are wanting in the other 
sections, and in the few species which have papillose leaves as D. montanum, 
the papillae are simple conical elevations of the cell-cuticle ; the vesicular 
colored angular cells are the most characteristic feature in this genus. 

On the felted mass of radicles which clothes the stem of several species, 
small tubercles form which develope into male gemmae, and in D. scoparium 
grow on into independent male plants. 

The other European species are D. hyperboreum, Anderssonii, elatum, 
undulatum, fragilifolium, strictum, Mmhlenbeckii, brevifolium, fulvum, albicans and 
comptum ; of these D. undulatum is a species which ought to occur here, being 
found in alpine woods throughout Europe and N. America, but although it 
has been several times reported from various localities, no genuine specimen 



has yet come before us ; it is closely allied to D. Bonjeani, but has aggregated 
setae like D. majus. 

Several species are extremely variable, and again others are very 
much alike, so that considerable difficulty is experienced by beginners in 
their correct determination ; this will be best overcome by a careful study of 
the areolation of the leaf and of transverse sections of the nerve. 


Sect. i. ARCTOA. Plants autoicous, radiculose only at base ; leaves lanc.-subulate, entire. 
Capsule small with a tapering or strumose neck. 
Capsule erect, neck tapering. 
Capsule cernuous, neck strumulose. 
Capsule short ovate. 

Leaves flexuose patent. 
Leaves falcato-secund. 
Capsule oblongo-cylindric. 

Leaves falcato-secund, lid long-beaked. 
Leaves erecto-patent, lid short-beaked. 
Sect. 2. EUDICRANUM. Plants robust, dioicous or pseud-autoicous, tomentose ; leaves 
lanceolate, the longitudinal walls of their cells communicating by fine pores. Caps, cernuous, 
cylindraceous, more or less arcuate. 
Leaves not undulate. 

Setas aggregated, nerve serrated at back towards apex. 
Setas solitary, nerve 4-winged at back above. 
Leaves transversely undulate. 

Leaves smooth at back, gradually elongated. 

Upper cells elongated, nerve smooth at back. 

Upper cells small quadrate, nerve serrate at back above. 

Leaves papillose at back, short and broad, suddenly acuminate. 

Sect. 3. APORODICTYON. Plants of medium size, radiculose ; leaves lanc.-subulate, their 

cell-walls not interrupted by pores. Caps, cernuous or erect, cylindraceous, curved or symmetric. 

Capsule cernuous, curved. 

Leaves patent, quite entire. 
Leaves secund, serrulate. 

Nerve f i width of base, forming all apex. 
Nerve width of base, not excurrent. 
Capsule erect, symmetric. 

Leaves curled when dry, nerve vanishing at the serrulate apex. 
Subula short, papillose at back. 
Subula elongated, smooth at back. 
Leaves scarce altered by drying, nerve excurrent. 
Leaves gradually narrowed into a subula. 

Apex quite entire, elongated ; lower cells incrassate. 
Apex quite entire, broken off; lower cells lax, hyaline. 
Apex serrulate, longly subulate ; lower cells lax, very long. Santeri. 
Leaves suddenly narrowed into a very long setaceous point. 
Leaves falcato secund. 

Nerve half width of base, serrate at back. longifolittm. 

Nerve 4 width of base, smooth at back. uncinatum. 

Leaves erecto-patent, spinulose at back of point. asperulum. 





spurt urn. 





Autoicous ; short, densely tufted. Leaves secund, lanceolate- 

DICRANACE^.] 142 [Dicranum. 

subulate, entire. Caps, erect, ovate, furrowed when dry; peristome 
large, spreading. (T. XIX, G.) 

Svn.Bryiimfnlvclhim DICKS. Cr. brit. fasc. IV, 10, t. u, f. i (1801). 

Dicranum fidvclluni SM. Fl. br. iii, 1209 (1804), Eng. Bot. t. 2268. GREV. Scot. cr. fl. t. 

188 (1825). BRID. Bry. univ. i, 813 (1826). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 2 ed. 103, Suppl. t. 

3 (1827). HOOK. Br Fl. ii, 43 (1833). MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 24 (1836). C. MUELL. 

Synops. i, 371 (1849). MILDE Bry. siles. 62 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. bri. it. 632 (1869). 

SCHIMP. Synops. 77 (1860) et 2 ed. 78 (1876). JURATZ. Laubm. Oesterr. ung. 37 (1882). 
Grimmia schisti SM. Fl. br. iii, 1185. Eng. Bot. t. 1952. 
Dicr. rupestre WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 185 & 469 (1807). 
Dicr. Seligeri BRID. Mant. 59 (1819) ; Bry. univ. i, 429. 
Dicr. Moerchii HORNSCH. in Flora viii, P. I, 78 (1825). 
Weissiaflexiiosa NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ, ii, P. II, 121, t. 35 (1831). 

Arctoa fuhella BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 33 6, p. 4, t. i (1846). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. 
fl. ii, S. 3, 151 (1848). WILS. Bry. br. 59, t. 33 (1855). HARTM. Skand. fl. 9 ed. 71 
(1864). BERK. Handb. br. m. 286, t. 23. f. 10 (1863). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 39 (1873). 

Autoicous ; densely caespitose, i 2 in. high, dull green or yellowish 
above, blackish brown below. Leaves dense, secund, the upper often 
falcate, lane. -subulate, glossy, entire or slightly denticulate at apex ; 
angular cells lax, few, flat, the rest very narrow oblong. Perich. bracts 
from an oblong sheathing base, subulate. Caps, slightly exserted on a 
reddish-brown seta, erect, oval with a tapering neck, or subcernuous 
and slightly asymmetric, ferruginous, 8 striate when dry ; lid red, 
obliquely conico-subulate ; annulus large ; teeth red, spreading 
horizontally when dry, narrowly lanceolate-subulate, bifid or perforated. 

Male infl. gemmiform, below the perichaetium, bracts ovate 
HAB. Crevices of rocks on the higher mountains. Fr. 7. 

Ben More (Dickson). Ben Nevis (Borrcr). Ben Lawers (Greville) ! ! Clova (Drum- 
mond) \ \ Snowdon (Taylor] \ ! Llanberis (Hunt) \ \ Cronkley Scarr, Teesdale 
(Spruce) ! Striding edge, Great Gable and Scawfell Pikes (Baker 1867) ! ! Arncliff 
wood, Whitby (Rev. J. F. Crouch) \ \ 

The foliage much resembles that of Blindia acuta, with which it was 
confounded, but the angular cells are different and the fruit quite distinct. 

2. DICRANUM SCHISTI (Gunn.) Lindb. 

Autoicous; in soft dull green tufts. Leaves lanc.-subulate, entire, 
flexuose, pellucid with fuscous ang. cells. Caps, ovate, smooth, 
strumose. (T. XX, A.) 

SYN. Bryumfol. sctaccis curvatis, caps, erectis, obtuse ovatis, capltcllo oblique rostrato,apopfiysi 

capitulo subjccta OEDER Fl. dan. t. 538, n 2 (1770). 
Bryum schisti GUNN. Fl. norveg. P. II, 138 (1772). 

Dicranum Blyttii BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 37 40, p. 26, t. 16 (1847). RABENH. 
Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, s. 3, 142 (1848). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 364 (1849). WILS. Bry. br. 
74-, t. 39 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 80 (1860), 2 ed. 81 (1876). BERK. Handb. br. m. 277 
(1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 64 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 45 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. 
Oesterr. ung. 39 (1882). 

Dicr. schisti LINDB. Act. Soc. scien. fenn. X, n (1871), Muse, scand. 24 (1879). 

DICRANACE^E.] 143 [Dicranum. 

Autoicous; in dull dark green tufts | lin. high, fragile, densely 
casspitose. Leaves lanceolate-subulate, scarcely secund, flexuoso- 
patent, soft, entire, nerve excurrent in a fine point ; cells below lineal- 
rectangular, subquadrate above, at angles brown or hyaline. Perich. 
bracts very large, laxly areolate, with fuscous basal cells, suddenly 
subulate, the inner sheathing ; caps, on a short reddish seta, shortly 
ovate, subcernuous, more or less incurved, smooth, pale ferruginous, 
strumulose when dry ; lid crenulate at base, conic, with a long oblique 
beak ; annulus simple. 

Male infl. far below perichaetium, inner bracts shortly acuminate. 
HAB. Crevices of mountain rocks, not common. Fr. 8. 

Holwick scarr, Teesdale (Spruce 1843) ! Carnedd Llewellyn, Snowdon and Cader Idris 
(Wilson) ! ! Loch-na-Gar (Black) ! Ben Lawers (Wilson) ! ! Glen Dole, Glen Callater 
and Bach-na-gairn (Hunt 1869) ! ! Glen Prosen (Fergnsson 1868) ! 


Autoicous ; loosly tufted. Leaves lane. -subulate, falcato-secund, 
crisped, angular cells few, indistinct. Caps, obovate, strumose, smooth, 
wide-mouthed when dry ; peristome blood-red. (T. XX, B.) 

SYN. Bryum uncinatum DICKS. Cr. brit. fasc. IV, n, t. n, f. 8 (1801). 

Dicranum falcatum HEDW. Sp. muse. 150, t. 32, f. i 7 (1801). SM. fl. brit. iii, 1208 

(1804), Eng. Bot. t. 1989. BRID. Sp. muse. I, 224 (1806) ; Mant. 53 (1819). WEB. 

MOHR Bot. Tasch. 190 (1807). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 190 (1811). WAHLENB. Fl. 

lapp. 338 (1812), Fl. carpat. 344 (1814), excl. syn. Dill. ROEHL. Deutsch. fl. iii, 73 

(1813). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 54, t. 15 (1818). FUNCK Moost. 31, t. 21 (1821). 

GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 735 (1821). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 229 (1833). DE NOT. Syll. 

216 (1838), Epil. bri. ital. 631 (1869). BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 3740, p. 27, t. 18 

(1847). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 142 (1848). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 363 (1849). 

WILS. Bry. br. 79, t. 17 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 79 (1860), et 2 ed. 81 (1876). BERK. 

Handb. br. m. 277 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 63 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 45 (1873). 

JURATZ. Laubm. Oesterr. ung. 38 (1882). 
Cecalyphum scrophulosum P. BEAUV. Prodr. 51 (1805). 
Oncophorus falcatus BRID. Bry. univ. i, 393 (1826). 

Autoicous ; laxly casspitose, slender, ascending ; i 1|- in. high, olive 
green above, black and naked below, dichotomous and fastigiate 
branched, falcate at apex. Leaves lane. -subulate, falcato-secund, 
crisped, convolute concave, entire or denticulate at apex ; basal cells 
narrowly rectangular, quadrate toward margin, the angular very few, 
brownish, upper quadrate, nerve narrow flattened excurrent. Perich. 
bracts broad, subvaginant, suddenly setaceous, laxly areolated ; caps, on 
a rather short purplish seta, small, obovate, wide-mouthed, subgibbous, 
cernuous, smooth with a tumid strumose neck, rufous brown, fuscous or 
black when old ; annulus very narrow, orange, lid from a broad base, 
obliquely rostellate, purple, half length of capsule ; teeth blood-red. 

Male infl. close to perich., inner bracts very shortly acuminate. 

DICRANACE^E.] 144 [Dicranum. 

HAB. Crevices of rocks and stony ground on the higher mountains. 
, Fr. 89. 

Ben Lawers, Ben More, Glen Callater and all the Grampian range. Cronkley scars, 
Teesdale (Black). Falcon clints (R. Barnes 1879) !! Skye (Boswell 1873) ! ! Snowdon 
(Nuttall 1879) ! ! 

The leaves of all the innovations are sometimes so uniformly and sym- 
metrically curved, as to give the moss a very beautiful aspect. 


Autoicous ; resembling last, but taller ; leaves entire, not crisped, 
with distinct brown angular cells; caps, oblongo-cylindric, strumose, 
sulcate when dry, peristome pale red. (T. XX, C.) 

SYN. Bryum longlfolium DICKS. Crypt, fasc. 3, p. 7 (1793). 

Dicranum Starkei WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 189 and 471 (1807). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I,. 
191, t. 46 (1811). ROEHL. Deutsch. fl. iii, 74 (1813). Eng. Bot. t. 2227. HOOK. TAYL. 
Muse. br. 55, t. 17 (1818). BRID. Mant. 53 (1819). FUNCK Moost. 31, t. 21 (1821). GRAY 
Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 736 (1821). HUEBEN. Bry. germ. 230 (1833). DE NOT. Syll. 216 
(1838), Epil. bri. ital. 630 (1869). BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 3740, p. 27, t. 17 (1847). 
RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, s. 3, 142 (1848). C. MUELL. Syn. i, 364 (1849). WILS. Bry. 
br. 74, t. 17 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 79 (1860), et 2 ed. 80 (1876). BERK. Handb. br. 
m. 276 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 63 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 44 (1873). JURATZ. 
Laubm. Oesterr. ung. 38 (1882). 

Oncophorus Starkei BRID. Bry. univ. i, 394 (1826). 

Autoicous ; in fragile tufts i 2 in. high, deep or yellow-green above, 
fuscous below, resembling D. falcatum. Leaves falcato-secund, lanc.- 
subulate, not crisped, entire or with a few minute teeth at apex, all 
lower cells elongated, narrowly rectangular, upper shorter, the angular 
very distinct, quadrate, brown, nerve narrow, excurrent. Perich. bracts 
broad, sheathing, laxly areolate, suddenly subulate ; seta pale red, longer, 
caps, oblongo-cylindric, gibbous and arcuate, strumose, striate when dry; 
annulus double, lid conic, with a long oblique beak, peristome pale red. 

Male infl. close to perichaetium, inner bracts longly acuminate. 
HAB. Same localities as D. falcatum. Fr. 8. 

All the Breadalbane and Braemar mountains. Snowdon (Nuttall 1879) ! ! 

Close to D. falcatum, but always distinguishable by the distinct vesicular 
brown angular cells, the narrower and longer capsule, and the shorter more 
gradually subulate leaves. 


Autoicous ; taller, caespitose ; leaves erecto-patent, straight, broadly 
lanceolate-subulate, entire, nerve vanishing at apex; caps, oblongo- 
cylindric, curved, substrumose, lid with a short beak. (T. XX, D.) 

SYN. Dicranum Starkii Var/J. molle WILS. Bry. br. 74 (1855). 

Dicranum molle WILS. op. c. 75, ut syn. LINDB. Muse, scand. 24 (1879). 
Dicr. glaciale BERGGR. in Act. univ. Lund, ii, n. VII, 19, fig. 19 (1866). BRAITHW. in 
Journ. Bot. 1870, p. 228. 

Dicr. arcticum SCHIMP. Bry. eur. Suppl. fasc. 34, t. 3 (1866) ; Synops. 2 ed. 93 (1876). 

DICRANACE^.] 145 [Dicranum. 

Autoicous ; in large dense tufts 2 5 in. high, yellow-green or 
olivaceous above, fuscescent below, soft ; stems slender, simple or 
dichotomous, eradiculose. Leaves erecto-patent, straight glossy oblongo- 
lanceolate, subulate, entire, very concave semitubulose above from the 
incurved margin, auricled at base, nerve narrow compressed vanishing 
at apex ; all cells very narrow linear, the angular numerous orange lax 
quadrate. Perich. bracts oval-oblong sheathing, laxly areolate, suddenly 
subulate, imperfectly denticulate at apex ; caps, oblongo-cylindric, 
cernuous incurved substrumose not striated, fuscescent ; annulus simple, 
lid with a short stout oblique beak ; peristome purple. 

Male infl. close to perichsetium, gemmiform, brown, bracts broadly 
ovate, subulate. 
HAB. On the highest mountains of Scotland. Fr. 7 8. 

Ben Nevis (Hooker) ! ! Cairn Taggart and Loch-na-Neem, Braemar (Black) ! ! Ben- 
mac-dhui (Hunt 1868) ! ! Ben Lawers. 

The original name of Wilson is highly appropriate to this beautiful 
species, referring as it does to its soft silky leaves. 



Pseud-autoicous, tall ; leaves from a broad base, lane. -subulate, 
falcate, serrate above, not undulate, nerve flattened, excurrent, serrate 
at back in upper part ; setae pale, aggregated, caps, cernuous, curved, 
lid with a very long beak. (T. XX, E.) 

SYN. Bryuireclinatum,foUisfalcatisscoparum effigie, sctis pluribus DILL. Hist. muse. 358, 

t. 46, f. 16, D. (1741), et herbar. 

Dicranum niajiis SM. Fl. brit. iii, 1202 (1804), Eng. Bot. t. 1409. TURN. Muse. hib. 59, 
t. 4 (1804). WAHLENB. in Act. Holm. 1806, p. 136. SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 163, 
t. 40 (1811). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 237 (1833). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 37 40, 
p. 43, t. 37 (1847). RABEN. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 148 (1848). HARTM. Skand. fl. 
C. MUELL. Syn. i, 360 (1849). WILS. Bry. br. 81, t. 18 (1855). JENS. Bry. dan. 93 
(1856). SCHIMP. Synops. 90 (1860), 2 ed. 92 (1876). BERK. Handb. br. m. 279 (1863). 
MILDE Bry. siles. 71 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 620 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 
48 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest, 53 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. Oesterr. ung. 
48 (1882). 

Dicr. polysetum p.p. BRID. Sp. muse. I, 174 (1806), Mant. 56 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 413 

(1826). ROEHL. Deutsch. fl. iii, 66 (1813). 
Dicr. scoparium Var. a. majus HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 58, t. 18 (1818). HOOK. fl. 

scot. P. II, 133 (1821). 

Dicr. scoparium TAYL. Ann. Mag. nat. hist, xii, 129 (1843), et Bot. zeit. 1843, p. 695. 
Pseud-autoicous; 2 5 in. high, laxly csespitose, pale or deep 
green with a silky gloss, pale brown below ; stem slender, prostrate 
below, arcuato-ascending, more or less invested with pale spongy 
tomentum. Leaves very long, subsericeous, falcato-secund, amplexi- 
caul, lanceolate, longly subulate, canaliculate, sharply serrate in 
the upper part ; nerve broad at base, ending in the apex, 
sulcate at back and with 5 rows of teeth toward point ; cells at 

DICRANACE^E.J 146 [Dicranum. 

base elongate-rectangular, hyaline and wide next the nerve, the angular 
colored narrower and incrassate, the upper small narrowly rectangular. 
Setae 2 5 in the same perich. rather short, slender pale often convolute, 
bracts broad short ovate, suddenly aristate, inner oblong convolute, 
tipped with the excurrent nerve, innermost lingulate obtuse, nerveless ; 
caps. Isptodermous, exannulate, cernuous and horizontal, oblong, 
subarcuate, obsoletely striate, olivaceous green, when old black and 
strongly incurved, lid with a very long subulate oblique straw-coloured 
beak, falling with the calyptra, teeth ferruginous red, rather short. 

Male infl. gemmiform, nidulant in the cauline tomentum. 
HAB. Banks and rocks in subalpine woods ; not uncommon. Fr. 7 8. 

Except Dillenius, Smith and Turner, all the older botanists confounded 
this with D. scoparium, from which it is readily distinguished by the polysetous 
inflorescence, although occasionally solitary capsules may be met with. 
Dr. Taylor erroneously regarded it as the true Br. scopavium of Linnaeus. 


Dioicous; robust laxly tufted, tomentose. Leaves lanceolate- 
subulate, secund or falcato-secund, carinate, concave, the margins 
incurved, serrated above, nerve reaching apex, narrow, with 4 prominent 
serrated ridges at back in the upper part. Capsule cylindraceous, 
subarcuate castaneous, lid longly subulate. (T. XXI, A.) 

SYN. Adiantum aureum medium, foliis tenuissimis, capitulis erectis acutis Bobarti. RAY Synops. 

St. brit. App. 237 (1690). 
Muscus trichoides minor, foliis oblongis angustis obscure viridibus in longuin et preetenuem 

mucronem desinentibus. RAY Synops. 2 ed. 29 (1696). 
Bryum crcctis capitulis aiigustifolium, cattle rcclinato. DILL. Cat. Giss. 222 (1719), et in 

RAY Synops. 3 ed. 95 (1724). 
Bryum caule inclinato, foliis arrcctis subulatis, capitulis ercctiusculis. L. Fl. Lapp. 315 

Bryum reclinatum, foliis fakatis, scoparum cffigie. DILL. Hist. muse. 357, t. 46, f. 16 

A. B. C. E. H. (1741). 

Bryum scoparium L. Sp. plant. 1117 (1753), Syst. nat. ii, 701. HUDS. Fl. angl. 406 
(1762). NECK. meth. muse. 224 (1771). WITH. Bot. art. br. veg. ii, 673 (1776). CURT. 
Fl. Lond. i, t. 69 (1778). LIGHTF. Fl. scot, ii, 721 (1777). Fl. Dan. t. 824, 1. i (1780). 
RELH. Fl. cant. 403 (1785). SM. Eng. Bot. t. 354 (1796). HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 39 
(1796). ABBOT Fl. bedf. 141 (1798). HULL Br. fl. P. II, 261 (1799). 

Hypnum scoparium WEISS Cr. goett. 71 (1770). SCOP. Fl. earn. 2 ed. n. 1234 (1772). 
WEB. Spic. fl. goett. 71 (1778). 

Dicranum scop. HEDW. Fund. muse. II, 92, t. 8, f. 41, 42 (1782) ; Sp. muse. 126 (1801). 
ROTH Tent. fl. germ, i, 460. (1788) etiii, 158. SIBTH. Fl. oxon. 281 (1794). BRID. muse, 
rec. II, P. I, 155 (1798), Sp. muse. I, 172 (1806), Mant. 56 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 410 (1826). 
SWARTZ muse. suec. 34 (1799). ROEHL. Moosg. D. 318 (1800), Deutsch. fl. iii, 42 
(1813). RICH, in MICHX. Fl. bor. amer. ii, 297 (1803). STURM Deutsch. fl. II, 13 (1803). 
SM. Fl. brit. 1201 (1804). TURN Muse. hib. 58 (1804). SCHULTZ Fl. starg. 294 (1806). 
WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 173 (1807) excl. syn. SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 162, t. 42 
(1811). WAHLENB. Fl. lapp. 336 (1812), Fl. carp. 343 (1814). VOIT Muse, herbip. 39 
(1812). MART. Fl. cr. erl. 97 (1817). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 57, t. 18 (1818) excl. var. 
GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 738 (1821). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. 2, 133 (1821), Br. Fl. ii, 41 
(1833). FUNCK Moost. 27, t. 19 (1821). ZENK. DIETR. Muse, thuring. n. 14 (1821). 
HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 235 (1833). HARTM. Skand. Fl. BALS. DE NOT. Bry. mediol. 135 

DICRANACE^.J 147 [Dicranum. 

MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 24 (1836). DE NOT. Syll. muse. 212 (1838), Epil. bri. ital. 619 
(1869). SCHKUHR Deutsch. kr. gew. P. II, 88, t. 39 (1847). BR - SCHIMP. Dry. eur. fasc. 
37-40, p. 34, t. 26 (1847). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, s. 3, 145 (1848). C. MUELL. 
Synops. i, 359 (1849). WILS. Bry. brit. 78, t. 18 (1855). JENS. Bry. dan. 92 (1856). 

SCHIMP. Synops. 89 (1860), 2 ed. 91 (1876). BERK. Handb. br. m. 278, t. 23, f. 7 (1863). 

~ f. siles. 70 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 47 
53 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. Oesterr.-ung. 48 (1882). 

MILDE Bry. siles. 70 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 47 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 

Fusciiia scoparia SCHRANK Baiers. Fl. ii, 452 (1789), Prim. Fl. Salisb. n. 827 (1792). 
Mnium scop. GMEL. Syst. nat. ii, 1328 (1791). LAICH. PI. eur. 476 (1794). WITH. Bot. 

arr. br. veg. 3 ed. 799 (1796). 

Cccalyphum scop. P. BEAUV. Prodr. 51 (1805) ; Mem. soc. Linn. Par. t. 2, f. 4 (1822). 
Dicranum Dillenii TAYL. in Ann. mag. nat. hist, xii, 129 (1843), et Bot. zeit. 1843, p. 695. 

Autoicous and dioicous ; in large lax rather rigid tufts, yellowish 
green above, fuscescent below. Stems 2 5 in. high, dichotomous, 
densely covered with pale or ferruginous tomentum, interrupted by the 
innovations, which have the leaves longer and more crowded in upper 
part. Leaves glossy, falcato-secund, rarely straight, the terminal 
comant, carinate-concave, from an elongated oblong base, lanceolate 
subulate, sharply serrate at margin ; nerve flattened, narrowing upward 
and reaching apex, at back sulcate and with 4 ridges, serrated toward 
apex; upper cells linear-rectangular, basal longer subvermicular, the 
angular large, quadrate orange-brown. Seta solitary, red, bracts 
convolute in a cylinder, outer from a broad base, narrowly lineal, 
patulous, serrated, inner convolute with a narrow subula from the 
rounded apex, nerve obsolete ; caps, pachydermous, exannulate, 
cernuous, rarely suberect, cylindraceous, subarcuate, becoming more 
curved when old, not striate, castaneous or rufescent ; lid convex with 
a stout rufous subulate beak as long as capsule ; teeth solid, bright red, 
cleft to middle. 

Male plants distinct, more slender with infl. terminal, or gemmaceous 
and nidulant in the tomentum below the perichsetia, bracts from an 
ovate base, narrowly linear. 
HAB. Shady banks, rocks, stone walls, and heaths ; common. Fr. 7 8. 

Var. ft. alpestre Hueben. 

More densely tufted, shining fulvous ; stem erect nearly straight, with 
short branches ; leaves denser, broader, straight or slightly secund, erecto- 
appressed, margin and nerve entire or with a few obtuse teeth. 
SYN. Dlcr. scoparinm alpestre. HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 236. DE NOT. Syll. et Epil. 
MILDE Bry. siles. 70. JURATZ. Laubm. Oesterr.-ung. 49. 

HAB. Subalpine woods ; not common. Innisfallen, Killarney (Hunt 1864) ! ! 

Var. y. recurvatum (Schultz) Brid. 

Slender, elongated, geniculato-ascending, deep green opake ; leaves sud- 
denly larger in the coma, falcato-secund, elongated. 

SYN. Dicranum recurvatum SCHULTZ Fl. Starg. 295. 

Dicr. scoparium var. recurvatum BRID. Sp. muse. 173, Bry. univ. i, 412. SCHIMP. Synops. 

Dicr. pallidum MITT, in litt. 

DICRANACE^.] 148 [Dicranum. 

HAB. Among grass on sandy ground. Godalming (Mitten 1881 ) ! ! 

Resembling a small state of D. majus, but quite agreeing with D. scoparium 
in the structure of leaf. It appears to me to differ far more from D. 
pallidum, than the latter does from typical D. scoparium. 

Var. 3. turfosum Milde. 

Tufts tall, glossy, yellow green above, dark fuscous below, with few 
radicles. Leaves elongated, erecto-patent, subcuspidate at apex, almost 
entire, or with a few obtuse teeth toward apex and at back. 
SYN. D. scoparium var. turfosum MILDE Bry. siles. 71. 
HAB. Moorland bogs. Moor near Blasham beck, Lofthouse, Yorks. 

(Wesley 1878) ! ! 

This variety deviates much in aspect from all the other forms of D. sco- 
parium, approaching somewhat to D. spadiceum by the dark colour of the lower 

Var. e. orthophyllum Brid. 

In dense yellow-green tufts, radiculose. Leaves erect or subsecund, 
rigid, elongated, entire or distantly and obtusely serrated toward apex. 
SYN. D. scoparinm var. orthophyllum BRID. 1. c. HUEBEN., SCHIMP., MILDE, JURATZ. 

HAB. On heaths. Near Conway ! Ardingly, Sussex (Davies}. Grewelthorpe 
moor, Yorks. (West 1880)!! Carmendow, Derby (Holt 1882) !! Near 
Penzance (Varenne 1882) ! ! 

Var. . paludosum Schimp. 

In tall dense bright green tufts, strongly radiculose. Leaves short, 
broad, subsecund, sharply serrate, rugulose at apex. 
SYN. D. scoparium var. paludosum SCHIMP. Synops. 90. MILDE, JURATZ. 
HAB. Moorland bogs. Glen Ogle, Perth (Boswell 1873) ! ! Near Loch 

Maree, Ross (Boswell 1875) ! ! Kinder scout (Holt 1882) ! ! 

This very common but elegant moss is the centre of a group of closely 
allied species, as it is also of a series of varieties, which are troublesome to 
the student and difficult to define in words ; indeed, the acute bryologist 
Mitten is inclined to regard D. scoparium as a compound of several species. 

The first point to which attention may be drawn in the typical form, is 
the condition of the leaf-cells, which in the young and active stage are seen 
to be crammed with chlorophyl and large oil-globules, these at a later period 
are used up and all the cells are found to be empty, but in both states the 
transverse pores are distinctly visible ; a patch of the central basal cells is also 
often thin and hyaline. 

Dicr. pallidum SCHIMP. (D. scoparium SULLIV. muse, alleg. n. 155) I cannot 
distinguish from D. scoparium, from which it does not differ in male infl. while 
the paler color of the capsule cannot have much specific value. 

Dicr. Venturii DE NOT. of which I have original specimens from Dr. 
Venturi, collected on the Alps of Saent, I must also refer to Dicr. scoparium, 
and in this opinion I am confirmed by Limpricht, Lindberg and Boswell ; 
although in aspect approaching D. Bonjeani it has the stout strongly serrated 
nerve of the former species, the areolation throughout being rather laxer and 

DICRANACE^.] 149 [Dicranum. 

more abbreviated. The plant referred here by Mitten I regard as a variety 
of the next species. 

Dicr. spadiceum ZETTERST. (D. neglectum JURATZ.) is an extreme form 
having much the aspect of a distinct species, but quite agreeing with 
D. scoparium in its areolation. The leaves are quite entire and smooth at 

From this it will be seen that D. scoparium is highly polymorphous, and 
that the presence or absence of serrated margins to the leaf cannot be relied 
upon to afford a distinctive character, yet a peculiar facies runs through all 
its forms which will generally indicate the species, but the microscope must 
also be used for confirmation. 


Dioicous ; laxly tufted, tomentose. Leaves lanceolate, erecto- 
patent, glossy, undulated above, nerve lost below the serrated apex. 
Capsule solitary, subcylindric, slightly curved, striated. (T. XXI, B.) 

SYN. Dicranum Bonjeani DE NOT. in LISA Elen. 29, et Syll. muse. 213 (1838), Epil. bri. ital. 

616 (1869). C. MUELL. Syn. i, 369 (1849). 

Dicr. undulatum (baud EHRH.) TURN. Muse. hib. 59 (1804). SM. Eng. bot. t. 2260 p.p. 
HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 57, t. 18 (1818). HOOK. Fl. scot. p. 2, 133 (1821), Br. Fl. ii, 41 
(1833). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 737 (1821). MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 24 (1836). JENS. Bry. 
dan. 90 (1856). 

18 (1855). 


Bry. siles/72 (1869)." HO'BK. Syn. br. 111.48 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 54 (1873). 
JURATZ. Laubm. Oesterr.-ung. 49 (1882). 

Autoicous and dioicous; in large soft lax tufts, stems slender 
4 6 in. high, covered with tomentum, at first whitish, finally 
ferruginous, subcuspidate at apex. Leaves thin, erecto-patent, 
yellowish-green, very glossy, sharply serrate and minutely transversely 
undulate above, from a broad base, lanceolate acuminate, acute, nerve 
vanishing below apex, narrow, smooth at back, or faintly serrate near 
apex ; cells at base large, quadrang. brown, above elongate hexagono- 
rectangular, upper narrowly elliptic or oblong, Seta solitary, slender, 
yellowish above, pale red below; bracts short, from a broad base, 
abruptly subulate, inner longer, convolute, nerve obsolete ; capsule 
leptodermous, cernuous, incurved, turgid obovate-oblong, with a 
substrumose neck, exannulate, yellowish-brown, striated with orange ; 
calyptra large straw-colored; lid subulate, long as caps, pale red; 
peristome as inZ). scoparium. pale purple. 

HAB. In moorland bogs and on damp shady banks ; not uncommon. 

Fr. 78. 

In fr. Forest of Ballochbui and Kinnoul (Croall 1855)! Doune (McKinlay 
1866) ! Levens, Brandt Fell and Bowness (Barnes 1867) ! ! 

Var. ft. juniperifolium (Sendt.) 

Dicr. palustre (baud LA PYL.) BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 37-40, p. 39, t. 31 (1847). H/ 
Skand. fl. RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 146 (1848). WILS. Bry. br. 79, t. 18 (i 
SCHIMP. Synops. 91 (1860), 2 ed 94 (1876). BERK. Handb. br. m. 279 (1863). M 

DICRANACE^.] 150 [Dicranum. 

Plants more robust and densely leaved ; leaves broadly lanceolate, rather 
rigid, brownish. 

SYN. Dicr.junipcrifolium SENDT. in Denk. cl. Reg. hot. ges. iii, 144 et Flora 1849, I, 59. 
Dicr pulustre ft juniperif. B. SCH. Bry. eur. WILS. Bry. br. 79. SCHIMP. Synops. 

HAB. In sand pits in a fir plantation, Stockton forest, York (Spruce 1842) ! ! 
Ben Lawers (Wilson 1855) ! ! Near Blandford, Dorset (Boswell 1867) ! ! 
Hills about Killin (McKinlay 1862). 

Var. y. calcareum Braithw. 

Stems shorter, more rigid, with pale tomentum ; leaves secund, sub- 
falcate, concave with incurved margins, undulate only at apex, and slightly 
serrated only towards point. 

SYN. Dicr. Venturii MITT, in litt. 

HAB. On the ground in calcareous districts ; rare. Woolstonbury hill, 
Godalming, and other similar localities in Sussex Mitten 1881) ! ! 
Dicv. palustre was confounded by all the early British botanists with the 
fine D. undulatum EHRH. which is distributed all over the continent, but 
strangely absent from this country, as is also the still grander D. datum 
LIND. (D. robustum BLYTT.), though both might reasonably have been expected to 
occur here ; both these species resemble D. majus in having aggregated setae. 
Die. palustre LA PYLAIE according to specimens in Bridel's herbarium is 
a form of Campylopus flexuosus, and the specimens in the Dillenian herbarium 
representing T. 46, fig. 16 C. of Hist. muse, belong to D. scopavium and foreign 
D. undulatum EHR. (fide Lindberg). 


Autoicous ; densely tufted, tomentose. Leaves broadly lanceolate, 
rather obtuse, undulate at margin, nerve vanishing in the eroso- 
denticulate apex, which is smooth at back. Capsule solitary, cylindric, 
curved, lid rostrate. (T. XXII, B). 

SYN. Dicranum undulatum (baud EHRH.) SCHRAD. Spic. fl. germ. 59 (1794). ROTH Fl. 
germ, iii, 167 (1795). BRID. muse. rec. II, P. I, 157 (1798), Sp. muse. I, 176 (1806), 
Mant. 57 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 415 (1826). ROEHL. Moosg. Deutsch. 336 (1800), Deutsch. 
fl. iii, 67 (1813). 

Dicranum Bergcri BLAND. Muse. fr. exs. Ill, n. 114 (1804). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 357 
(1849). JENS. Bry. dan. 91 (1856). DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 617 (1869). 

Dicr. affine FUNCK Cr. gew. Fichtel. VI, p. 2, n. 136 (1806). 

Dicr. intermedium CROME in HOPP. Bot. Tasch 1806, p. 186. 

Dicr. Schraderi WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 177 (1807). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 166, t. 41 
(1811). WAHLENB. Fl. lapp. 336 (1812), Fl. carpat. 344 (1814). FUNCK Moost. 28, t. 19 
(1821). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 241 (1833). BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 37-4! P- 4> * 3 2 ( I 847). 
RABEN. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, s. 3, 147 (1848). HARTM. Skand. fl. WILS. Bry. brit. 80, t. 39 
(1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 92 (i86o\ 2 ed. 95 (1876). BERK. Handb. br. m. 279 
(1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 73 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 48 (1873). JURATZ. Laub. 
Oesterr.-ung. 50 (1882). 

Autoicous; densely caespitose, bright or fuscous green, tumid. 
Stem erect, 2 6 in. high, covered with rufous tomentum below. 
Leaves densely imbricated, erecto-patent or subsecund above, some- 
what crisped when dry, the younger glossy green, the lower pale, long, 

DICRANACE^.] 151 [Dicranum. 

broadly lanceolate, rather obtuse, channelled below, carinate above, 
margin strongly undulate from middle to apex, sharply serrate and also 
at back of nerve which vanishes below apex ; cells at base narrowly 
rectang. at angles suddenly much dilated, subquadrate, orange, above 
subrhombic-quadrate, irregular, mammosely protuberant at back. 
Perich. bracts convolute with a short point; capsule on a greenish- 
yellow seta, rather small, incurved-oblong, cernuous, obsoletely striate ; 
annulus of 3 rows of cells ; lid long-beaked, long as caps. 

Male infl. very small, gemmaceous, nestling in the tomentum. 

HAB. Boggy heaths ; rare. Fr. 8 9. 

Risley moss, Warrington (Wilson) ! Wybunbury bog in fr. (Wilson) ! ! 


Autoicous ; laxly tufted, tomentose. Leaves broadly lanceolate, 
acute, undulate, eroso-denticulate, papillose at back, nerve vanishing. 
Capsule solitary, cylindric, arcuate, lid rostrate. (T. XXII, A.) 

SYN. Dicranum spnrium HEDW. Muse, frond, ii, 82, t. 30 (1788), Sp. muse. 141 (1801). TIMM 
Fl. meg. n. 784 (1788). ROTH Fl. germ, iii, P. I, 178 (1795). BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. i, 
171 (1798), Sp. muse. I, 200 (1806), Mant. 65 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 416 (1826). SWARTZ 
Muse. suec. 33 (1799). ROEHL. Moosg. deutsch. 352 (1800), Deutsch. Fl. iii, 68 (1813). 
SMITH Fl. brit. iii, 1222 (1804), Eng. Bot. t. 2167. WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 178 (1807). 
SCHVVAEG. Suppl I, P. I, 179 (1811). VOIT Muse. herb. 40 (1812). MART. Fl. cr. erl. 
103 (1817). HOOK. TAYL. 56, t. 17 (1818). FUNCK Moost. 29, t. 20 (1821). 
HOOK. Fl. scot. p. 2, 133 (1821) ; Br. Fl. ii, 40 (1833). GRAY Nat. arr. Br. pi. i, 737 
(1821). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 242 (1833). ^ E NOT. Syll. muse. 214 (1838); Epil. 618 
(1869). HARTM. Skand. fl. BR. SCH. Br. eur. fasc. 37-40, p. 41, t. 33 (1847). RABEN. 
Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 147 (1848). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 356 (1849). WILS. Bry. brit. 
80, t. 18 (1855). JENS. bry. dan. 91 (1856). SCHIMP. Synops. 93 (1860); 2ed. 96 (1876). 
BERK. Hand. br. m. 280 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 73 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 49 
(1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 54 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. Oesterr.-ung. 51 (1882). 

Mnium spnrium GMEL. Syst. nat. ii, 1328 (1791). LAICH, PI. eur. 476 (1794). 

Bryum spnrium HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 38 (1796). DICKS. PI. crypt. Fasc. 4, 13 (1801). 

Cecalyphum spurium P. BEAUV. Prodr. 51 (1805). 

Autoicous ; robust, crowded into lax fragile tufts, glossy bright or 
yellowish green. Stems dichotomous, erect or decumbent, 3 6 in. 
high, fasciculate-leaved, covered with rufescent tomentum. Leaves 
shorter below, ovato-lanceolate, upper crowded into a dense coma, 
patent, when dry incurved, subcirrate, broadly lanceolate, attenuated 
rapidly to a point, very rugose, serrated at margin, papillose at back of 
apex ; nerve thin, vanishing at apex, denticulate-scabrous at back of 
point ; cells at base short, incrassate, above elongato-rectang. upper short, 
polymorphous. Perich. bracts ovate subulate, inner elongate convolute 
sheathing, with a short point ; caps, oblong, subcylindric, incurved, 
obsoletely striate, pale yellow-brown, when dry curved cernuous, deeply 
sulcate and contracted below mouth ; annulus of 2 series of cells ; lid 
long as caps, obliquely rostrate ; per. of D. scoparium with subulate legs. 
Male infl. gemmaceous, nidulant in the tomentum. 

DiCRANACEjB.] 152 [Dicranum. 

HAB. Wet sandy heaths and bogs, not common. Fr. 7. 

Angus-shire (Don). Barmby moor, Yorks. (Teesdale, Spruce c. fr.). Stockton forest and 
Langwith moor, York (Spruce 1842) ! Kinnordy, Scotland (Lycll). Waterdown and 
Broadwater forests, Tunbridge Wells (Mitten). Foot of Mt. Shade, Stra'an, Banchory 
c. fr. (Sim 1877) ! ! Ripon, Yorks. Trossachs (Stirton 1865). 

Readily known from the last by its broader leaves with shorter more 
acute points, papillose at back. 


Dioicous ; tomentose ; upper leaves crowded, secund, linear- 
lanceolate, somewhat crisped, remotely serrate above, upper cells large, 
angular, nerve I width of base, vanishing at apex; capsule pale, 
oblique, smooth. (T. XXII, C.) 

SYN. Dicranum congestum BRID. Sp. muse. I, 176 (1806) ; Mant. 57 (1819) ; Bry. univ. i, 418 
(1826). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, p. I, 168, t. 42 (1811). ROEHL. Deutsch. fl. iii, 67 (1813). 
FUNCK Moost. 28, t. 19 (1821). LINDB. muse, scand. 24 (1879). 
Dicranum fuscescens p.p. plur. auct. 

Dioicous ; stem erect I 2 in. high, densely clothed with ferruginous 
tomentum, fastigiate-branched, yellowish green. Leaves more or less 
secund, crispate when dry, broadly lanceolate with a short point, 
canaliculate at base, carinate above ; nerve narrow and thin, | width 
of base, lost at apex, smooth or remotely serrate at back and less 
prominent, margins remotely and coarsely serrate above ; cells at base 
elongated, very narrow, the angular brown, incrassate, quadrate, upper 
2 3 times larger than in D. fuscescens, irregular in form, at back rarely 
faintly spinulose. Per. bracts sheathing, the nerve excurrent as a short 
subula, seta tall, straw-colored, caps, ovate-oblong, cernuous, smooth, 
pale brown, more leptodermous, annulus double, lid pale, conic with a 
long oblique beak, teeth pale purple, spores greenish. 

HAB. Mountain rocks, very rare. Fr. 8. 

Ben Lawers (Boswell 1873) ' a ^ ew stems intermixed with D. fuscescens. 

Var. ft. flexicaule (Brid.) Br. Sch. 

Stem much elongated, flexuose, reclining at base, scarcely tomentose ; 
leaves elongated, laxer, falcato- secund, almost entire, yellowish green ; caps, 
more curved, cernuous, 
Sw. Dicr. flexicaule BRID. Bry. univ. i, 42. 

Dicr. congestum var . flexicaule BR. SCH. Bry. Eur. fasc. 3740, p. 36, t. 29 y. 

Dicr. fuscescens var. flexicaule WILS. Bry. br. 77. SCHIMP. Syn. 88, et 2 ed. 90. DE NOT. 
Epil. 622. MILDE Bry. sil. 69. JURATZ. Laubm. Oesterr.-ung. 46. 

HAB. Mountain rocks, not common. 

Near the High Force, Teesdale (Spruce 1843) ! Ben Lawers (Hunt 1865) ! ! Loch-na- 
Gar (Black). 

This moss has been almost universally combined with D. fuscescens, until 
Lindberg pointed out the distinctive characters ; the broader leaves with 

DICRANACE.E.] 153 [Dicmnum. 

much narrower nerve and large irregular apical cells are quite sufficient to 
separate it, and in habit it approaches far nearer to D. Bonjeani than to 
fuscescens, while the areolation at the lower part resembles that of D. scoparium, 
with pores in the cell walls. 


Dioicous ; leaves patent or secund, narrow, longly subulate, flexuose, 
closely serrulate at margin and back, upper cells small, quadrate, nerve 
? width of base, forming all upper part of subula ; capsule rufous, 
less oblique, lightly striate. (T. XXII, D.) 

SYN. Dicranum fuscescens TURN. Muse. hib. 60, t. 5, f. i (1804). SMITH Fl. brit. iii, 1204 
(1804), Eng. Bot. t. 1597. WILS. Bry. br. 77, t. 18, ft (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 87 
(1860), 2 ed. 89 (1876). BERK. Handb. br. m. 278 (1863). MILDE Bry. sil. 69 (1869). 
DE NOT. Epil. 621 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 47 (1873). LINDB. Muse, scand. 23 
(1879). JURATZ. Laubm. Oesterr.-ung. 45 (1882). 

Dicranum rupestre BRID. Sp. muse. I, 177 (1806) ; Mant. 58 (1819) ; Bry.univ. i, 419 (1826). 
Dicr. scoparium ft. fuscescens WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 174 (1807). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. 

brit. 58, t. 18, ft. (1818). GRAY Nat. arr. Br. pi. i, 738 (1821). 
Dicr. longirostre SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 170, t. 44 (1811). 
Dicr. scoparium c. rupestre ROEHL. Deutsch. Fl. iii, 66 (1813). 
Dicr. congestum p.p. HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 244 (1833). HARTM. Skand. fl. BR. Sen. 

Bry. eur. fasc. 37-40, p. 36, t. 29 (1847). RABEN. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 146 (1848). 

C. MUELL. Synops. i, 360 (1849). 
Dicr. Kinlayanum SCHIMP. MSS. 

Dioicous ; stem erect, 14 in. high, tomentose, fastigiate-branched. 
Leaves crowded, subsecund falcate subulate carinate, slightly crisped 
when dry, subula very long, deeply channelled ; nerve thick, prominent 
at back f \ width of base, forming all the plano-convex point of 
subula, strongly and densely serrulate at back, margins densely and 
minutely serrulate ; cells at base rectangular elongate, the angular 
lax quadrate brown, upper small, regularly quadrate, spinuloso- 
papillose at back. Per. bracts sheathing, abruptly narrowed into a 
longer subula formed of the nerve ; seta stouter, fulvous, caps, oblong, 
rufous-brown, longer, thicker, less oblique, with a narrower mouth, 
pachydermous, lightly sulcate, annulus subtriple, lid long as capsule, 
conic with an oblique pale beak; peristome intense purple, spores 

Male plants slender, intermixed with female ; infl. terminal, bracts 
concave, lanceolate, subulate. 

HAB. Wet rocks in mountain districts, not uncommon ; frequent on all the 
Scotch mountains. Fr. 8. 

Var. ft. falcifolium Braithw. 

Densely tufted, deep green, fastigiate ; leaves all falcato-secund, flexuoso- 
cirrhate toward apex, shorter and less attenuated to point. 

DICRANACE^.] 154 [Dicramim. 

HAB. Holwick Scarr, Teesdale (Spruce, 1843) ! Hills behind Dunoon (Stirton, 

1865) ! ! 

D. fuscescens is somewhat like a small state of D. scoparium, but is readily 
known by its slightly curled leaves with short cells free from transverse pores, 
and its pale striated capsule. It is very variable in size and colour, and 
also in the curving of the leaves. 


Dioicous ; compactly tufted, stems slender, elongated, leaves lan- 
ceolate-acuminate, entire, nerve excurrent ; capsule ovate, cernuous. lid 
with a long oblique beak. (T. XXIII, A.) 

SYN. Dicramim dongatum SCHLEICH. PI. crypt, helv. Cent. Ill, n. 27 (1806). SCHWAEG. 
Suppl. I, P. I. 171, t. 43 (1811). BRID. Mant. 60 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 429 (1826). 
FUNCK Moost. 28, t. 19 (1821). DE NOT. Syll. muse. 215 (1838), Epil. briol. ital. 622 
(1869). HARTM. skand. fl. BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 37-40^. 35, t. 28 (1847). C. MUELL. 
Synops. i, 365 (1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 86 (1860), 2 ed. 88 (1876). MILDE Bry. 
siles. 68 (1869). FERGUSS. in Scot. Nat. V, 129 (1879). JURATZ. Laubm. Oesterr- 
ung. 45 (1882). 

Die. sphagnl WAHLENB. Fl. lapp. 337 (1812). BRID. Mant. 68 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 
461 (1826). 

Dioicous; in compact cushioned tufts, densely interwoven with 
ferruginous tomentum, yellowish green above, rufo-fuscous below. Stems 
3 6 in. high, slender fastigiate-branched ; leaves secund and erecto- 
patent, appressed when dry, from an oblong lanceolate base, subulate 
acute, entire or faintly toothed at apex, the wings convolute above; nerve 
narrow, excurrent, lower cells elongato-rectangular, the angular orange, 
quadrate, upper minute oblong. Perich. bracts cylindraceo-vaginant, 
suddenly subulate ; caps, on a short pale brown seta, subcernuous, sub- 
gibbous-ovate, with a distinct neck, lightly striate, greenish brown, 
annulus narrow, lid conic with a pale subulate beak longer than caps, 
teeth irregular, rufous-red. 

Male pi. very slender, intermixed with the fem. or in separate tufts ; 
infl. secund, bracts ovate, subulate. 

HAB. Peaty places on mountain rocks ; rare. Fr. 8. Corrie Ardor, Inver- 
ness (Barker <S> Roy, 1870). Little Craigandal, Braemar (Fergusson 6- Roy, 
Readily known by its long straight stems densely compacted up to the 

coma with rusty sponge-like tomentum, and by its acute leaves, entire or with 

a few irregular teeth at apex. 


Dioicous ; in dark green cushioned tufts. Leaves curled when dry, 
lanceolate-subulate, papillose at back, nerved to apex, margin crenulate 
above. Caps, erect, cylindric-oval, lid rostrate, oblique. (T. XXIII, B.) 

SYN. Dicranum montanum HEDW. Sp. muse. 143, t. 35, f. 8-13 (1801). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 54 
(1805). BRID. Sp. muse. I, 200 (1806), Mant. 65 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 454 (1826). WEB. 
MOHR. Bot. Tasch. 179 (1807). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 178 (1811). WAHLENB. Fl. 

DICRANACE.E.] 155 [Dicramim. 

lapp. 337 (1812), Fl. carp. 345 (1814). ROEHL. Deutsch. fl. iii, 68 (1813). FUNCK Moost. 
29, t. 20 (1821). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 252 (1833), excl. syn. HARTM. Skand. fl. BR. 
SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 37-40, p. 29, t. 20 (1847), C. MUELL. Synops. i, 379 (1849). 
SCHIMP. Synops. 81 (1860), 2 ed. 82 (1876). DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital, 628 (1869). MILDE 
Bry. siles. 64 (1869). HUSN. mouss. nord.ouest 52 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. Oesterr- 
ung. 41 (1882). 

Wcissia truncicola DE NOT. Epil. 598 (1869). 

Dioicous ; densely pulvinate-csespitose, interwoven with ferruginous 
tomentum, deep green above, pale ferruginous below, i i in. high. 
Leaves soft, patent and subsecund, strongly curled when dry, lanceolate- 
subulate, subtubulose in upper part, opake, papillose at back ; margin 
crenulato-denticulate and incurved in upper half, nerve lost at apex, 
bluntly toothed at back, i J width of base, cells at base lax and 
elongate, the angular few thin, in 5 rows, upper minute quadrate. 
Perich. bracts longly sheathing, suddenly subulate ; caps, on a pale brown 
seta, leptodermous, oblong, subcylindric, slightly curved, pale brown, 
lid paler, conical, rostrate, long as capsule, teeth bright red, narrow, 

Male pi. slender, bracts from an ovate base, acuminate subulate. 
HAB. About roots and trunks of trees in woods ; rare and sterile. Fr. 7 8. 

At base of oaks, Sutton Park, Birmingham (Bagnall 1870) ! ! Abbey wood and Bostol 
wood, Kent (Holmes 1874)!! Corley woods, Coventry; Crackley wood, Kenilworth ; 
Boultbie wood and woods at Meridan shafts, Fillongley; Shrawberry wood, Shustoke ; 
Harding's wood and Birchmoor stumps, Maxtoke, and on alder at Brown's wood, 
Solihull (Bagnall 1881) ! ! Aspley woods, Luton, with D. scopariwn (Saunders 1882) ! ! 
Den of Airlie, Forfar (Sim 1876) ! ! 

Although much resembling D. flagellare, this is at once distingnished by 
its denser deep green tufts, strongly curled leaves, papillose at back, with 
margins more extensively serrulate and less incurved, 


Dioicous ; densely tufted, usually producing fragile axillar small 
leaved ramuli ; leaves lane, subulate, concave, subsecund, smooth at 
back, nerved to apex, denticulate at point ; caps, long, cylindric, striate, 
lid with a long oblique beak. (T. XXIII, C.) 

SYN. Dicranum flagcllarc HEDW. Muse. fr. iii, i, t. i, f. i (1792), Sp. muse. 130 (1801). 
SCHRAD. Spic. fl. germ. 59 (1794). ROTH Fl. germ, iii, 165 (1795). BRID. Muse. rec. 
II, P. I, 160 (1798), Sp. muse. I, 178 (1806). Mant. 58 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 422 (1826). 
ROEHL. Moosg. deutsch. 328 (1800), Deutsch. fl. iii, 65 (1813). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 63 
(1805). SCHULTZ Fl. starg. 297 (1806). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 173 (1807). SCHWAEG. 

Suppl. I, P. I, 176 (1811). VOIT Muse. herb. 41 (1812). WAHLENB. Fl. lapp. 337 (1812). 

1817). FUNCK Moost. 29, t. 20 (1821). HUEBEN. Muse. 
250 (1833). HARTM. Skand. Fl. MACKAY Fl. hibern. P. 2, 23 (1836), BR. SCH. Bry. 

MART. Fl. cr. erl, 101 (1817). FUNCK Moost. 29, t. 20 (1821). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 
250 (1833). HARTM. Skand. Fl. MACKAY Fl. hibern. P. 2, 23 (1836), BR. SCH. Bry. 
eur. fasc. 37-40, p. 30, t. 21 (1847). C. MUELL, Synops. i, 381 (1849). JENS. Bry. dan. 
92 (1856). SCHIMP. Synops. 82 (1860), 2 ed. 84 (1876). MILDE Bry. siles. 65 (1869). 
HUSN. mouss. nord-ouest 52 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. Oesterr-ung. 41 (1882). HOLMES 
in Journ. Bot. 1874, p. 225, t. 149. 
Bryum flagellare HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 37 (1796). 

Dioicous ; densely tufted, repeatedly dichotomous, i 2 in. high, 
deep or yellow-green above, rufescent below, interwoven with radicles ; 

DICRANACEJE.] 156 . [Dicranum. 

generally giving off from the axils of upper leaves, numerous filiform 
shoots, with minute lanceolate imbricated nerveless leaves. Leaves 
forming a comal tuft, lanceolate-subulate, somewhat crisped when 
dry and variously twisted at apex, subfalcate secund, convolute- 
concave, sparingly serrulate at point, nerve carinate, ^ width of base, 
vanishing in the apex, cells at base lax, elongate, the angular numerous 
thin quadrate yellow, the upper very small quadrate, smooth at back. 
Perich. bracts convolute, sheathing, gradually subulate ; caps, on a pale 
slender seta, elongate, cylindric, olivaceous, striate, and when dry 
remotely sulcate, annulus of one series of cells ; lid with a long beak, 
oblique, fuscous. 

Male pi. more slender, bracts from a broad concave base, suddenly 

HAB. Rotten trunks of trees, especially of chestnuts ; very rare. Fr. 8. 

Abbey wood and Bostol wood, Kent (Holmes 1874) ! ! sterile. Recorded also by Taylor 
in Fl. hibern. from Glen-flesk, Kerry. 

Turner's D. flagellave with fr. from Lough Bray is D. Scottii, and 
the barren one from Cromford moor according to Wilson is Campylopus 
flexuosus. D.flagellare much resembles the last species but is more robust, the 
leaves less curled, with the apex only feebly toothed and smooth at back. 
The flagella are usually absent from the lax barren tufts. 

16. DICRANUM VIRIDE (Sull. Lesq.) Lindb. 

Dioicous ; densely pulvinate, tomentose at base ; leaves erecto- 
patent, very fragile, from an oblong base lanceolate-subulate, quite 
entire, nerve excurrent ; caps, erect, oblong, slightly curved ; lid conico- 
rostrate. (T. XXIII, D.) 

SYN. Dicr. thratistophyllum SPRUCE MSS. 1850. 

Campylopus viridis SULL. LESQ. Muse. bor. am. n. 72 (1856) et 2 ed. n. 91 (1865). 

SULLIV. Moss. un. st. 103 (1856) ; Ic. muse. 30, t. 18 B (1864). 
Dicr. thraustnm SCHIMP. MSS. 1862. 
Dicr. viride LINDB. in Hedwigia ii, 70 in obs. (1863), in RAB. Bryoth. n. 1061 (1869). 

SCHIMP. Bry. eur. suppl. fasc. 3-4, p. i, t. i (1866), Synops. 2 ed. 83 (1876). DE NOT. 

Epil. br. it. 630 (1869). MILDE Bry. siles. 65 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 46 (1873). 

JURATZ. Laubm. Oesterr-ung. 40 (1882). HUSN. mouss. nord-ouest 2 ed. 47 (1882). 
Dicr.fulvum* D. viride LINDB. in HARTM. Sk. Fl. 9 ed. ii, 68 (1864). 

Dioicous ; pulvinato-csespitose, rigid, dull deep-green above, ferru- 
ginous and tomentose below, fastigiate-branched. Leaves crowded, 
erect, longer and subfalcate in the coma, patent, curved upward from 
the middle, very fragile in the upper part and rarely perfect, from an 
oblong lineal-lanceolate base, subulate, entire ; nerve flat, -> width of 
base, excurrent in a smooth channelled subula ; cells shortly rectan- 
gular, lax and chlorophyllose at base, except the middle ones which are 

DICRANACE^B.] 157 [Dicranum. 

hyaline, small and quadrate above. Perich. bracts elongate, inner 
longly sheathing, suddenly subulate ; seta yellow, capsule oblong, erect 
slightly asymmetric, yellowish brown, lid conico-rostrate, yellow. 
HAB. Trunks of trees and old rails ; very rare. Fr. 7 8. 

On decaying oak rails | mile from Abbot's Bromley, Stafford, sterile (Bloxam 1864) ! ! 

Intermediate between D. montanum and Scottii, and remarkable for the 
great brittleness of the leaves. D. strictum, SCHLEICH, and fragilifolium, LINDB. 
are also closely allied species. This plant may have been imported attached 
to the wood on which it was found, and thus its very limited area accounted 
for ; it is scattered sparingly throughout Central Europe from Sweden and 
Finland to Italy. 


Dioicous ; densely tufted, leaves patent, lane. -subulate, entire, not 
crisped when dry, the nerve excurrent ; caps, elongate-elliptic, not 
striate, lid obliquely rostrate, teeth short, nearly entire. (T. XXIII, E.) 

SYN. Dicr. Scottianum TURN. Muse. hib. 75, t. 6. f. i (1804). SMITH Fl. br. iii, 1226 (1804), 
Eng. Bot. t. 1391 et 1977 p.p. BRID. Sp. muse. I, 209 (1806), Bry. univ. i, 455 (1826). 
HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 56, t. 18 (1818). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 737 (1821). HOOK. 
Fl. Scot. P. 2, 133 (1821). MACK. Fl. hibern. P. 2, 23 (1836). BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 
37-40, p. 31, t. 23 (1847). RABEN. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, P. 3, 144 (1848). C. MUELL. 
Synops. i, 381 (1849). WILS. Bry. Br. 75, t. 18 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops, 83 (1860), 
2 ed. 85 (1876). BERK. Handb. br. m. 277 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 67 (1869). HOBK. 
Syn. br. m. 46 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 52 (1873). 
Campylopus Scottianus BRID. Mant. 72 (1819). 

Dicranum flagellare TURN. Muse. hib. 61 (1804). SM. Eng. Bot. t. 1977 p.p. HOOK. Br. 
fl. ii, 41 (1833). 

Dioicous ; in dense rounded tufts, yellow green above, fuscescent 
below, with ferruginous tomentum. Stem erect 2 3 in. high, dense- 
leaved. Leaves patent and subsecund, rigid, rather glossy, flexuose at 
apex when dry, quite entire, lanceolate-subulate ; nerve thick, excur- 
rent ; cells small and quadrate above, elongated at base, the angular lax, 
quadrate, brown. Perich. bracts sheathing, suddenly subulate, seta 
elongated reddish yellow ; caps, elongate elliptic, with a long neck, often 
subincurved, tawny brown, not striate, cylindric and subplicate when 
dry, small-mouthed ; annulus simple, lid pale, obliquely rostrate ; teeth 
short, nearly entire or 2 3-fid at apex only, fragile, pale red. 

Male plants in distinct tufts, slender, more branched ; outer bracts 
lanceolate subulate. 
HAB. Shady sub-alpine rocks ; not common. Fr. 7 8. 

Swanlibar, Ireland (Scott). Blackwater bridge (Taylor). Glena and Cromagloun, 
Killarney (Carroll 1861). Common in Sussex on sandstone (Mitten). Dewerstone rocks 
and Plymouth (Holmes 1867) ! ! Tarbert, Cantire and Colintraive, Argyle (Hunt 1866) ! ! 
Loch Maree (Hunt 1866). Lough Bray and Kylemore, Galway (Moore). On an old 
tree near O'Sullivan's cascade (Schimper 1865). 

This very pretty moss appears to be more prevalent with us than in any 
other part of Europe, unless it has been overlooked for D. flagellare ; from this 

D ICRANACE^E.] 158 [Dicmnum. 

it may be readily known by its very dense acute entire-pointed leaves and 
stout excurrent nerve. From D. fuscescetis, which it also resembles, its very 
acute entire smooth subula will always separate it. 


Dioicious ; in large soft silky tufts ; leaves falcato-secund, lanc.- 
subulate, entire, nerve one-fifth width of base ; caps, elliptico-cylindric, 
lid obliquely rostrate. (T. XXIV, A.) 

SYN. Dicranum Sauteri BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 37-41, p. 33, t. 24 (1847). C. MUELL. Synops. 
i, 375 (1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 85 (1860), 2 ed. 87 (1876). DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 626 
(1869). MILDE Bry. siles. 68 (1869). JURATZ. Laubm. Oesterr.-ung. 43 (1882). 

Dioicous ; in dense cushioned glossy green tufts, becoming fulvous, 
fuscous at base, with brown tomentum. Leaves very dense, rather rigid, 
secund or falcate, channelled, lanceolate, gradually subulate, entire or 
with a few teeth at point, nerve one-fifth width of base, excurrent, cells 
at base narrow and elongated, angular lax, quadrate, brown, upper 
elongated. Perich. bracts sheathing, longly subulate, caps, cylindra- 
ceous, erect, slightly asymmetric, annulus simple, lid conic, obliquely 
rostrate, long as capsule, teeth red, cleft one-third. 

Male plant shorter, slender. 

Var. ft. curvulum Lindb. 

Capsule horizontal, more or less curved. 

HAB. Sub-alpine rocks ; very rare. Fr. 8 9. 

The var. ^8. only is with some doubt admitted as British, and its claim 
as such rests on specimens in a collection of the late A. O. Black, unnamed 
and mixed with D. molle andfukatum, the labels bearing localities in Braemar 
(Cairn Taggart, Loch-na-Neem and Freuch Corrie) ; Prof. Lindberg identi- 
fied it with a precisely similar form found in the Pyrenees. The Marchese 
Bottini regards D. Sauteri as a variety of D. longifolium, from which it seems 
to me to be sufficiently distinct in the leaf-base and section of nerve. 


Dioicous ; in large soft silky pale green tufts ; leaves falcato-secund, 
lane. -subulate, serrulate above at back and margin, nerve one-third 
width of base ; caps, cylindraceous, lid pale, obliquely subulate. (T. 
XXIV, B.) 

SYN. Dicranum longifolium EHRH. Dec. crypt, n. 114 (1786). HEDW. muse. fr. iii, 24. t. 9 
(1792), Sp. muse. 130 (1801). ROTH Fl. germ iii, P. I, 166 (1795)- BRID. muse. rec. II, 
P. I, 161 (1798), Sp. muse. I, 183 (1806), Mant, 60 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 430 (1826). 
SWARTZ muse. suec. 34 (1799). ROEHL. Moosg. deutsch. 334 (1800), Deutsch. fl. iii, 66 
(1813). SCHULTZ Fl. starg. 297 (1806). WEB. MOHR Bot.Tasch. 172 (1807). SCHWAEG. 
Suppl. I, P. I, 176 (1811). VOIT muse. herb. 42 (1812). WAHLENB. Fl. carp. 344 
(1814). FUNCK Moost. 29, t. 20 (1821). HUEBEN. muse. germ. 248 (1833). DE NOT. 
Syll. muse. 215 (1838), Epil. bri. ital. 625 (1869). HARTM. Skand. Fl. BRUCH SCHIMP. 
Bry. eur. fasc. 37-40, p. 32, t. 25 (1847). RABEN. Deutsch, kr. fl. ii, P. 3, 144 (1848). 
C. MUELL. Synops. i, 371 (1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 84 (1860), 2 ed. 86 (1876). MILDE 
Bry. siles. 67 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 46 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. Oesterr.-ung. 43 
Dicr. Stirtoni WILS. MSS. a short leaved form. 

DICRANACE.E.] 159 \_Dicranum. 

Dioicous ; in soft lax silky pale green tufts, fuscous below, black at 
base ; stem arcuato or geniculato ascending, slender, dichotomous, 
falcate at apex, sparingly radiculose. Leaves long, rather rigid, falcato- 
secund, from a lanceolate base, longly capillaceo-subulate, subtubulose 
above, nerve very broad, ^ width of base, occupying all upper part of 
leaf, serrate at back and margin, cells at base small narrow, the angular 
lax, brownish, upper elongated rectangular. Inner perich. bracts con- 
volute-sheathing, abruptly apiculate with the excurrent nerve, caps, 
erect, elongato-cylindraceous, straight or subincurved, estriate, fuscous ; 
lid pale, with a subulate beak, long as capsule, teeth small, red, deeply 

Male plant more slender, bracts falcate, innermost shortly acumi- 
HAB. Stones and trunks of trees in mountains ; rare. Fr. 8 9. 

Maidenbower Crags, Dumfries, with Grimmia patens (Herb. Kew). Ben Lawers (Stirton 
1865) ! ! Glen Prosen (Fcrgusson 1868) ; all sterile. 

Next to this comes another European species, Dicr. albicans, BR. SCH. 
(D. eiierve, THED.), which has a still greater development of nerve, and in fact 
constitutes a transition to Leucobryum. 


Dioicous ; in silky tufts, tomentose at base ; leaves falcate or 
flexuose, subovate at base, longly subulate with the serrulate nerve, 
spinulose at back ; caps, erect, oval-cylindric, lid straight, rostrate. 
(T. XVII, H.) 

SYN. Dicranodontium asperuhim p.p. WILS. in Kew Journ. Bot. IX, 296 (1857). 

Dicramim asperulum MITT. Journ. Lin. Soc. i, Suppl. 22 (1859). RABENH. Bryoth. eur. 

n. 940. 
Dicranodontium aristatum SCHIMP. Synops. 695 (1860), 2 ed. 99 (1876). Bry. eur. suppl. 

fasc. MI, t. i (1864). MILDE Bry. siles. 75 (1869). 
Dicranodontium lutescens SCHIMP. MSS. = ? 
Dicramim Dickieanum WILS. MSS. 

Dicranod. longirostre var. /?. aristatum JURATZ. Laubm. Oesterr.-ung. 52 (1882). 
Didymodon aristatus LINDB. Muse, scand. 25 (1879). 

Dioicous ; in lax soft tufts 2 3 in. high, yellow green above, pale 
brown or ferruginous below, with fine pale or rufous radicles at base ; 
stem decumbent at base, very slender. Leaves remote and ovate- 
acuminate at base, becoming longer and closer upward, from an oblong- 
lanceolate concave base, continued into a long channelled subflexuose 
arista, with 6 10 ridges at back, serrulate at margin, the highest 
broader and more concave, with the margin from the middle of the base 
upward sharply toothed and incurved, the arista very long, secund 
arcuate, formed of the nerve which is sulcate and spinulose at back. 

DICRANACE.E.] 160 [Dicranum. 

Nerve i width of base ; cells lax rectangular and pellucid at base, the 
angular large hyaline numerous, the upper chlorophyllose, the teeth 
hyaline. Perich. bracts like the leaves, very broad at base, sheathing ; 
seta elongated yellow erect, twisting to the left when dry, capsule erect 
pale brown, cylindric-oval, contracted below the mouth, plicate when 
old, lid conic with a subulate nearly straight beak about as long as 
capsule ; teeth pale red, cleft halfway into two unequal legs. 

Male infl. gemmaceous, inner bracts suddenly shortly acuminate, 
the nerve thin or scarce evident. 
HAB. On sandstone rocks in mountain districts ; always sterile. 

Lennox castle, Campsie and Ben Ledi (McKinlay 1861) ! ! Ben Mac Dhui (Dickie 1861) ! 
Mains Castle, New Kilpatrick (Gait 1865) ! ! Ben Voirlich (McKinlay 1865) ! 
Milngavie, Glasgow (Stirton 1864)! Bach-na-gairn, Clova (Fergusson 1868). Ben 
Hope, Sutherland (Howse 1871) ! ! Debris of rocks by Loch Avon, Braemar 
(Hunt 1871) ! ! 

Very unsettled opinions have been held by bryologists with respect to 
this moss and the next, probably influenced to some extent by the fact that 
they frequently grow together, and that D. asperuhim is variable in the rough- 
ness and direction of the leaves, so that some forms are difficult to discrimi- 
nate, not only from D. uncinatum, but still more from Didymodon demidatus, 
which it closely resembles in structure. The clear definition of the species 
by Mr. Mitten in his Musci Indise or. drawn up from fertile specimens (with 
which the British plant is certainly identical), shows that however closely in 
habit and leaf-structure it resembles Didym. demidatus, it cannot be congeneric, 
for as a genus that must stand on the form of its peristomial teeth, but those 
of D. asperulum are perfectly dicranoid. We may contrast the species thus : 

D. asperulum. Dull green, stems slender scarcely tomentose, leaves dense, variously 
flexuose, erecto-patent, uppermost slightly falcato-secund, margin of basal wing serrated, 
subula closely serrated, scabrous at back. 

D. uncinatum. Yellow green, rather glossy, stems robust tomentose, leaves more distant, 
all regularly falcato or circinato secund, margin of basal wing, entire, subula 
distantly denticulate in upper part, smooth at back. 

Didym. demidatus. Known at once by its large basal auricles, with large lax hyaline 

An elaborate paper by Milde, " Ueber Dicranodontium," in Botan. Zeitung, 
1870, pp. 392 and 414, is well worth consulting, although we differ from some 
of his conclusions. 

21. DICRANUM UNCINATUM (Harv.) C. Muell. 
Dioicous ; tall glossy yellow-green ; leaves strongly falcato-secund, 
from a dilated base, longly subulate, denticulate toward apex, cells at 
base lax quadrate, with a border becoming broader upward of very 
narrow elongated ones; caps, erect subcylindric, lid rostrate. (T. 
XXIV, C.) 

Svn.Thysanomitrium uncinatum HARVEY in HOOK. Ic. pi. rar. i, t. 22, f. 5 (1837), et Lond 
Journ. Bot. ii, p. 6 (1840). 

Dicranum winatum C. MUELL. Synops. i, 404 (1849). MITT, in Journ. Lin. Soc. i, 

DICRANACE^;.] 161 [Dichodontiwn. 

Dicranum circinatum WILS. Bry. brit. 76 (1855). SCHIMP. Bry. eur. Suppl. fasc. III-IV, t. 

4 (1866). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 47 (1873). 

Dicranodontlum asperulum p.p. WILS. in Kew Journ. Bot. IX, 296 (1857). 
Dicranodontium circinatum SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 100 (1876). 
Dicranum comptum SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 97 (1876). 

Dioicous ; laxly caespitose, glossy golden green or fulvous. Stem 
slender flexuose, 2 5 in. high, dichotomous, geniculato-ascending, more 
or less rufo-tomentose. Leaves rather distant, enlarging upward, lowest 
lanceolate, upper very long, secund circinate, from a decurrent sheathing 
base slightly inflated at the angles, suddenly longly subulate, canalicu- 
late ; nerve i width of base, of 3 strata of cells, produced into a very 
long arista, denticulate at back and margin ; cells at angles and mid- 
base large thin hyaline, hexagono-rectangular, marginal in 4 8 rows of 
very long narrow green cells. Perich. bracts from a laxly areolate, 
shortly sheathing base, gradually capillaceous, seta short, fulvous, 
straight or flexuose, caps, erect subcylindric, castaneous-brown, lid with 
a long beak, teeth purple, cleft half way, the legs subulate. 
HAB. Wet grassy places on mountains ; sterile, not common. 

Ben Voirlich by Loch Lomond (Greville 1825) ! ! Ben Mac Dhui (Davies 1861) ! ! Ben 
Nevis (McKinlay 1862) ! Ben Challum, Perthshire, with D. asperulum (McKinlay 
1863) ! ! Loch Maree (Hunt 1866) ! ! Glen Phee, Clova (Fcrgusson 1867) ! ! 

The basal areolation is much firmer than in the last species, and the 
marginal border of very narrow cells much more distinct. Although Harvey 
placed the species in the genus Thysanomitrium, he must have done so at 
random, as the calyptra has never been described. 

Subf. 5. ONCOPHOREsE. Plants densely or laxly tufted; leaves 
chlorophyllose, opake, usually papillose, without enlarged basal angular 
cells, the upper cells minute, quadrate. Capsule oblong or subcylindric, 
frequently striate, usually with a strumose neck. 


Bry. eur. Coroll. p. 12 (1855). 

Plants laxly tufted, soft. Leaves squarrose, crenato-serrate, 
papillose, opake, cells rectangular at base, quadrate above, chlorophyl- 
lose. Calyptra large, cucullate ; capsule solid, pachydermous, smooth, 
lid rostrate, peristome large, teeth 16, cleft below the middle into 2 3 
legs, closely trabeculate. 

Inhabiting wet rocks and stones by streams. 

Der. ^x a(a ^0 divide, o^ovs a tooth. 


Capsule cernuous, gibbose ovate ; leaves serrulate at apex. pellucidum. 

Capsule erect, subcylindric ; leaves serrated in upper half. flavescens. 

DICRANACEJE.] 162 [Diclwdontium. 


Dioicous ; laxly tufted ; leaves squarrose, flexuose, lineal-lanceolate, 
entire or crenulate at point, obtuse, papillose. Caps, cernuous, ovate, 
lid rostrate. (T. XXIV, D.) 

SYN. Muscus polytrichoides angustifolius pellucidus ramosus. PLUK. in RAY Synops. st. br. 
app. 241 (1690) ; Phytogr. i, t. 49, fig. i (1691). 

Bryum erectis capitiilis subrotundis fuscis, jol. minoribus pellucidis rugosis DILL, in RAY 
Syn. 3 ed. 96 (1724) ; Var. 

Bryum palustre pellucidum, capsulis ctfol'iis brcvibus rccurvis DILL. Hist. Muse. 364, T. 46, 
f. 23 (1741) ; (excl. syn. et var. ramosa.) et Herb. 

Bryum pcllucidum L. Sp. plant, ii, 1118 (1753) p.p. et. excl. var. ft. Syst. nat. ii, 701, Syst. 
veg. 948. HUDS. Fl. angl. 407 (1762). NECK. Meth. muse, 204 (1771). LIGHTF. Fl. 
scot, ii, 724 (1777). ABBOT Fl. Bedf. 237 (1798). HULL. Br. fl. P. 2, 264 (1799). 

Dicranum pcllucidum HEDW. Fund. muse, ii, 92 (1782). TIMM Pr. fl. megap. n. 786 (1788). 
ROTH op. c. 177, BRID. muse. rec. II, P. I, 176 (1798), Sp. Muse. I, 192 (1806), Mant. 62 
(1819), Bry. univ. i,439 (1826). SWARTZ Muse. suec. 35 (1799). ROEHL. Moosg. deutsch. 
355 (1800), Deutsch. fl. iii, 69 (1813). HEDW. Sp. muse. 142 (1801). SMITH Fl. brit. iii, 
1223 (1804), Eng. bot. 1. 1346. TURN. Muse. hib. 68 (1804). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 54 (1805). 
WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 183 (1807). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 181, t. 48 (1811). VOIT 
Muse, herbip. 49 (1812). MART. Fl. cr. erl. 103 (1817). Hook. Tayl. Muse. brit. 55, 
t. 17 (1818). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 736 (1821). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. 2. 133 (1821), 
Br. fl. ii, 40 (1833). FUNCK Moost. 30, t. 21 (1821). ZENK. DIETR. Muse, thuring. II, 
n. 29 (1822). HUEBEN. muse. germ. 269 (1833). MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 23 (1836). DE 
NOT. Sy.ll. muse. 208 (1838). HARTM. Skand. fl. BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 37-40, 
p. 16, t. 4 (1847). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 138 (1848). WILS. Bry. brit. 67, 
t. 17 (1855). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 48 (1873). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 41 (1873). 

Mniutn pelluccns GMEL. Syst. nat. ii, 1328 (1791). LAICH. PI. eur. 476 (1794). WITH. 
Bot. arr. br. veg. 3 ed. iii, 802 (1796). 

Dicranum aquaticum EHRH. cr. exsic. n. 213 (1790). ROTH Fl. germ, iii, P. I, 177 (1800). 
BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. I, 158 (1798). 

Bryum aquaticum HOFFM. Fl. germ, ii, n. 35 (1796). 

Angstroemia pellucida C. MUELL. Synops. ii, 606 (1851). JENS. Bry. dan. 99 (1856). 

Dichodontium pcllucidum SCHIMP. Bry. eur. Coroll. 12 (1855). Synops. 65 (1860), 2 ed. 66 
(1876). BERK. Handb. br. m. 284 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 55 (1869). DE Nor. Epil. 
bri. ital. 489 (1869). LINDB. in Bot. Notiser 1878 p. 115, JURATZ. Laubm. oest.-ung. 
28 (1882). 

Tridontium pcllucidum LINDB. in Oefv. vet. ak. forh. xxi, 230 (1864). 

Didymodon Woodii SCHIMP. MSS. 

Dioicous ; in lax tufts i 3 in. high, light green above, dull lurid 
green below. Stem flexuose, erect, sparingly branched with a long 
innovation at the perichaetium, radiculose below. Leaves laxly imbri- 
cated, erecto-flexuose, appressed and twisted when dry, from an oblong 
sheathing pale pellucid base, squarroso-recurved, lineal-lanceolate, more 
or less obtuse and cucullate, canaliculate, slightly undulate at margin, 
entire or more or less serrated towards point, opake, papillose on both 
sides ; nerve stout, vanishing at apex, crenulate at back near the point ; 
cells at base elongated rectangular pellucid, above minute quadrate, deep 
green, strongly papillose at back. Perich. bracts like the leaves but 
more sheathing at base, seta stout, pale yellow, short rigid ; caps, 
cernuous, pachydermous, gibbose-ovate or subglobose, subsymmetric, 
smooth, with scarce any neck, pale olive or reddish-brown, black when 

DICRANACE^.] 163 [Dichodontium. 

old, not annulate ; lid large convex conic, obliquely rostrate, orange ; 
teeth large, 2 3-fid, blood-red, orange above, punctate-striolate below 
middle, papillose at apex. 

Male pi. like the female, infl. terminal, gemmiform, bracts from a 
broad base very concave, broadly linear-subulate, nerve excurrent. 

HAB. Wet rocks and stones about the beds of streams and by waterfalls ; 

not uncommon. Fr. 10 n. 

This moss varies considerably in the form and size of the capsule and 
length of the lid, but in all the specimens that have come before us we have 
seen no transition to the next species. In habit it much resembles Anisothe- 
cium squarrosum which may always be distinguished by its smooth leaves and 
lax areolation. According to Lindberg the genus Tridontium belongs to 
Tortulaceae, standing near Scopelophila MITT. (Mevceya SCHIMP.) 

Var. (3. fagimontanum (Brid.) 

Plants shorter more dense with shorter branches ; leaves shorter, more 
obtuse, scarcely recurved ; capsule smaller. 

SYN. Dicranum pellucidum var. ft. fagimontanum BRID. Sp. muse. I, 192 (1806), Bry. univ. 

Dichod. pellucidum var. p. fagimontanum SCHIMP. et auct. cit. 

HAB. Similar localities in more alpine districts. 

Ben Lawers (Braithwaite 1865) ! ! Sandstone rocks at Clifton Junction (Holt 1883) ! ! 

Variable in density and height, sometimes only reaching half an inch, 
but readily distinguished by its short obtuse leaves. 

Dioicous ; laxly tufted, scarcely branched ; leaves lineal-lanceolate, 
more distant, serrate in upper half, less obtuse. Caps, erect or a little 
inclined, cylindraceous, lid rostrate. (T. XXIV, E.) 

SYN. Muscus polytrichoides elatior, foliis angustis pellucidis et fere membranaceis. PLUK. in 
RAY Synops. app. 240 (1690) ; Phytog. i, t. 44, fig. 7 (1691), Almag. hot. 257 (1696). 

Bryum ercctum, capit. subrotundis fuscis ; fol. minor ibus pellucidis rugosis. DILL, in RAY 

Syn. 3 ed. 96 (1724), excl. var. 
Bryum flavescens DICKS. Fasc. pi. cr. II, 4, t. 4, fig. 5 (1790). GMEL. Syst. nat. 13 ed. 

ii, P. 2, p. 1338 (1791). WITH. Bot. arr. Br. veg. 3 ed. iii, 830 (1796). HULL Br. Fl. 

P. 2, 254 (1799). 

Bryum lineare DICKS. Fasc. Ill, 6, t. 8, fig. 2 (1793). 

Dicranum flavescens TURN. Muse. hib. 70 (1804). SM. Fl. brit. iii, 1224 (1804), Eng. Bot. 
t. 2263. BRID. Sp. muse. I, 196 (1806), Mant. 63 (1819). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 98, 
t. 17 (excl. syn. W. M. Schwg. et Funck.) 1818. GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 736 (1821). 
HOOK. Fl. scot. P. 2, 132 (1821), Br. Fl. ii, 40 (1833). MACK. Fl. hib. p. 2, 22 (1836). 

Dicr. gracilescens ft. flavescens BRID. Bry. univ. i, 442 (1826). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 255 

Dicr. pellucidum var. y. serratum BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 37 40, p. 16, t. 4 y. (1847). 

WILS. Bry. brit. 68, t. 17 (1855). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 41 (1873). 

Angstrcemiapellucida var. y. serrata C. MUELL. Synops. ii, 607 (1851). 

Dichodontium pellucidum var. y. serratum SCHIMP. Bry. eur. Coroll. 13 (1855), Synops. 66 
(1860), 2 ed. 66 (1876). MILDE Bry. sil. 55 (1869). JURATZ. Laubm. Oesterr.-ung. 28 

Dichodontium flavescens LINDB. in Botan. notiser 1878, p. 113, et Muse, scand. 27 (1879). 

DICRANACEJE.] 164 [Oncophorus. 

Dioicous; laxly tufted, slightly branched, somewhat glossy, dull 
yellow green, resembling D. pellucidum. Leaves less crowded, longer 
flatter and narrower, gradually tapering to a more acute flat point, 
crenato-serrate in the upper half, basal cells more elongated, the quad- 
rate ones forming a very slight border to the basal wing, and not coming 
so low down in the leaf, scarcely papillose. Capsule erect or slightly 
inclined, oblong, subcylindric, pale brown, contracted below the mouth 
when dry, lid with an oblique acute beak ; peristome paler with longer 
teeth, not longitudinally punctate-striolate below middle, nor papillose 
at apex. 
HAB. On stones and gravel by banks of streams. Fr. 9. 

Forfar (Don 1802). Bantry (Miss Hutchins 1809). R. Dargle (Taylor 1812). Collington 
(Greville). Appin (Carmichael). Nant-y-Flydd (Wilson 1833). Mill Dingle, High 
cliff, Rowsley and Matlock (Wilson 1834) ! Bolton woods and Stanley Clough (Nowell) \ 
By the Calder (Gardiner 1834). By the Esk and Wharfe, Yorks. (Spruce 1842) ! ! 
Hungershall rocks, Tunbridge Wells (Mitten). Thirsk and Wensleydale (Baker 1852) ! 
Windermere (Clowes 1854) ! Woodend (Sidebotham 1858) ! Fin glen and Dunoon 
(Hunt 1865) ! ! 

The leaves are less complicate than in the last species, the areolation 
laxer with the dorsal papillae only mammosely protuberant. 

Oreoweissia sevvulata (Funck) Schimp. has been recorded by Dr. Stirton 
from Ben Lawers, but no specimens have come before us. Its head-quarters 
are the Italian alps and Austrian Tyrol. 


(Bryol. univ. i, 389 (1826) ). 

Plants in dense cushioned tufts, dichotomously branched. Leaves 
long, comant, crisped when dry, opake, with minute quadrate areolation, 
more or less papillose. Calyptra inflato-cucullate. Capsule erect or 
subincurved, oval or oblong, with a short neck, usually strumose, some- 
times equal, striate, sulcate when dry, rarely smooth ; teeth lanceolate, 
cleft into two unequal legs, or subulate, or more or less imperfect. 
Inhabiting mountain rocks. Der. oy/cos a swelling, <opeo> to bear. 

This expressive name Oncophorus was first mentioned by Bridel in his 
Mantissa, p. 53 (1819), as a section of Dicranum for all the strumose fruited 
species, and in his Bryologia established as a genus, including besides the 
principal species retained here, Dicranella cerviculata and squarrosa, Dicranum 
Starkei, falcatum, &c. In 1801 appeared Cynontodium Hedwig (altered by Bridel 
to Cynodontium] for the two species of Swartzia EHRH. but in 1846 Schimper 
renamed this genus Distichium, and transferred Cynodontium to Dicranum 
Bruntoni, and Oncophorus to Hampe's older genus Leucobryum, but in his 
Synopsis C. gracilescens, polycarpum and virens were added, and in 2 ed. C. 
schisti also, C. Bruntoni being moved into Dicranoweisia. The genus as now 
defined includes a number of closely allied species differing but little in 
habit and foliage, but presenting considerable variations in the peristome, by 

DICRANACE.E.] 165 [Oncophorus. 

which we are able to form several minor groups, one of which, Rhabdoweissia, 
deviates the most in its dwarf habit and small regular striated capsule. 
Besides the British species, 0. civmtus (BniD.) alpestre (WAHLENB.}brevipes 
LINDB. Martii (HORNSCH.) and schisti (WAHLENB.) are also found in Europe. 


Capsule strumose. 

Capsule smooth ; leaves smooth. 

Leaves lanceolate. vlrens. 

Leaves from a dilated base, suddenly subulate. Wahlcnbcrgii. 

Capsule furrowed ; leaves papillose. strumifer. 

Capsule not strumose. 

Capsule asymmetric, oblique. 

Leaves lanceolate, rather obtuse ; perich. bracts short. gracilesccns. 

Leaves lane. -subulate, acute ; perich. bracts longly subulate, polycarpus. 
Capsule symmetric, erect. 

Capsule smooth. Bruntoni. 

Capsule furrowed. 

Leaves obtuse ; teeth of per. long, lanceolate. crispatus. 

Leaves acute ; teeth of per. short, subulate. striatus. 

Sect. i. LEIOCYSTIS Lindb. Plants robust ; leaves smooth. Cap- 
sule smooth, cernuous, incurved, teeth of peristome stout, trabeculate, cleft 
into two legs. 


Autoicous ; in large lax tufts. Leaves lanceolate cuspidate, flexuose, 
nerved to apex, entire or serrate at point. Capsule ovate, subcylindric, 
incurved with a short strumose neck, smooth ; peristome dicranoid. 
(T. XXV, B.) 

SYN. Bryum virens SWARTZ in Act. Upsal. 1784, p. 241. 

Dicranum virens HEDW. Muse. fr. iii, 77, t. 32 (1792), Sp. muse. 142 (1801). ROTH Fl. 
germ, iii, P. I, 173 (1800). BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. 1, 178 (1798), Sp. muse. 1, 193 (1806), 
Mant. 54 excl. syn. WAHL. (1819). SWARTZ Muse. suec. 33 (1799). ROEHL. Moosg. 
deutsch. 379 (1800), Deutsch. fl. iii, 73 (1813). SMITH Fl. brit. iii, 1406 (1804), Eng- 
Bot. t. 1462. TURN. Fl. hib. 69 (1804). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 55 (1805). WEB. MOHR Bot. 
Taseh. 182 (1807). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 194 (1811). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 54, 
t. 17 (1818). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 735 (1821). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. 2, 132 (1821). 
Br. Fl. ii, 38 (1833). FUNCK Moost. 31, t. 22 (1821). SCHULTZ in Syllog. Ratisb. 
1828, p. 149. HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 231 (1833). DE N OT. Syll. 211 (1838), Epil. bri. 
ital. 625 (1869). Hartm. Skand. fl. FIOR. MAZZ. Bry. Rom. 2 ed. p. 17 (1841), 
BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 37-40, p. 15, t. 3 (1847). RABEN. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 
137(1848). WILS. Bry. br. 66, t. 17 (1855). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 40 (1873). 

Oncophorus virens BRID. Bry. univ. i, 399 (1826). LINDB. Muse, scand. 27 (1879). 

Angstroemia virens C. MUELL. Synops ii, 609 (1851). 

Cynodontium virens SCHIMP. Bry. eur. Coroll. 12 (1855), Synops. 63 (1860), 2 ed. 64 (1876). 
BERK. Handb. br. m. 285 (1863). JURATZ Laubm. oesterr-ung. 27 (1882). 

Autoicous ; in dense laxly cohering tufts, yellow green above, 
fuscous or black below ; stem ascending 2 3 in. high, repeatedly 
dichotomous, fastigiate, slightly radiculose. Leaves erecto-patent 
flexuose, more or less crisped when dry, from an oblong semivaginant 
base, lanceolate cuspidate acute, subcomplicate-carinate, smooth, 
margin recurved, entire or serrate at apex, nerve subterete, vanishing 
at apex or very slightly excurrent, basal cells narrow pellucid, upper 

DICRANACE.E. i66 [Oncophorus 

minute quadrate. Inner perich. bracts sheathing to the middle, thence 
longly subulate and divaricate, seta rather short yellowish red ; capsule 
subgibbose ovate, subcylindric, more or less incurved, with a short 
strumose neck abrupt on one side, when dry and empty smooth, 
contracted below mouth, ochraceous or fuscescent, lid conic rostrate, 
erose at base, oblique, orange, annulus narrow, persistent ; peristome 
purple, rufous or orange, smooth, teeth broad robust, regular, cleft to 
middle. Male infl. minute, axillar in the comal leaves, bracts few, 

HAB. Wet rocks and earth among stones by Alpine streams. Fr. 7. 
Common on Ben Lawers and all the Grampian range. 

Var. ft, serratus (Schimp}. 

Laxly tufted ; stem tall ascending sparingly branched ; leaves divari- 
cato-patent, curling, the margin coarsely serrate. Caps, less strumose. 

SYN. Dicr. virens Var. y. serratum SCHIMP. Bry. eur. Cynodonthim virens. Var. y. serratum 
SCHIMP. Coroll. &c. 

HAB. By mountain streams and waterfalls. North of England (Prof. Barker 


This fine moss is a great ornament to mountain rocks, and varies much in 
size and in the form and direction of the fruit ; the capsule is very fragile and 
splits with slight pressure. 


Autoicous ; stem short nearly simple. Leaves lax, distant, from a 
broad sheathing base, suddenly linear, patent acute entire. Capsule 
obovate, when empty sulcate and incurved, strumulose ; teeth of 
peristome approximate at base. (T. XXV, A.) 

SYN. Dicranum virens WAHLENB. Fl. lapp. 308 (1812), excl. syn. 

Oncophorus Wahlenbergii BRID. Bry. univ. i, 400 (1826). LINDB. muse, scand. 27 (1879). 

Dicranum Wahlenbergii SCHULTZ In Syllog. Ratisb. 1828, p. 149. 

Dicr. virens Var. /3. Wahlenbergii HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 231 (1833). BR. SCH. Bry. eur. 

fasc. 3740, p. 15, t. 3 (1847). RABEN. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 137 (1848). 
Dicran. Richardsoni HOOK, in DRUMM. Muse. amer. n. 105. 
Angstroemia Wahlenbergii C. MUELL. Synops ii, 610 (1851). 
Cynodontium virens Var. /3. Wahlenbergii SCHIMP. Bry. eur. Coroll. 12 (1855), Synops. 63 

(1860), 2 ed. 64 (1876). FERGUSS. in Scott, nat. 1879, p. 131. JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr- 

ung. 28 (1882). 

Autoicous ; resembling O. virens, but the stems slender, i 2 in. 
high and nearly simple. Leaves strongly crisped, distant, from a 
dilated sheathing base, narrowest below and widening upward, suddenly 
lanceolate-subulate, very patent and flexuose, the margin flat and 
involute above, obsoletely denticulate at apex or entire ; areolation as 
in O. virens, the basal thinner and more elongated. Perich. bracts 
more widely sheathing, seta rufescent, capsule leptodermous, shorter, 

DICRANACEJE.] 167 [Oncophorus. 

castaneous or rufescent, obovate, cernuous, strumose, when empty 
incurved, wide mouthed, smooth or slightly sulcato-striate, lid with a 
curved beak, teeth of peristome purple, close together at the base, 
slightly cleft into two slender legs. 

HAB. Crevices of Alpine rocks ; very rare. Fr. 8. 
Glen Callater (Fergusson 1871). 

Var. (3. compactus (S 'chimp'). 

Plants in dense yellow green tufts; leaves dense erecto- patent, shorter, 
curling strongly, the margin quite entire. Capsule short gibbous, neck with 
a rounded struma. (T. XXV, B., fig. ft.} 

SYN. Dicranum Homanni BOECK in HARTM. Skand. Fl. 4 ed. 384 (1843). 
Dlcr. virens Var. S. compactum Bry. Eur. 
Cynodontium virens Var. S. compactum SCHIMP. Synops. 
Dicr. Wahlenbcrgii Var. ft. compactum LINDB. in Oefv. K. vet. ak. Forhandl. 1867, p. 556. 

HAB. On the higher mountains of Braemar. Little Craigandal, with Dicr. 

elongatum (Fergusson and Roy 1873). 

This plant is certainly distinct from O. virens, and in habit resembles O. 
strumiferum; the form of the base of leaf is quite characteristic. Prof. Lind- 
berg retains it in a separate section which he names Parasymblepharis. The 
variety ft. by the shape of its leaf must also be placed here and not under 
0. virens. 

Sect. 2. EUONCOPHORUS Lindb. Plants slender, ramulose ; leaves 
papillose. Capsule suberect, oblong, with a distinct neck, equal or slightly 
strumose, striate, when empty sulcate; teeth thin, more distantly trabeculate, 
cleft into 2 3 slender legs. 


Autoicous ; in pulvinate tufts. Leaves lanceol. -subulate, flexuose, 
entire or crenulate at apex, papillose on both sides. Caps, gibbose- 
oblong, distinctly strumose at base. (T. XXV, C.) 

SYN. Dicranum strumiferum EHRH. PI. crypt, n. 74 (1786). SCHRAD. Spic. fl. germ. 59 (1704). 

SWARTZ Muse. suec. 33 (1799). ROTH Fl. germ, iii, P. I, 186 (1800). SMITH Fl. 

brit. iii, 1228 (1804), Eng. hot. t. 2410. BRID. Sp. muse. I, 226 (1806), Mant. 24 (1819). 

WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 181 (1807). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 194 (1811). ROEHL. 

Deutsch. fl. iii, 72 (1813). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 54, t. 17 (1818). FUNCK Moost. 31, t. 

21 (1821). GRAY Nat. afr. br. pi. i, 735 (1821). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. 2, 132 (1821), Br. fl. 

ii, 39 (1833). HUEBEN. muse. germ. 232 (1833). c - MUELL, Synops. ii, 592 (1851). 
Fissidens strumifer HEDW. Muse. fr. ii, 88, t. 32 (1788). Sp. muse. 160 (1801). BRID. 

Muse. rec. II, P. I, 151 (1798). ROEHL. Moosg. deutsch. 308 (1800). WAHLENB. Fl. 

carp. 343 (1814). 

Hypnum strnmosum GMEL. Syst. nat. ii, 1339 (1791). LAICH. PI. eur. 488 (1794). 
Bryum strumiferum DICKS. PI. crypt, fasc. 3, p. 8 (1793). WITH. Bot. arr. br. veg. 3 ed. 

iii. 833 (1796). HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 36 (1796). HULL Br. fl. P. 2, 264 (1799). 
Bryum inclinans DICKS, op. c. fasc. 4, p. n, t. n, f. 9 (1801). SM. Fl. brit. iii, 1363. 

BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. Ill, 66 (1803), Sp. muse. Ill, 32 (1817), Mant. 120 (1810) 

SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. II, 120 (1816). 
Cecalyphum strumiferum P. BEAUV. Prodr. 52 (1805). 
Dicr. gibbosum BRID. Sp. muse. I, 225 (i8o6).| 
Oncophorus strumifer BRID. Bry. univ. i, 395 (1826). BRAITHW. in Journ. Bot. 1870, p. 228. 

LINDB. Muse, scand. 27 (1879). 

DICRANACEJB.] 168 [Oncophorus. 

Dicran. polycarpum Var. ft. strumiferum DE NOT. Syll. 210 (1838). BR. SCH. Bry. eur. 

fasc. 37 40, p. 14 (1847). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 137 (1848). WILS. Bry. 

brit. 65, t. 17 (1855). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 40 (1873). 
Cynodontium polycarpum Var. /?. strumiferum SCHIMP. Bry. eur. Coroll. 15 (1855). 

Synops. 62. MILDE Bry. sil. 50 (1869). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 27 (1882). 
Cynodontium strumiferum DE. NOT. Epil. 280 (1869). 

Autoicous ; in cushioned yellow-green tufts. Stem i 2 in. high, 
simple below, with ferruginous tomentum, subdichotomous and fastigiate 
above. Leaves from a broad sheathing base, lanceolate-subulate, 
flexuose and slightly twisting, strongly keeled, nerve vanishing at apex, 
margin revolute below, plane above, entire or crenulate at apex, surface 
in upper part covered with obtuse papillae, as is also the back but finer ; 
areolation as in One. polycarpus but smaller and denser. Perich. bracts 
sheathing, gradually subulate, seta reddish yellow ; caps, gibbous-oblong, 
erecto-cernuous, with the base somewhat constricted and strumose, 
striate and yellow-green at first, finally sulcate and pale brown ; annulus 
compound, lid red with a paler curved beak ; teeth of per. red, adhering 
together at base, bifid. 
HAB. Wet crevices of rocks on the higher mountains. Fr. 8. 

Glen Phee, Clova (Hooker) ! ! Holwick Scar, Teesdale, (Spruce 1843). Craig Koynack, 
Braemar (Croall 1854) ! (Hunt 1869) ! 

Although so generally united to O. polycarpus, this appears to be a good 
species, distinguished by the constant presence of a struma, and the leaves at 
their upper part papillose on both sides. 


Autoicous ; in small soft tufts. Leaves patent, tortuose, lanceolate, 
scarcely acuminate, rather obtuse, densely papillose on both sides. 
Caps, on a flexuose seta, erect, oblong, not strumose. (T. XXV, D.) 

SYN. Dicranum gracilescens WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch, 184 (1807). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 
180, t. 46 (1811). ROEHL. Deutsch. Fl. iii, 69 (1813). BRID. Mant. 62 (1819), Bri. 
univ. i, 441 (1826) excl. var. FUNCK Moost. 30, t. 21 (1821). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 
2 55 ( I8 33)- DE NoT - Syll. 2 9 (1838)- BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 3740, p. 13, t. n 
(1847). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, s. 3, 136 (1848). 

Campylopus cirrhatus BRID. Bry. univ. i, 479. 

Dryptodon Campylopus BRID. Bry. univ. i, suppl. 773. 

Dicranum mixtum DE NOT. Mant. n. 52; Syllab. 210. 

Dicr. polycarpum ft. gracilescens C. MUELL. Synops. ii, 591 (1851). 

Cynodontium gracilescens SCHIMP. Bry eur. Coroll. 12 (1855), Synops. 61 (1860), 2 ed. 62 

(1876). MILDE Bry. siles. 51 (!86g). DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 281 (1869). JURATZ. 

Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 25 (1882). 

Oncophorus gracilescens LINDB. Muse, scand. 27 (1879). 

Autoicous ; in small soft tufts, yellow green above, fuscous below, 
slender fastigiate-branched. Leaves flexuose patent, curved and twisted 
when dry, lineal-lanceolate or broadly lane, rather obtuse or pointed, 
carinate, with the margin recurved, minutely crenulate, densely papillose 

DICRANACE^.] 169 [Oncophorus. 

on both sides, papillae longish ; nerve thin, vanishing below apex, cells 
very small, roundish-quadrate, the basal elongated, diaphanous. Cap- 
sule pale becoming brownish, on a flexuose pale pedicel, erect or 
subcernuous, oval and oblong, striate, the neck inconspicuous, not 
strumose ; lid long beaked, smooth at margin, annulus persistent, of 
2 rows of cells ; teeth 2 rarely 3 fid below middle, rufous red, 
remotely articulate. 

HAS. Fissures of alpine rocks ; very rare. Fr. 8. 

Glen Phee, Clova (Fergusson 1868). 

This was sent as O. poly carpus by the Rev. Mr. Fergusson, as well as 
true specimens of that plant, and hence it is probable that they grew together, 
and at first sight it is not an easy matter to discriminate them. Perhaps the 
distinction will be best apprehended by a comparison of the figures of the 
leaves and bracts, and of their apices and ar eolation. O. poly carpus has the 
leaves papillose only on the back towards apex, while in O. gmcilescens 
both surfaces are distinctly so. It will doubtless be met with in other places 
now that attention is drawn to it. 


Autoicous ; caespitose. Leaves crowded, flexuose, lanceolate- 
subulate, acute, faintly papillose, denticulate at point. Caps, erect, 
oblong, not strumose, with a tapering neck. (T. XXV, E.) 

SYN. Dicranum poly car pum EHRH. PL crypt, exs. n. 84 (1786). ROTH Fl. germ, iii, P. I, 187 

(1800). SWARTZ Muse. suec. 32 (1799). Smith Fl. brit. iii, 1227 (1804), Eng. Bot. t. 

2269. BRID. Sp. muse. I, 102 (1806), Mant. 66 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 397 (1826). WEB. 

MOHR Bot. Tasch. 179 (1807). SCHWAEG Suppl. I, P. I, 179 (1811). VOIT Muse. 

herbip. 30 (1812). MART. Fl. cr. erl. 102 (1817). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 57, t. 18, 

p.p. (1818). FUNCK Moost. 29, t. 20 (1821). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. 2, 133 (1821), Br. fl. ii, 

39 ( I 833)- GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 737 (1821). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 253 (1833). 

DE NOT. Syllab. 210 (1838). HARTM. Skand. Fl. BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 3740, p. 

14, t. 2 (1847). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 137 (1848). C. MUELL. Synops ii, 591 

(1851). WILS. Bry. brit. 65, t. 18 (1855). 
Bryum medium VILL. PI. Dauph. iii, 878 (1786). 
Fissidens polycarpos HEDW. Muse, frond, ii, 85, t. 31 (1788), Sp. muse. 159 (1801). BRID. 

Muse. rec. II, P. I, 150 (1798). ROEHL. Moosg. Deutsch. 305 (1800). WAHLENB. Fl. 

carp. 343 (1814).) 

Bryum polycarpon HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 37 (1796). 
Cecalyphum multiflorum P. BEAUV. Prodr. 51 (1805). 
Oncophorus polycarpus BRID. Bry. univ. i, 397 (1826). 
Cynodontium polycarpum SCHIMP. Bry. eur. Coroll 12 (1855), Synops. 62 (1860), 2 ed. 63 

MILDE Bry. siles, 50 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 280 (1869). JURATZ. Laubm. 

oesterr.-ung. 27 (1882). 
Didymodon Jenneri SCHIMP. MSS. HOWIE in Trans. Edinb. Bot. Soc. ix, 198 (1868). 

Autoicous ; more robust i 2 in. high, radiculose, pale green above, 
fuscous at base. Leaves crowded, gradually larger upward, flexuoso- 
patent, less crisped when dry, longer, from an oblong base, narrowly 
lineal-lanceolate-subulate, acute, serrulate at apex, less papillose, nerve 
lost at apex, margin recurved, serrate at point ; basal cells elongated 

DICRANACE^.] 170 [Oncophorus. 

rectangular, upper quadrate. Perich. bracts from an oblong sheathing 
base, longly subulate, seta straight, reddish yellow ; caps, erect or 
cernuous, oblong-ovate, equal, with a short equal neck, deeply sulcate 
when dry, pale brown, annulus of 3 rows of large cells, lid conoid- 
rostellate, shorter than caps, crenulate at margin, teeth cleft to middle 
into 2 unequal legs, red. 

Male infl. gemmiform, at base of perichsetium, bracts few, ovate. 
HAB. Clefts of mountain rocks. Fr. 7. 

Ben High (Don). Cader Idris (Ralfs). Bushiel Dene (Hardy). Hambledon Dene 
(Johnston). Dumyet, Ochills (Wilson 1855) ! ! Ben Chonzie, Perth Glen Turritt and 
Glen Esk (Croall 1854). Glen Tilt, Trossachs and Ben Lawers (McKinlay 1861). Craig 
Maid and Carlowie (Gardiner 1843) ! Castleton, Braemar (Black 1854). Rydal (Borrer 
1845). Clova (Fergusson) ! ! 

Much confusion has existed between this species and 0. Bruntoni, partly 
due to Hedwig's figure of 0. polycarpus representing the capsule as smooth ; 
in habit they closely approximate, but the leaves of 0. polycarpus are longer, 
and the longer striated caps, and well developed peristome at once distinguish 

Sect. 3. PHEUGODON Lindb. Caps, leptodermous, regular, not stru- 
mose, faintly ribbed when dry, peristome small and imperfect. 


Autoicous ; pulvinate, fasciculate-leaved. Leaves lineal-lanceolate, 
remotely denticulate at point, papillose. Capsule erect, oval-oblong, 
symmetric, smooth ; lid rostrate ; teeth small, irregular, cleft to base, 
the legs erose or entire. (T. XXVI, A.) 

SYN. Grimmia cirrata SM. Fl. brit. iii, 1189 (1804), Eng. Bot. t. 2356. 

Dicranum Bruntoni SM. Eng. Bot. t. 2509 (1812). C. MUELL. Synops. ii, 590 (1851). JENS. 

Bry. dan. 93 (1856). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest. 47 (1873). 
Didymodon obscurus KAULF. in STURM Deutsch. fl. II, heft. 16, n. 9 (1815). BRID. Mant. 

103 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 516 (1826). FUNCK Moost. t. 14 (1821). SCHWAEG. Suppl. II, 

P. I, 80, t. 124 (1823). GREV. Scott, or. fl. iv, t. 193 (1826). SPRENG. in L. Syst. veg. 

iv, P. I, 173 (1827). DUBY Bot. gall, ii, 566 (1830). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 289 (1833). 
Dicranum poly carpum HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 57, t. 18 p.p. (1818). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. 2, 

133 (1821). GREV. Fl. edin. 240 (1824). 

Didymodon Bruntoni WALK.-ARN. Disp. muse. 36 (1825). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 2 ed. 

117, t. suppl. 4 (1827). HOOK. Br. fl. ii, 29 (1833). MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 18 (1836). 
Weissia cirrata BALS. DE NOT. Prodr. fl. mediol. 142 (1834). 
Trichostomum obscurum DE NOT. Syllab. 194 (1838). 
Cynodontium Bruntoni BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 33 36, p. 3, 1. 1 (1846). RABENH. Deutsch. 

kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 128 (1848). WILS. Bry. brit. 61, t. 34 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 60 (1860). 

BERK. Handb. br. m. 284, t. 23, fig. 9 (1863). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 39 (1873). JURATZ. 

Laubm. oesterr-ung. 25 (1882). 

Weissia Bruntoni DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 597 (1869). 
Oreoweisia Bruntoni MILDE Bry. siles. 54 (1869). 
Dicranoweisia Bruntoni SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 56 (1876). 

Autoicous ; in soft yellowish or olive green cushioned tufts, with 
ferruginous radicles at base, fastigiate branched. Leaves crowded, 

DICRANACE^E.] 171 [Oucophorus. 

fasciculate, erecto-patent, when dry cirrate-contorted, lower elongato- 
lanc. upper much longer, lineal-lane, flexuose, carinate, concave with the 
margin recurved, remotely denticulate toward apex, minutely papillose, 
nerve vanishing in apex, roughish at back ; basal cells rather lax, 
elongate hexagonal, the angular flat, pellucid, upper quadrate opake, 
chlorophyllose. Perich. bracts semivaginant at base, shortly acuminate, 
caps, on a short yellowish seta, erect, regular or a little curved on one 
side, oval-oblong, rarely elongated, leptodermous, smooth, pale brown, 
when dry faintly plicate ; annulus narrow, adherent, lid conic, obliquely 
rostrate, orange at base, not half length of caps., teeth small red, irre- 
gular, cleft to base, the legs erose and partly cohering, or entire and 
free, smooth, indistinctly striolate. 

Male infl. gemmaceous, at base of perich., bracts few, broadly ovate 
obtusely acuminate ; antheridia and paraphyses elongated. 
HAB. Clefts of rocks in subalpine districts. Fr. 7 8. 

Ben Lawers (Don). Pentland hills (Greville). Appin and Lome (Carmichael). Powers- 
court (Taylor). Aber (Wilson) \ \ Capel Curig (Borrer 1838) ! Newburgh, Fife (Howie 
1864) ! Seven Churches (Moore). Glenbower and Kildorney, Cork (Carroll). Oldcam- 
bus and Hambledon denes (Hardy). Dartmoor (Holmes). Newtondale and Teesdale 
(Spruce 1843) ! Craig-an-darrach, Ballater (Hunt 1871) ! ! 

Although much resembling 0. polycarpus, the present species may be 
distinguished by its shorter leaves, shorter smooth capsule, and especially by 
its ill-developed peristome. 

O. schisti (WAHLENB.) may possibly be found here, as it occurs in Sweden 
and Norway ; it is still smaller and denser than 0. Bruntoni, with rather obtuse 
nearly entire leaves, and a striated capsule with lanceolate undivided teeth. 

Sect. 4. RHABDOWEISSIA (Br. Sch.) Lindb. Plants short, densely 
tufted, leaves narrow, curled, finely papillose in upper part. Caps, sym- 
metric, not strumose, wide mouthed, 8-striate, when dry 8-sulcate, teeth 


Autoicous; leaves flexuose, curled, linear-lanceolate, coarsely 
toothed at the rather obtuse point. Caps, ovato-globose with a distinct 
neck, teeth lanceolate, persistent. (T. XXVI, B.) 

SYN. Bryum crispatum DICKS. PI. crypt. Fasc. Ill, 3, t. 7, fig. 4 (1793). WITH. Bot. arr. br. 

veg. 3 ed. iii, 833 (1796). HULL Br. fl. P. 2, 264 (1799)- 

Weissia crispata BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. I, 73 (1798). ROEHL. Moosg. deut. 151 (1800). 
Weissia denticulata BRID. Sp. muse. I, 108 (1806), Mant. 40 (1819), Bry. univ. 1,342 (1826). 

SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 75, t. 19 (1811). FUNCK Moost. 15, t. 10 (1821). NEES HSCH. 

Bry. germ, ii, P. II, 78, t. 31, fig. 18 (1831). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 135 (1833). HARTM. 

Skand. Fl. C. MUELL. Synops. i, 650 (1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 53 (1860). 
Weissia fugax (3. ROEHL. Deutsch. fl. iii, 49 (1813). 
Weissia striata ft. major HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 45, t. 15 (1818). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 

730 (1821). HOOK. Br. fl. ii, 21 (1833). 

DICRANACE^E.] 172 [Oncophorus. 

Rhabdoweisia denticulata BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 33 36, p. 5, t. 2 (1846). RABENH. 
Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 129 (1848). WILS. Bry. br. 51, t. 15 (1855). BERK. Handb. br. 
m. 291, t. 24, fig. 5 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 47 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 283 
(1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 36 (1873). SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 59 (1876). JURATZ. 
Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 22 (1882). 

Autoicous ; in small lax bright-green tufts, fuscous at base. Leaves 
gradually longer upward, flexuoso and recurvo patulous, when dry 
cirrate crispate, slightly glossy, broadly linear, obtuse, carinate, nerve 
vanishing below apex, margin plane or waved, coarsely and remotely 
toothed toward apex; cells elongato-hexagonal and hyaline at base; 
quadrato-hexag. and chlorophyllose above. Caps, erect, ovato-globose 
with a more distinct neck, more solid, fuscescent, when dry and empty, 
from a contracted base suburceolate, deeply sulcate ; lid with a subulate 
beak, long as caps., teeth from a lanceolate base, narrowly subulate- 
linear, articulated, longer, more solid, rufous-purple, persistent. 
HAB. Crevices of subalpine rocks. Fr. 6 7. 

On the Isla, Angus (Hooker). Green's Clough, Todmorden (Nowell 1856) ! ! Grasmere 
and Rydal (Whalley 1864) ! Ben Voirlich, Craig Challeach and Glen Lyon (Hunt 
1865) ! ! Hill bell, Westmoreland (Stabler 1868) ! Cader Idris (Wild 1877) ! Aber 
and Beddgelert (Hunt 1865) ! ! Glenmalur and Upper Lough Bray (Moore). Nire 
Lakes, Waterford (Nicholson 1882) ! ! Teesdale (R. Barnes 1881) I ! 

More robust than the next species and readily distinguished from it by 
the broad pointed, coarsely serrate leaves, and stout persistent peristome. 

8. ONCOPHORUS STRIATUS (Schrad.} Lindb. 

Autoicous ; leaves curled, narrow lineal-lanceolate, scarcely toothed 
at the acute point. Caps, small ovate, teeth broad at base, suddenly 
subulate, slender and fugacious. (T. XXVI, C.) 

SYN. Grimmia striata SCHRAD. Bot. Journ. ii, 55 (1799). SMITH Fl. brit iii, 1185 (1804), Eng. 

Bot. t. 1988. WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 143 (1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. kr. gew. P. 2, 59, 

t. 25 (1810). VOIT Muse, herbip. 33 (1812). 
Grimmia crispata ROTH Fl. germ, iii, P. I, 145 (1800). 
Weissiafugax HEDW. Sp. muse. 64, t. 13, fig. 5 10 (1801). BRID. Sp. muse. 1, 107 (1806), 

Mant. 40 (1819), Bry. univ. I, 340 (1826). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 77 (1811). WAHLENB. 

Fl. lap. 324 (1812). ROEHL. Deutsch. fl. iii, 49 (1813), Ann. Wett. ges. iii, 100. FUNCK 

Moost. 15 t. 10 (1821). NEES HSCH. Bry. germ, ii, P. II, 74, t. 31, fig. 17 (1831). 

HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 133 (1833). HARTM. Skand. fl. DE NOT. Syllab. 234 (1838). C. 

MUELL. Synops. i, 649 (1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 52 (1860). HUSN. M. nord-ouest 42 

Weissia striata KAULF. in STURM Deutsch. fl. II, heft 16, t. 24 (1815). HOOK. TAYL. 

Muse. br. 45, t. 15 (1818). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 730 (1821). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. 2, 

130 (1821), Br. fl. ii, 21 (1833). 
Weissia pumila BRID. Bry. univ. i, 338 (1826). 
Weissia leptodon PLAUB. in BRID. op. c. p. 341, t. suppl. i. 
Rhabdoweisia fugax BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 3336, p. 4, t. i (1846). RABENH. Deutsch. 

kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 129 (1848). WILS. Bry. br. 50, t. 15 (1855). BERK. Handb. br. m. 290 

(1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 47 (1869). DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 283 (1869). HOBK. syn. 

br. m. 36 (1873). SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 58 (1876). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 21 


Autoicous ; in small cushioned tufts, deep green above, pale fuscous 
and radiculose below. Leaves fasciculate, curled when dry, narrowly 

DICRANACE^E.] 173 [Ceratodon. 

lineal-lane., gradually acuminate, acute, indistinctly denticulate or 
entire at apex, carinate, plane at margin, cells at base elongato-rectan- 
gular, pellucid, above quadrate or roundish, chlorophyllose ; nerve 
vanishing in the apex. Perich. bracts like the leaves ; caps, on a rather 
short pale seta twisted to left when dry, very small, erect, ovate, 
short-necked, pale ferruginous, deeply striate ; annulus very narrow, 
persistent, lid broadly conic with a curved subulate beak ; teeth from a 
very broad base, suddenly subulate, erect when moist, incurved when 
dry, rufous red, very fugacious. 

Male infl. minute, near the female, bracts resembling the leaves. 

HAB. Fissures of rocks in subalpine districts. Fr. 6 7. 

Devonshire, Wales, Ireland, N. of England and Scotland. 

This little plant is only about a quarter of an inch high, yet its small 
yellow green tufts when loaded with capsules are conspicuous in the rock 
crevices of most of our mountains. The peristome is so fragile that it usually 
disappears as soon as the lid falls off. 


(Bry. univ. i, 4801826.) 

Plants caespitant, terrestrial ; leaves lanceolate, nerved, minutely 
areolate, smooth. Calyptra cucullate, rostrate. Capsule ovate-oblong, 
striate, sulcate when dry, with a more or less prominent neck, annulate, 
pachydermous ; teeth of peristome arising from a short basal membrane, 
16, regular cleft nearly to base into two filiform legs, closely articulate 
below, becoming more remotely so upward and papillose. Der. /cepas a 
horn, ogous a tooth, from resembling a goat's horn. 

The genus Ceratodon links the Dicranaceae to the Tortulaceae, approach- 
ing the former by the genus Oncophorus in the leaf, capsule and peristome, the 
slender legs of the latter with increasing papillosity clearly indicating a 
transition to the latter family, strengthened still more by the habit, foliage 
and areolation. C. corsicus SCHIMP. is found in S. Europe, but C. chloropus 
BRID. is placed by Lindberg in a new genus Cheilothela, between Swartzia and 


Nerve reaching apex. Caps, subcernuous, with a nodose neck. purpurens. 

Nerve excurrent. Caps, erect, with a short equal neck. conicus. 


Dioicous ; leaves oblong-lanceolate, margin entire, or slightly den- 
ticulate at point, nerve reaching apex. Capsule on a purple seta, sub- 
cernuous, oblong with a short unequal neck, substrumose and sulcate 
when dry. (T. XXVI, D.) 

SYN. Muscus trichoides parvus foliis musci vulgarls, capitulis longis acutis. DOODY in RAY 
Syn. app. 243 (1690). 

DICRANACE^E.] 174 [Ceratodon. 

Bryum parvum trichoides ramosum, erectis capitulis subfuscis in pediculis obscure rubris. 

DILL. Cat. Giss. 224 (1719), et in RAY Synops. 3 ed. 96 (1724)- 
Bryum perangustis fol. et caulic.fol. crebrioribus et circa sum. magis congestis, capit. erectis 

e sure, annot. egred. pediculis purpureis. DILL. Giss. 226 ; RAY Syn. 3 ed. 99. 
Bryum parvum, surculis et setis geminatis. DILL. Hist. 385, t. 49, f. 50 (1741). 
Bryum tenue stellatum, setis purpureis. DILL. Hist. 386, t. 49, f. 51. 

Bryum polytrichoides palustre, setis longioribus rubris setaceis. DILL. Hist. 387, t. 49. f. 52. 
Mnium purpureum L. Sp. pi. ii, mi (1753). Syst. nat. ii, 700. WITH. Bot. arr. Br. veg. 

665 (1776). RELH. Fl. cant. 399 (1785). ABBOT Fl. bedf. 233 (1798). 
Bryum Celsii L. op. c. ii, 1120. VILL. PI. dauph. iii, 866 (1789). DICKS, fasc. Ill, 7. 
Bryum purpureum HUDS. F\. angl. 412 (1762). NECK. Meth, muse. 211(1771). WEISS 
Cr. gott. 198 (1770). LIGHTF. Fl. scot, ii, 734 (1777)- WEB - s P ic - fl - g ett - IO1 I 1 ?? 8 )- 
HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 36 (1796). HULL Br. fl. P. 2, 254 (1799). 

Dicranum purpureum HEDW. Fund. muse, ii, 92, t. 4, fig. 17 (1782), Sp. muse. 136,1. 36 
(1801). ROTH Tent. fl. germ, i, 460 (1788). SIBTH. Fl. oxon. 281 (1794). BRID. Muse. 
rec. II, P. I, 178 (1798), Sp. muse. I, 215 (1806), Mant. 69 (1819). SWARTZ Muse. 
suec. 36(1799). ROEHL. Moosg. deutsch. 360 (1800), Deutsch, fl. iii, 75 (1813). RICH. 
in MCHX. Fl. bor. amer. ii, 298 (1803). SM. Fl. brit. iii, 1217 (1804), Eng. bot. t. 2262. 
TURN. Muse. hib. 71 (1804). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 55 (1805). SCHULTZ Fl. starg. 300 
(1806). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 199 (1807). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 216 (1811). 
VOIT Muse, herbip. 51 (1812). WAHLENB. Fl. carp. 346 (1814). MART. Fl. cr. erl. 104 
(1817). FUNCK Moost. 30, t. 21 (1821). FICIN. Fl. Dresd. ii, 54 (1823). 
Fuscina purpurea SCHRANK Bayers, fl. ii, 453 (1789). 
Bryum bipartitum DICKS, fasc. II, 7, (1790). HOFFM. WITH. 
Bryum tenue DICKS, fasc. Ill, 8. 

Dicran. Celsii SWARTZ Suec. HEDW. Sp. muse. Eng. bot. t. 2418. 
Bryum strictum DICKS, fasc. iv. 
Bryum papillosum DICKS, ibid. 
Dicr. intermedium 6 purpurascens HEDW. Sp. muse. 

Dicr. bipartitum, SM. Fl. brit. Eng. bot. t. 2357. Dicr - strictum SM. Fl. brit. 
Trickostomum papillosum SM. Fl. brit. 1238. Eng. bot. t. 2533. 

Didymodon purpureus HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 65, t. 20 (1818). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. 
i, 742 (1821). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. II, 135 (1821), Brit. fl. ii, 28 (1833). BALS. DE 
NOT. Prod. Bry. mediol. 124 (1834). MACK. Fl. hibern. P. 2, 17 (1836). 
Cerotadon purpureus BRID. Bry. univ. i, 480 (1826). WALLR. Fl. cr. germ, i, 179 (1831). 
HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 276 (1833). Hartm. Skand. fl. BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 29 
30, p. 5, t. i 2 (1846). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 134 (1848). C. MUELL. Syn. 
646 (1849). WILS. Bry. brit. 84, t. 20 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 139 (1860), 2 ed. 135 
(1876). BERK. Handb. br. m. 275, t. 23, fig. 5 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 130(1869). 
DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 568 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 49 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. 
nord-ouest 70 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 85 (1882). 
Trichostomum purpureum DE NOT. Syllab. 189 (1838). 

Dioicous ; in wide-spreading patches, olivaceous-green, often with 
a rufous or fuscous tint. Stems dichotomous, 3 in. long, fasti- 
giate, radiculose below. Leaves erecto-patent, laxly imbricated, 
incurved and somewhat twisting when dry, oblongo-lanc., subcomplicate- 
concave, margin revolute, becoming plane at apex, entire or slightly 
denticulate at point ; nerve lost at apex or forming a cuspidate point ; 
cells at base pellucid, elongate, 4 5 angled, above rounded-quadrate, 
nearly smooth, obscure and chlorophyllose. Perich. bracts longer, the 
innermost longly convolute-vaginant, sinuate above, and often suddenly 
acuminate and crenulate at apex. Caps, on a long purple shining seta, 
inclined, oblong, turgescent, straight or a little curved, purple or rufo- 

DiCRANACEjB.] 175 [Ceratodon. 

fuscous, sulcate when dry and empty, strumulose, horizontal, incurved, 
4 5 angled ; annulus large, compound, rolling back, lid conic, slightly 
oblique, polished ; teeth of per. purple in lower half, the legs equal, con- 
joined at base by the united articulations, bordered from base to middle 
by the pale projecting inner lamina. 

Male plants more slender, infl. gemmaceous, outer bracts broadly 
ovate, acuminate, with a thick nerve, inner broadly convolute, obtuse, 
entire, obsolete-nerved. 
HAB. Gravelly soil on heaths, banks, walls and rocks ; everywhere. Fr4 5. 

The polymorphous character of this plant may be assumed from its 
lengthy synonymy, and so endless are the forms that we cannot even define 
stable varieties ; one of the most marked is a robust livid-green one, i 2 in. 
high, with broad leaves, found on several of the Scotch mountains, and also 
by Mr. Holt on banks near the sea in the Isle of Man. We would advise all 
commencing bryologists to study every part of this moss well, as its structure 
once familiarized to the eye will save much after trouble, and the beautiful 
peristome must attract every microscopist. 

2. CERATODON CONICUS (Hampe) Lindb. 

Dioicous ; leaves ovato-lanc. narrower at base, margin entire, revo- 
lute throughout, nerve longly excurrent. Capsule on a paler seta, erect, 
symmetric, faintly sulcate when empty. (T. XXVI, E.) 

SYN. Trichostomum conicum HAMPE in litt. C. MUELL. Synops. i, 575 (1849). 
Ceratodon conicus LINDB. Muse, scand. 37 (1879). 

Dioicous; csespitose, dull yellow-green above, fuscous below; 
stems short, rather slender dichotomously branched. Leaves erecto- 
appressed, deep green, smooth, crowded at top into a small closed 
coma, straight wet or dry, rather broadly ovato-lanceolate, margin quite 
entire, revolute to apex, nerve thick, excurrent in a long point ; cells all 
small, regularly quadrate, the basal larger and pellucid. Perich. bracts 
convolute-vaginant, obtusate, with an excurrent nerve, laxly areolate. 
Caps, on a pale red seta, erect, ovate-elliptic, rather wide, fuscous, when 
dry and empty but little altered, sulcate in upper part, not strumulose ; 
lid purple, conic short, obtuse straight ; teeth pale, red at base, yellowish 
above, erect, with fewer articulations, scarcely bordered externally. 

HAB. Walls and waste ground, rare. Fr. 5. 

On the coast near Newhaven (Spruce 1845) ! ! Ireland (Mr. D. Orr). Both sterile. 

It is probable that this moss is not unfrequent on our south coasts, but 
has been overlooked for the common species in the absence of fruit ; this was 
first tound by Schlotheuber in May, 1847, on walls near Hochmiihlen, in 
Hanover, and our figures are taken from original specimens. 

DICRANACE^E.] 176 \S<zlania. 


Utk. till en nat. grupp. af Eur. bladm. med topps. frukt, 35 (1878). 

Plants caespitant ; leaves lanceolate, minutely areolate, serrated, 
smooth, covered at back with a glaucous granular-filamentose excretion. 
Calyptra cucullate. Capsule subcylindric, erect, leptodermous, 
slightly plicate when dry ; teeth of peristome from a very narrow 
basal membrane, 16, irregular, cleft to base into two non-trabeculate, 
nodose, papillose legs, separate or joined here and there at the nodes. 
Der. after Saslan, a Scandinavian bryologist. 

i. SJELANIA C-ffiSIA (Vill.) Lindb. 

Autoicous ; leaves lanceolate, acuminate, glaucescent, serrate 
toward apex. Caps, oval-oblong, pale brown, plicate when empty, lid 
conic. (T. XXVI, F.) 

SYN. Brvum ccesium VILLARS PI. Dauph. iii, 879 (1789), BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. Ill, 49 (1803). 

Trichostomum glaucescens HEDW. Muse, frond, iii, 91, t. 37 B (1792), Sp. muse. 112 (1801). 
BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. I, 123 (1798), Sp. muse. I, 235 (1806), Mant. 85 (1819). SWARTZ 
Muse. suec. 30 (1799). SM. Fl. brit. iii. 1245 (1804), Eng. hot. t. 2381. SCHWAEG. 
Suppl. I. P. I, 125 (1811). WAHLENB. Fl. lapp. 331 (1812), Fl. carpat. 341 (1814). 
FUNCK Moost. 25, t. 17 (1821). DE NOT. Syllab. 194 (1838), Epil. bri. ital. 510 (1869). 
BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 18 20, p. 18, t. 15 (1843). RABEN. Deutsch, kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 
117 (1848). C. MUELL. Synops, i, 569 (1849). WILS. Bry. brit. 118, t. 33 (1855). 
HOBK. Syn. br. m. 63 (1873). 

Bryum glaucescens DICKS. Crypt, fasc. IV, 10 (1801). 

Didymodon glaucescens WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 158 (1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. kr. 
gew. P. II, 67, t. 30 (1810). ROEHL. Deutsch. fl. iii, 57 (1813). GREV. Scott, cr. fl. iii, 
1.127(1825). BRID. Bry. univ. i, 513 (1826). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 2 ed. 116, t. 
suppl. 3 (1827). HOOK. Br. fl. ii, 29 (1833). 

Didymodon ceruginosus HOOK. Mss. BRID. Bry. univ. i, 516. 

Leptotrlchum glaucescens HAMPE in Linnasa XX, 74 (1846). Schimp. Synops. 146 (1860), 

2 ed. 145 (1876). BERK. Handb. br. m. 263 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 138 (1869). 

JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr. ung. 82 (1882). 

Ditrichum glaucescens HAMPE in Flora 1867, p. 182. 
Scelania ccesia LINDB. I.e. et Muse, scand. 28 (1879). 

Autoicous; densely csespitose, about | f in. high, erect, very 
slender, much branched, fastigiate, yellowish-green above, and glau- 
cescent from a mealy production on the leaves, ferruginous and some- 
what radiculose below. Leaves minute and distant below, comose and 
erecto-patent above, somewhat twisting at point, smooth, from a lanceo- 
late base, lineal-subulate, acute, carinate, margin erect, serrated at apex, 
nerve lost in the point ; all the cells quadrate-rectangular, firm, chloro- 
phyllose. Perich. bracts not vaginant, resembling the leaves but longer 
and more laxly areolate, the margin of two layers of cells ; caps, on a 
yellowish-red seta, erect, oval-oblong, subcylindraceous, olivaceous, 
finally pale fuscous, leptodermous, irregularly plicate when empty ; 
annulus compound ; lid conico-rostellate, pale red, suboblique ; teeth 

DICRANACE^.] 177 [Salania. 

deep purple, long, erect, very variable, papillose, the legs binate, more 
or less united at base or partly obsolete. 

Male infl. gemmaceous, on short branches below the perichsetia, 
bracts 3, broadly ovate, suddenly subulate, concave, patulous. 
HAB. Rocks covered with earth on the Highland mountains ; rare. Fr. 7 8. 

Glen Phee (Drummond) ! ! Clova (Fergusson) ! ! 

Lindberg regards this moss as holding the same position in Oncophorese 
as Ditrichum does in Ditricheae, from which its much closer affinity to Ceratodon 
necessarily separates it. It is a good example of a truly natural genus. 

TAB. XIV. A. Archidium alternifolium (Todmorden, Nowell). B. Pleuridium axillare (Mere, 
Hunt). R. var. strictum (Dickson). C. Pleur. subulatum (Hampstead, Braithwaite). 

D. Pleur. alternifolium (Helsby, Hunt). E. Ditrichum tenuifolinm (Finland, Lindberg). 

F. Ditr. tortile and R. var. pusillum (Castle Howard, Black). G. Ditr. homomallum 
(Sale, Wilson), R. var. zonatum (Clova, Fergusson). H. Ditr. subulatum (Saltash, 

TAB. XV. A. Ditr. flexicaule (A. Finland, Lindberg). c. & ft. var. densum (Cheedale, West). 
B. Swartzia montana and R. var. compacta (Ben Lawers, Braithwaite). C. Sw. 
inclinata (Sands of Barrie, Gardiner). D. Dicranella crispa (Gale green, Wilson). 

E. Dicr. secunda (Gibson wood, Nowell). F. Dicr. curvata (Cwm Gafr, Wilson). G. 
Dicr. heteromalla (Chislehurst, Braithwaite), R. var. stricta (Inverness, Croall), y, 
var. interrupta (Ardingly, Davies), ft. var. sericea (Alderley, Hunt). 

TAB. XVI. A. Dicr. cermculata (Levens, Barnes). B. Anisothecium rubrum and fi. var. 
tenuifolium (Bangor, Wilson), . var. callistomum (Scotland, Dickson). C. Anis. 
rufescens (Ashley, Hunt). D. Anis. Grevillci (Glen Tilt, Hooker). E. Anis. crispum 
(Bowdon, Himt), R. var. datum (Stirrupwood, Nowell). F. Anis. squarrosum (Lawers, 
Braithwaite). G. Seligeria Donii (Castleton, Whitehead). H. Sel. pusilla (Levens, 
Barnes). I. Sel. acutifolia (Gotland, Lindberg), R. var. longiseta (Tideswell dale, 
Whitehead). K. Sel. trifaria (Litton, Whitehead). 

TAB. XVII. A. Sel. paucifolia (Lewes, Unwin). B. Sel. calcarea (Shere, Capron). C. Sel. 
setacea (Greenfield, Whitehead). D. Brachydontium trichodes (Westward, Wood). 
E. Blindia cczspiticia (Ben Lawers, Hunt). F. Bl. acuta (Ben Ledi, Braithwaite). 

G. Didymodon denudatus (Skye, Lawson), R, var. alpinus (Lough Bray, Moore). 
H. Dicranum asperulum (Mains Castle, Gait). I. Campylopus pyriformis (Ightham, 

TAB. XVIII. A. Campylopus fragilis (Ben Ledi, Braithwaite). B. Camp, subulatus (Killarney, 
Wilson). C. Camp. Schimperi (Ben Lawers, Braithwaite). D. Camp. Schwarzii 
(Glencoe, Hunt). E. Camp, setifolius (Cromaglown, Moore). F. Camp, flexuosus 
(Glyder Vawr, Wild), ft. var. paludosus (Loch Maree, Boswell). G. Camp, paradoxus 
(Wooler, Hardy). 

TAB. XIX. A, Camp. Shawii and ft- var. hamatus (N. Uist, Shaw). B. Camp, atrovirens 
(Killin, Braithwaite), {$ var. falcatus (Connemara, Barker). C. Camp, introjlexus 
(a. Oporto, Newton, b. Penzance, Curnow). D. Camp, brevipilus (Lewis, Braithwaite). 
E. Dicranoweissia crispula (Ben Lawers, Braithwaite). F. Dicranow. cirrhata (Levens, 
Barnes). G. Dicranum fulvellum (Scawfell, Baker). 

TAB. XX. A. Dicranum schisti (Ben Lawers, Braithwaite). B. Dicr. falcatum (Ben Lawers, 
Braithwaite). C. Dicr. Starkei (Glen Callater, Hunt). D. Dicr. molle (Braemar, 
Black). E. Dicr. majus (Eskdale, Braithwaite). 

TAB. XXI. A. Dicr. scoparium (Eskdale, Braithwaite), ft. var. alpestre (Innisfallen, Hunt), 
y. var. recurvatum (Godalming, Mitten), c). var. turfosum (Wesley). B. Dicr. Bonjeani 
(Bowness, Barnes), ft. var. jumper if olium (Blandford, Boswell), y. var. calcareum 
(Woolstonbury, Mitten). 

TAB. XXII. A. Dicr. spurium (Barmby Moor, Spruce). B. Dicr. Bergeri (Wybunbury Bog 
Wilson). C. Dicr. congestum (Lojo, Finland, Lindberg), ft. var. fiexicaule (Loch-na- 
Gar, Black). D. Dicr. fuscescens (Ben Lawers, Braithwaite), ft. var. falcifolium 
(Dunoon, Stirton). 

DlCRANACEjB.] 178 

TAB. XXIII. A. Dlcr. elongatum (a. Guldbransdalen, Jensen; c. Corrie Ardor, Fergiisson). 
B. Dicr. montanum (a. Finland, Lindberg, c. Button Park, Bagnall). C. Dicr. flagellare 
(a. Tyrol, Schliephacke, c. Bostol wood, Holmes). D. Dicr. viride\(a.. Finland, Lindberg, 
c. Abbots Bromley, Bloxam). E. Dicr. Scottii (Plymouth, Holmes). 

TAB. XXIV. A. Dicr. Sauteri (Tyrol, Sauter), /? var. curvulum (Braemar, Black). B. Dicr. 
longifolium (a. Finland, Lindberg, c. Ben Lawers, Hunt). C. Dicr. uncinatum (a. Ne- 
pal, Wallich, c. Ben Voirlich, McKinlay). D. Dichodontium pellucidum (Whitby, 
Braithwaite), fl- var. fagimontanum (Ben Lawers, Braithwaite). E. Dichod. flavescens 
(Eskdale, Braithwaite). 

TAB. XXV. A. Oncophorus Wahlenbergii (Krimml, Davies). B. /?. ditto, var. compactus (Col 
di Stelvio, Schimper). B. Owe. virens (Clova, Braithwaite). C. Owe. strumifer (Glen 
Phee, Hunt). D. Owe. gracilescens (Glen Phee, Fer^Mssow). E. 0?zc. polycarpus (Clova, 

TAB. XXVI. A. Owe. Bruntoni (Ballater, J/MW^). B. Owe. crispatus (Green's clough, Nowelt). 
C. Owe. striatus (Penmaenmawr, Braithwaite). D. Ceratodon purpureus (Chislehurst, 
Braithwaite). E. Cerat. conicus (a. Hochmuhlen, Schlotheuber, c. Newhaven, Spruce). 
F. Scelania ccesia (Glen Phee, Fergusson). 
a. Fertile plant, a*. Ditto mag. b. Male. c. Sterile plant, i. Leaf. mag. i x. 

Transv. section of leaf, i a. Apex of leaf, i aa, i ab. Areolation of apex and base. 

2. Perich. bract. 2 x. Transv. section, aaa, 2ab. Areolation of apex and base. 3. 

Male infl. 4. Bract, antheridia and paraphyses. 5. Capsule. 6. Calyptra. 7. Mouth 

of caps, and peristome. 8. Teeth of peristome. 9. Spores. 10. Annulus. 

(Corrig. p. 91, for Merceya read Metzleria.) 


T. XIV. 

Bf Mbso-Fl. 


r r. xv. 

Tf.BmMatie ad not, J. Nugent Titch, lith. 

Mntvrn. tire's vnp- 



a.b. ' 2. 1. /a 

Anisothec. rubruin. 

J.Nuf/cnt Rteh, Hth 


JRJiraitlmuilf ,U.atl.,,at il'.Hirh lilii 

ihzttern Bros imp 

B r Moss.-Fl. 


., n.n,a.. W. tiu-h. fah. 

B r Moss.-Fl. 



Campyl Sharwii. 



Dicranow. cirrata 

Minterrv Bros . imp . 

B r Moss-Fl. 



R XrcaihwcaU del ad not W. Rich Ulk. 

Mintern-Jfrcs. imp 

B r Moss. -PI 


T. XXL. 

l.o, b. 

Dicr. scqpariuTn. 

Dicr. BonjeaTri. 

Rnutfotmtf del nd not E Ctcrte 

Jfintfm Brcs imp 

B T Moss-Fl. 


Dicr. s-pimirm. 


Dior. Bergen. 

Dicr. conge stum. 

R.Brauthwaitt>, dflad not E Carter, sc 

Dicr. elongatum 

Dicr ScotLii. 

moTrtanum . 


Dicr. flagellare 

Dicr. vinde. 

del .ail nat.f. Carter sr. 

RBraithwtate dd ad not, E. Ci 





Br. MbssFL 





One, Bruntcmi. 

l.aa, TL afe. 

Cera,todori, purpureas. 


One crisp atus. 


One. striatu.: 

1 aa 

Saelajnia caesia. 


itt drl af7 nat Carter j 

Mnta-n Bro, 


Subf. i TORTULEM. 

serratum (Schreb.) Hampe. 
minutissimum Lindb. 
intermedium Mitt. 
cohaerens (Hedw.) Hampe. 
stenophyllum Voit) Schpr. 
6. recurvifolium (Dicks.) Hampe. 


1. Acaulon muticum (Schreb.) C. M. 

2. mediterranean Limpr. 

3. triquetrum (Spruce) C. M. 

1. Phase urn acaulon L. 

2. Floerkei Web. Mohr. 

3. curvicolle Ehrh. 

1. Pottia recta (With.) L'itt. 

bryoides (Dicks.) Mitt. 
Heimii (Hedw.) Fuern. 
truncatula (L.) Lindb. 
intermedia (Turn.) Fuern. 
litoralis Mitt. 






7. lanceolata (Hedw.) C. M. 

8. caespitosa (Bruch) C. M. 

9. Starkei (Hedw.) C. M. 

10. asperula Mitt. 

11. viridifolia Mitt. 

12. Wilsoni (Hook.) Br. Sch. 

13. crinita Wils. 

14. latifolia (Schwaeg.) C. M. 


Tortula pusilla (Hedw.) Mitt. 

lamellata Lindb. 

brevirostris Hook. Grev. 

stellata (Schreb.) Lindb. 

ericaefolia (Neck.) Lind 

aloides (Koch) De Not. 

atrovirens (Sm.) Lindb. 

cuneifolia (Dicks.) Roth. 

Vahlii (Schultz) Wils. 

marginata (By. Sch.) Spruce. 

canescens Mont. 

niuralis (L.) Hedw. 

subulata (L.) Hedw. 

angustata Wils. 

suberecta Drumm. 

mutica (Schultz) Lindb. 

papillosa Wils. 

laevipila (Brid.) Schwaeg. 

montana (Nees) Lindb. 

ruralis (L.) Ehrh. 

princeps De Not. 

1. Pleur. squarrosa (Brid.) Lindb. 


1. Mollia crispa (Hedw.) Liudb. 

2. multicapsularis (Sm.) Lindb. 

3. Mittenii (Br. Sch.) Braithw. 

4. rostellata (Brid.) Lindb. 

5. microstoma (Hedw.) Lindb. 

6. squarrosa (Nt-es Hsch.) Lindb. 

7. condensa (Voit) Lindb. 

8. viridula (L.) Lindb. 

9. rutilans (Hedw.) Lindb. 

10. tenuis (Schrad.) Lindb. 

11. calcarea (Nees Hsch.) Lindb. 

12. aeruginosa (Sm.) Lindb. 

13. verticillata (L.) Lindb. 

14. crispula (Bruch) Lindb. 

15. litoralis (Mitt.) Lindb. 

16. brachydontia (Bruch) Lindb. 

17. lutescens Lindb. 

18. tenuirostris (Hook. Tay.) Lindb. 

19. hibernica (Mitt.) Lindb. 

20. flavovirens (Bruch) Lindb. 

21. nitida Lindb. 

22. inclinata (Hedw.fil.) Lindb. 

23. tortuosa (L.) Schrank. 

24. fragilis (Drumm.) Lindb. 

1. Leptod. flexifolium (Dicks.) Hampe. 

2. gemmascens (Mitt.) Braithw. 

3. recurvifolium (Tayl.) Lindb. 


1. Barbula curvirostris (Ehrh.) Lindb. 

2. rubella (Hoffm.) Mitt. 

3. lurida (Hornsch.) Lindb. 

4. brevifolia (Dicks.) Lindb. 

5. fallax Hedw. 

6. reflexa Brid. 

7. spadicea Mitt. 

8. rigidula (Hedw.) Mitt. 

9. acuta Brid. 

10. cylindrica (Tayl.) Schimp 

11. sinuosa (Wils.) 

12. Hornschuchii Schultz. 

13. revoluta (Schrad.) Brid. 

14. convoluta Hedw. 

15. unguiculata (Huds.) Hedw. 

16. mucronata Brid. 


1. Cincl. fontinaloides (Hedw.) P. Beauv. 

Subf. 3. LEERSIEJE. 


1. Leersia alpina (Sm.) Lindb. 

2. exstinctoria (L.) Leyss. 

3. laciniata Hedw. 

4. rhabdocarpa (Schwaeg.) Lindb. 

5. contorta (Wulf.) Lindb. 


Plants generally rooting only at base, csespitant or pulvinate, 
dichotomous and fastigiate branched. Leaves ovate, lanceolate or 
spathulate, soft, areolation above hexagono-quadrate and rounded, 
usually highly chlorophyllose and papillose, at base larger, hexagono- 
rectangular, hyaline. Calyptra cucullate, rarely mitraeform or lobed ; 
caps, erect, oval, oblong or subcylindric, cleistocarpous, gymnostomous 
or peristomate, teeth 16, on a more or less elongated tubular basal 
membrane, lanceolate, or irregularly perforated, or cleft to base into 32 
lineal or filiform legs ; strongly papillose, straight, oblique or contorted ; 
spores large and granulose or small and smooth. Inhabiting the ground, 
walls, rocks and tree-trunks ; much more prevalent in the lowlands 
than on mountains. 

This widely distributed family, so rich in species for it includes pro- 
bably not less than 800 is a most difficult one to deal with, and has taxed 
the ingenuity of every bryologist to arrange the species in well-defined genera. 
The variations in habit, colour and leaf-structure afford more stable ground 
for generic characters than the peristome, and this was first advocated by Mr. 
Mitten in his Musci India Or. (1859), but there has been an indisposition to 
break up the great genus Torttila, resting solely on the twisted peristome, but 
combined with a variable structure of leaves, and still stronger was the objection 
to admit gymnostomous species as congeners with peristomate ones, although 
no mosses more clearly exhibit the weakness of this distinction than some of 
the old Gymnostomums now referred to Pottia, and the genusAnacalypta. Lind- 
berg in his Musci Scandinavia has fully carried out the modern views, and I 
can only advise all bryologists to study the plants themselves under this 
newer aspect, feeling assured that they will soon appreciate the soundness of 
a natural classification. 

Mitten and Lindberg unite Pottia with Tortula, and no doubt correctly, 
if we take a wide view of the genus, but as the Pottias have a certain distinc- 
tive habit, and when the peristome is present the teeth have usually a flat 
form, I have retained the genus, rather perhaps from the point of convenience, 
as every one must see that Pottia pusilla and Tortula lamellata ought to be 

We shall perhaps get the truest conception of the genera if we regard 
each as the centre of a group of species, among which are phascoid, gymnos- 
tomous and peristomate forms, and radiating in various directions towards 
each other; e.g., Tortula niralis and Encalypta streptocaypa have a strong point 
of affinity in the verruciform papillae of their leaves. The form of the papillae 
deserves notice, and they have not perhaps had sufficient attention directed 

TORTULACE^.] 182 [Ephemerum. 

to them, thus in Pottia they are conical and also in many species of Bavbula 
and Tortula ; in others again they are cleft in the centre by a semilunar 
excavation, and in some as just mentioned, still more lobulate like a wart. 

The teeth of the peristome are also usually rough with minute papillae, 
and they exhibit such gradual stages of development in the membrane which 
unites them at base, from a scarcely projecting band to a long tesselatediube, 
that the variations fail to afford a generic character, though available for 
minor groups. 

Of still less value is the direction of the teeth, for they may be quite 
straight, or ascend obliquely, or form a half spiral or one of several turns. 
Three European genera do not enter into our Flora, Aschisma LINDB. 
founded on Phascum carniolicum, Molendoa LINDB. for Ancectangium Hornschnchii 
and its variety Sendtneri, and Scopelophila MITTEN = Merceya SCHIMP. allied 
to Encalypta. Special papers on this family are SCHULTZ " Recensio genemm 
Barbulce et Syntrichics " in Nova Acta Phys.-Med. acad. caes. Leop. Carolin. 
nat. cur. xi, 1, 191 (1823), DE NOTARIS " Musci Italici." fasc. i, Tortula (1862) ; 
and LINDBERG " De Tortulis et ceteris Trichostomaceis Euwpoeis " in Oefv. af kon. 
vetens. akad. Foerhandl. xxi (1864). Schultz remarks on the difficulty of 
separating some Tortula from Trichostomum. 

Subf. i. TORTULEsE. Calyptra cucullate. Teeth of peristome 
papillose, straight or contorted, 16, cleft to base or more or less united into a 
tube ; sometimes wanting, or the capsule may be inoperculate. 


(Flora, 1837, P- 285.) 

Plants simple, minute, gregarious, with persistent, dichotomous, 
fasciculate-branched protonema forming a byssaceous tuft. Leaves 
sparingly chlorophyllose, the cells rhomboidal, lax, hyaline ; smooth or 
papillose. Calyptra thin, campanulate, cleft on one side or lacerate at 
base. Capsule immersed in the perichaetium, globose, apiculate, cleis- 
tocarpous, composed of two strata of cells, without special spore sac or 
columella; spores large. Male plants very small, nestling near the 
female on the same protonema, bracts 34, with few or no paraphyses. 
Inhabiting moist bare places. Der. e^/xcpos, evanescent. 

Among the most minute of mosses, and only evident by the numerous 
individuals aggregated into patches ; their structure also is frail and delicate, 
and they seem incapable of maintaining independent existence, but like poor 
weakly children, retain their nurse on the establishment all through their 
short lives, in their supporting protonema; yet when brought under the 
microscope they prove to be veritable little gems, and well repay careful 
investigation. About 18 species are known, chiefly from N. America and 
the Cape of Good Hope, and although they have been usually placed with 
the Funariaceae, their affinity appears to be greater with the genus Phascum, 
both in the calyptra and areolation. 

TORTULACE^E.I 183 [Epheuterum. 


Leaves nerveless. 

Leaves ovato-lanceolate, spores rough. serratum, 

Leaves lanceolate-acuminate, spores smooth. minutissimum. 

Leaves nerved. 

Nerve lost in lower half of leaf. intermedium. 

Nerve distinct below. 

Nerve vanishing at apex. cohcerens. 

Nerve excurrent. 

Leaves lanc.-subulate, nerve \ width of base. stcnophyllum. 

Leaves oblong-linear, nerve width of base. recurvifolium. 

i. EPHEMERUM SERRATUM (Schreb.) Hampe. 

Leaves ovato-lanceolate, nerveless, serrate. Capsule immersed, 
glossy purple, oval-globose with a blunt point, spores rough. 
(T. XXVII, A.) 

SYN. Phascum serratum SCHREB. de Phasco g, t. 2 (1770), Spic. Fl. lips. 73 (1771). WEB. 

Spic. fl. goett. 124 (1778). WIGQ. Prim. fl. hols. 81 (1780). DICKS. PL crypt. Fasc. I, 

i, t. i, fig. i (1785). ROTH Fl. germ, i, 452 (1788) et iii, P. I, 115. TIMM Pr. fl. meg. 

n. 720 (1788). Eng. Bot. t. 460. SCHRAD. Spic. fl. germ, i, 58 (1794). WITH. bot. 

arr. br. veg. 3 ed. iii, 785 (1796). BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. I, n (1798), Sp. muse. I, 2 

(1806), Mant. 6 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 28 (1826). HULL Br. fl. P. 2, 251 (1799). ROEHL. 

Moosg. deutsch. 19 (1800), Deutsch. fl. iii, 33 (1813), Ann. wet. ges, i, 183. HEDW. Sp. 

muse. 23 (1801). SM. Fl. brit. iii, 1166 (1804). TURN. Muse. hib. 4 (1804). P. BEAUV. 

Prodr. 82 (1805). SCHULTZ Fl. starg. 271 (1806). WEB. MOHR. Bot. Tasch. 71 (1807). 

SCHKUHR Deutsch. kr. gew. P. 2, 10, t. 4 (1810). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 6 (1811). 

VOIT Muse. herb. 9 (1812). LA PYL. Journ. Bot. 1813, p. 285, t. 20, f. 17. MART. Fl. 

cr. erl. 124 (1817). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 4, t. 5 (1818). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 710 

(1821). FUNCK Moost. 2, t. i (1821). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. II, 121 (1821), Brit. fl. ii, 2 

(1833). NEES HSCH. Bry. germ, i, 35, t. 4, f. i (1823). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 2 (1833). 

HARTM. Skand. fl. MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 7 (1836). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. i, p. 6, 

t. i (1837). DE NOT. Syll. muse. 313 (1838). WILS. Bry. brit. 26, t. 5 (1855). HOBK. 

Syn. br. m. 26 (1873). 
Phascum stoloniferum DICKS. PI. crypt, fasc III, i, t. 7, f. 2 (1793). WITH. op. c. 786. 

HULL op. c. 252. SM. Fl. Brit. 1157, Eng. Bot. t. 2006. 
Phase, velutinum HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 20 (1796). 

Phase, confervoides BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. I, 12. ROEHL. Deutsch. moos. 20. P. BEAUV. 

Prodr. 81. 
Ephemerum serratum HAMPE in Flora 1837, P- 2 ^5- RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 84 

(1848). C. MUELL. in Bot. Zeit. 1847, P- IO1 '. s y n - muse, i, 31 (1849). BR. SCHIMP. 

Bry. eur. fasc. 42, Mon. 3, t. i (1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 3 (1860). BERK. Handb. br. 

rn. 304 (1863). DE NOT. Epil. briol. ital. 742 (1869). MILDE Bry. siles. igo (i86g). 

JAEGER Ber. der St. Gall. nat. gesells. 1869, p. 98. HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 32 (1873). 

JURATZ. Laubm. oester.-ung. 4 (1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 37 (1884). 

Dioicous ; plants very minute, nestling in dense intricate deep green 
protonema. Leaves nerveless, erecto-patent, 6 9, lower very small 
ovato-acuminate, upper much larger, ovato-lanceolate, the margin 
coarsely and irregularly serrate to below the middle ; cells lax hyaline, 
rhombo-hexagonal, upper smaller, more or less incrassate. Caps, 
immersed, almost sessile, subglobose, shortly apiculate, glossy rufous 
purple ; calyp. whitish, reaching middle of caps, bi-trilacerate ; spores 
50 100, ferruginous, granulated. Male pi. near the female, fuscescent ; 
bracts 3, ovato-lanceolate toothed. 
HAB. Damp clay fields and ditch-banks ; not rare. Fr. 122. 

TORTULACE^E.] 184 [Ephemerum. 


Leaves narrowly lanceolato-acuminate, nerveless, serrate. Capsule 
emergent, castaneous, spores smooth. (T. XXVII, B.) 

S\N.- -Ephemerum serratum Var./2. angnstifolium Bry. eur. fasc. 42 (1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 

et alior. auct. p.p. 

Ephemerum minutissimum LINDB. in Not. ur Sails, pro Fn. Fl. fenn. fdrh. xiii, 411 (1874). 
Ephemerum novale MITT, in litt. 

Dioicous, resembling E. serratum but much smaller. Leaves shorter, 
erecto-patent or subsecund, narrowly lanceolate, channelled, attenuated 
and flexuose at points, margin irregularly serrate above, cells more 
elongated. Capsule emergent, leptodermous, pale castaneous, larger in 
proportion to the size of plant, globose ovate with a conical point ; 
calyptra irregularly split into several lobes ; spores smooth, smaller. 
HAB. Ploughed fields. Fr. n. 

Near Hurstpierpoint (Mitten, 1845) ! ! 

Mr. Mitten's name had been engraved on the plate before its identity 
with Lindberg's species had been determined. There is something in the 
look of the plant, so different from that of E. serratum, that we think there 
can be no doubt of its distinctness, while its small size has caused it to be 


Plants on much branched protonema. Leaves broadly lanceolate, 
faintly nerved in the upper half only. Spores slightly rough. 
(T. XXVII, C.) 

SYN. Ephemerum coharens p.p. SCHIMP. WILS. Bry. brit. 27. BERK. Handb. br. m. 304. 

Ephemerum intermedium MITT, in litt. 

Ephem. tenttinerve LINDB. MSS. 

Ephcm. serratum Var. y. prcecox JAEG. Ber. St. Gall, gesells. 1869, p. 99. 

Dioicous ; resembling E. serratum, the plants very small, on much 
branched protonema. Leaves broadly lanceolate, coarsely serrate in 
the upper half, the lower small, nerveless, upper elongated, narrowed 
into a longish point composed entirely of the faint nerve, which is 
wanting in the lower half of the leaf; cells at base lax, more chloro- 
phyllose, upper firmer., narrower more incrassate. Caps, reddish brown, 
globose, apiculate ; cal. deeply cleft on one side, with 2 3 lacerations 
at base ; spores large, granulose. 
HAB. Fallow fields, rare. Fr. 10 12. 

Hurstpierpoint (Mitten 1847) ! ! Exposed mud of pond at Pondleigh (Mitten). Near 
Brighton and several places in the Weald of Sussex (Davies 1858) ! ! 

This moss is nearer to E. serratum than to the next species, and as the 
two sometimes grow together, it is probable that Schimper was thus led 
astray, and his remarks at p. 4 of the Synopsis 2 ed. explained ; Wilson 
evidently did not distinguish it. 

TORTULACE^.] 185 [Ephemerum. 


Dioicous ; leaves oblongo-lanceolate, serrulate, nerved to apex. Caps. 
globose, brown-purple. (T. XXVII, D.) 

SYN. Phascnm coharens HEDW. Sp. muse. 25, t. i, f. i 6 (1801). BRID. Sp. muse. I, 4(1806), 
Mant. 6 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 29 (1826). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, p. 4 (1811). LA PYL. 
Journ. hot. 1813, p. 280, t. 19, f. 10. BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. i, p. 6, t. i (1837). 

Phase, heterophyllum DE NOT. Muse. ital. spic. 23 (1837) 5 Syllab. 313 (1838). 

Ephemerum cohcercns HAMPE Flora 1837, P- 28 5- RABENH. Deutsch kr. fl. ii, s. 3, 84 (1848). 
C. MUELL. Bot. zeit., 1847, p. 101. Synops. 1,32 (1849). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 
42, t. i (1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 5 (1860), 2 ed. 4 (1876). DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 742 
(1869). MILDE Bry. siles. 189 (1869). JAEG. Ber. St. Gall, gesells. 1869, p. 100. 
JURATZ. Laubm. oester.-ung. 5 (1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 39 (1884). 

Dioicous ; resembling E. serratum, protonema paler, less dense, 
becoming reddish-brown by age. Lower leaves lanceolate, upper erect, 
oblongo-lanc. denticulate toward apex with projecting cells ; nerve soft, 
vanishing at or below apex, cells at base hexagono-rectangular, above 
hexagono -rhomboid. Caps, subglobose with a short point, brown, less 
solid ; spores rough, brown. 
HAB. Moist banks ; very rare. Fr. n 2. 

By the side of the River Shannon, near Portumna, Galway (Moore, 
1865) ! ! 

The Irish plant quite accords with the American in its erecto-patent 
leaves with slightly recurved points, and short upper cells, but the specimens 
are poor and stunted, and only half the size of the foreign ones. 


Autoicous ; leaves lane. -subulate, nerve thick, excurrent. Caps, 
small, subspherical with a short point. (T. XXVII, E.) 

SYN. Phascnm stenophylliim VOIT in STURM Deutsch. fl. II, fasc. 14 (1813). FUNCK Moost. 2, 
t. i (1821). NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ, i, 39, t. 4, f. 2 (1823). BRID. Bry. univ. i, 
30(1826). DE NOT. Syll. muse. 312 (1838). WILS. in Eng. Bot. t. 2829. HUEBEN. 
Muse. germ. 3 (1833). 

Phascum sessile BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. i. (1837). SCHIMP. in Pollichia ii,4g (1844), et 
in Flora 1845. WILS. Bry. brit. 27, t. 37 (1855). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 27 (1873). 

Phascum crassincrvium (baud SCHWAEG.) BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. i, p. 7, t. 2 (1837). 

Ephemerum crassinervium HAMPE in Flora 1837, P- 2 &5- C. MUELL. in Bot. Zeit. 1847, 
p. 101. 

Ephcm. sessile RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 85 (1848). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 33 (1849). 

BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 42, p. 5, t. 2 (1849). BERK. Handb. br. m. 304 (1863). 
Ephcm. stenophylliim SCHIMP. Synops. 5 (1860), 2 ed. 6 (1876). DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 

743 (1869). MILDE Bry. siles. 189 (1869). JAEG. Ber. St. Gall, gesells. 1869, p. 101. 

JURATZ. Laubm. oester.-ung. 5 (1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses n. Amer. 39 (1884). 

Autoicous ; rather taller than E. serratum, with green protonema. 
Lower leaves minute, lane, nerveless, upper much longer, erect, rather 
rigid, lanceolate-subulate ; margin more or less serrulate at apex, nerve 
pale and indistinct at base, thence stout, deep green and excurrent ; 
cells at base elongated rectangular, above shorter, narrower and more 
incrassate. Caps, subspherical or ovate with a short point, rufescent ; 

TORTULACE.E.] i86 [Ephemerum. 

calyp. torn at base into shreds ; spores large, rough, ferruginous. Male 

infl. gemmiform basal. 

HAB. Clay or chalky soil on heaths ; rare. Fr. 10 2. 

Henfield common and Pondleigh (Mitten 1846) ! ! Mere, Cheshire (Wilson 1854) ! ! 

Var ft. brevifolium Schimp. Syn. 2 ed. p. 6. 

Leaves shorter, nearly entire, nerve reaching apex or vanishing. 

SYN. Eph. sessile Var. stenophyllum Bry. eur. 1. c. 

Phase, sessile Var. stenophyllum WILS. Bry. brit. 

HAB. Mere, Cheshire (Wilson) \ \ 

Great confusion exists in the works of early authors between this moss 
and the following, so that it is scarcely possible to disentangle the synonymy ; 
a reference to the figures will show that in R. recuyvifolium, the leaves are 
much longer and linear in outline, while in E. stenophyllum, they taper 
gradually upward to a point. 

Dioicous ; leaves lineal lane, flexuose, recurved, denticulate at 
apex, nerve excurrent ; capsule oval. (T. XXVII, F.) 

SYN. Phascum recurvifoUnm DICKS. Crypt, fasc IV, p. i, t. 10, f. 2 (1801). TURN. Muse. hib. 

2 (1804). BRID. Sp. muse. I, 4 (1806), Bry. univ. i, 31, p.p. (1826). SCHKUHR Deutsch. 

kr. Gew. ii, P. II, n, t. 4 ? NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ, i, 42, 1.5, .4? (1823). 

HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 9 (1833). WILS. Bry. brit. 28, t. 37 (1855). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 

27 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 33 (1873). 
Phascum patens Var. SM. Fl. brit. iii, 1150 (1804) ? HOOK. TAY. muse. brit. 7 (1818) ? BRID. 

Bry. un. i, 34. 
Phase, pachycarpum SCHW^EG. Suppl. I, P. I, 6, t. 2 (1811). BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. i, 

Mon. 8, t. 2 (1837). 

Phascum Dicksoni BRID. Mant. 7 (1819). 
Phascum crassinervium NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ, i, 40 p.p. t. 4, f. 3 (1823). BRID. Bry. 

univ. i, 32 p.p. GREV. Scott, cr. fl. vi, t. 353 (1829). HOOK. Brit. fl. ii, 3 (1833). WILS. 

in Eng. Bot. t. 2932. 
Ephemerum pachycarpum HAMPE in Flora xx., P. I, 295 (1837) ? RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. 

ii, P. 3, 85 (1848). SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 42, mon. 6, t. 2 (1849), Coroll. 3 (1855). 
Physed'mm pachycarpum C. MUELL. in Bot. Zeit. 1847, P- IO1 - 
Ephemerclla pachycarpa C. MUELL. Synops. i, 34 (1849). 
Ephemcrella recurvifolia SCHIMP. Synops. 7 (1860), 2 ed. 9. BERK. Handb. br. m. 303 

(1863). LINDB. de Tort. 215 (1864). MILDE Bry. siles. go (1869). JAEG. Ber. St. Gall. 

gesells. 1869, p. 73. JURATZ. Laubm. oester.-ung. 5 (1882). 
Ephemerum'recurvifolium LINDB. Muse, scand. 22 (1879). 

Dioicous ; with dull green, much-branched protonema. Leaves 
erecto-patent, flexuose, curved, spreading backward towards apex, 
elongated, lineal-lingulate, eroso-denticulate at apex ; nerve strong, 
excurrent in an apiculus or vanishing ; cells at base elongated hexagono- 
rectangular, hyaline, above denser, rhombic, chlorophyllose. Caps, on 
a very short pedicel, subglobose, rostellate, rufous brown, pachyder- 
mous ; cal. campanulate, split on one side nearly to top, vaginula 
oblong ; spores granular, fuscous. Male plant gemmiform. 

TORTULACE.E.] 187 [Acaulon. 

HAB. Fields and by ditches, rare. Fr. 10 12. 

Near Croydon (Dickson) \ Bedford purlieus, Wansford (Berkeley 1827) ! Hurstpier- 
point (Mitten 1846) ! ! Near Marsden, Durham (Bowman 1840) ! Ditchling, Sussex 
(Dames 1869) ! ! Buckingham (Holmes 1876) ! ! Wrotham, Kent (Holmes). 

The calyptra is so variable in the different species, that it is quite insuffi- 
cient to characterize a separate genus Ephemerella. 


(Bot. Zeit. 1847, p. 99.) 

Plants minute, gemmiform, gregarious. Capsule immersed, globose, 
not apiculate. Calyptra conic, very small, resting only on the top of 
caps, torn irregularly. Columella thick. Spores minutely granulose. 
Leaves tristichous, upper very large, concave, connivent. Der. a neg. 
KavXos a stem. 


Perich. bracts convolute, nerve vanishing at point. muticum. 

boat-shaped, carinate, nerve excurrent. triquetrum. 

i. ACAULON MUTICUM (Schreb.) C. Muell. 

Autoicous ; bracts broadly oval, concave, subconvolute, the nerve 
vanishing in apex. Caps, erect 'on a straight pedicel. (T. XXVII, G.) 

SYN. Phascum acaulon f$. minus L. Sp. pi. 1570 (1753). HUDS. Fl. angl. 397 (1762). WEISS 

Cr. goett. 267 (1770). EHRH. Han. mag. 1780, p. 235. 

Phascum muticum SCHREB. de Phasco obs. 8, excl. syn. t. i, fgg. 11-14 I 1 ?? ) > Spic. fl. lips. 
73 (1771). WEB. Spic. Fl. goett. 126 (1778). HEDW. Fund. muse. II, 85 (1782), Sp. 
muse. 23 (1801). ROTH. Fl. germ, i, 452 (1788). TIMM Fl. meg. n. 719 (1788). JACQ. 
Collect, ii, 215 (1788). SWARTZ Muse. suec. 18 (1799). HOFFM. Deutsch. Fl. ii, 21 
(1795). WITH. Bot. arr. br. Veg. 3 ed. iii, 784 (1796). HULL Br. fl. P. 2, 251 (1799). 
BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. I, 10 (1798), Sp. muse. I, i (1806), Mant. 4 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 
22 (1826). ROEHL. Moosg. deutsch. 15 (1800), Deutsch. fl. iii, 32 (1813), Ann. wett. 
ges. i, 187. SM. Fl. br. iii, 1156 (i8o). Eng. bot. t. 2027. TURN. muse. hib. 3 (1804). 
P. BEAUV. Prodr. 82 (1805). SCHULTZ Fl. starg. 271 (1806). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 
69(1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. kr. gew. P. 2, 10, t. 4 (1810). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 
2 (1811). MART. Fl. cr. erl. 125 (1817). HOOK. TAVL. Muse. br. 8, t. 5 (1818). FUNCK 
Moost. 2, t. i (1821). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 712 (1821). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. II, 122 
(1821) ; Br. flora ii, 3 (1833). NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ, i, 46, t. 5, f. 6 (1823). BR. 
SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. i, p. 8, t. 2 (1837). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 8 (1833). RABENH. 
Deutsch kr. fl. ii, s. 3, 81 (1848). WILS. Bry. br. 29, t. 5 (1855). MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 
8 (1836). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 27 (1873). HusN.mouss. nord-ouest. 34 (1873). 

Phase, bulbosum VOIT Muse. herb. 8 (1812). DE NOT. Syll. muse. 305 (1838). 

Ephemerum muticum HAMPE in Flora xx, P. I, 285 (1837). 

Acaulon muticum C. MUELL. in Bot. zeit. v, 99 (1847). Syn. muse, i, 22 (1849). BR. 

SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 42, Suppl. mon. 3, t. i (1849). JAEG. Ber. St. Gall. ges. 1869, 

p. 75. HUSN. Mousses n. o. 2 ed. 57 (1882). 

Schistidium muticum MITT, in Ann. mag., Nat. Hist. 1851, p. 311. 
Sphczrangium muticum SCHIMP. Synops. 13 (1860). BERK. Handb. br. m. 302 (1863). 

LINDB. de Tort. 216 (1864). MILDE Bry. siles. 91 (1869). JURATZ. Laubm. oester.- 

ung. 88 (1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 40 (1884). 

Autoicous ; dull green gregarious, gemmiform, oblong conic, 
rounded-triangular. Leaves few, broadly ovate, very concave, un- 
dulated ; perich. bracts two, much larger, subconvolute, not keeled, 
suddenly narrowed into an eroso-denticulate point, nerve vanishing at 

TORTULACE^E.] 188 [Acaulon. 

apex or slightly excurrent, margins plane, cells at base large, rhombo- 
hexagonal, smaller and incrassate above. Calyptra very small, 
lacerate at base, corrugated by drying. Capsule concealed in perich. 
on a straight pedicel, erect, globose, pachydermous, orange-brown ; 
spores yellow-brown, tuberculate. Male infl. gemmiform, on a short 
basal branch. 
HAB. Sandy clay in open grassy places; not uncommon. Fr. 2 3. 

Var. ft. minus. (Hook, Tayl.} 

Plants smaller ; bracts more shortly pointed, entire, scarce exceeding 
the capsule, which is smaller. 
SYN. Phascum globosum SCHLEICH. MSS. 

Phase, muticum ft. minus HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 7. BRID. Bry. un. i, 23. 

Sphaerangium muticum ft. minus. SCHIMP. Synops. 

Acaulon minus JAEG. Op. c. 78. 

HAB. Sea coast. Torquay (Hooker) ! Findon, Sussex (Davies 1869) ! ! 

From its short duration and concealed capsule this little moss is doubt- 
less often overlooked ; not unfrequently it has a rufous brown tinge. Although 
Dillenius's Sph. acaulon &c. minus is represented in his herbarium by a small 
form of Phascum acaulon, there is little doubt but the early authors also 
included the present plant. 

2. ACAULON TRIQTTETBUM (Spruce) C. Muell. 

Autoicous ; bracts broadly oval, trifarious, carinate, boat-shaped, 
connivent, nerve excurrent in a recurved apiculus. Caps, horizontal on 
a cygneous pedicel. (T. XXVII, H.) 

SYN. Phascum muticum MOUG. NESTL. Stirp. cr. Vog. rhen. n. 802. DRUMM. Muse. Amer. 

n. 8 p.p. 
Phascum bulbosum Var. y. minimum DE NOT. Syllab. 306 (1838). 

Phase, triquetrnm SPRUCE in Eng. bot. suppl. t. 2901 (1845), et in HOOK. Lond. Journ. bot. 

iv, 189 (1845). RABEN. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, P. 3, 81 (1848). WILS. Bry. brit. 29, t. 37 

(1855). DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 737 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 27 (1873). 
Acaulon triquetrum C. MUELL. in Bot. Zeit. v, 100 (1847). Synops. i, 22 (1849). BR. 

SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 42, Mon. suppl. 3, t. i (1849). JAEG. Ber. St. Gall. ges. 1869, p. 76. 
Schistidium triq. MITT, in Ann. mag. Nat. hist. 1851, p. 311. 
SphcErangium triq. SCHIMP. Synops. 14 (1860). BERK. Handb. br. m. 302 (1863). MILDE 

Bry. siles. 92 (1869). LINDB. de Tort. 216 (1864). JURATZ. Laubm. oester.-ung. 89 

(1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 41 (1884). 

Autoicous; pale rufescent, densely gregarious, bulbilliform, trique- 
trous, often with a little fine protonema. Lower leaves very small, 
nerveless ; upper obovate, apiculate, very concave ; perich. bracts three, 
very large, broadly obovate, acutely carinate, boat-shaped, connivent, 
the margin recurved and eroso-denticulate toward apex, nerve excurrent 
in a recurved apiculus, cells lax, rectangular at base, rhomboidal at 
apex. Calyptra very small, dilated and irregularly torn at base, caps, 
on a cygneous pedicel, horizontal, globose, immersed, rufous; spores 

TORTULACE^.] 189 [Phascum. 

fuscescent. Male infl. basal, gemmiform, bracts obovate-lanceolate, 

HAB. Bare places among short grass on the south coast ; rare. Fr. 2 4. 
Cliff between Rottingdean and Newhaven (Borrcr 1844) ! ! near Brighton (Mitten) \ \ 


(De Phasco Obs. (1770) .) 

Plants very small, pottioid, gregarious, with a short erect stem. 
Leaves nerved, ovate or lanceolate, entire, comant, the cells rhombo- 
hexagonal, denser above, usually papillose. Calyptra cucullate. Cap- 
sule on a very short pedicel, immersed or somewhat exserted, subglobose 
or ovate, obliquely apiculate, astomous, pachydermous ; columella 
perfect. Der. <as*ov, a name applied by Theophrastus to Usnea 


Capsule immersed. 

Plants green, leaves oblong connivent. acaulon. 

Plants brown, leaves ovate-acuminate patent. Floerkei. 

Capsule exserted. 

Leaves lanceolate acuminate, seta arcuate. curvicolle. 


Paroicous ; stem simple, erect. Leaves ovate and elongato-lanceo- 
late, cuspidate with the excurrent nerve. Caps, subglobose, apiculate, 
brown. (T. XXVII, I.) 

SYN. Miiscus trichoides acanlos minor latifolius. DOODY, MERR. Pinax 86 (1667). RAY Syn. 

stirp. br. 2 ed. app. 324 (1696). 
Sphagnum acaulon foliis in bulbl formam congestis majus DILL. Cat. Giss. 230 (1719), et 

in RAY Synops. 3 ed. 105 (1724). Hist. muse. 251, t. 32, f. n (1741), et Herb. 
Sphag. acaulon foliis in bulbi formam congestis minus DILL. Cat. Giss. 1. c. et in RAY Syn. 

1. c. Hist. muse. 252, t. 32, f. 12, et Herb. 
Phascum acaulon L. Sp. plant, ii, 1106 (1753). HUDS. Fl. angl. 396 (1762). WEISS Cr. 

goett. 266 (1770). WITH. Bot. arr. br. veg. ii, 660 (1776). LIGHTF. Fl. scot, ii, 693 (1777). 

Fl. Dan. t. 249, f. 3. CURT. Fl. Lond. t. 66 (1778). RELH. Fl. cant. 395 (1785). HULL 

Br. fl. P. 2, 251 (1799). LINDB. de Tort. 217 (1864). MITT. Journ. Lin. Soc. xii, 141 


Phascum cuspldatum SCHREB. de Phasco 8, t. 1. fgg. i 5 (1770), Spic. Fl. lips, 73 (1771), 
WEB. Fl. goett. 125 (1778). ROTH Fl. germ, i, 452 (1788), iii, P. I, in. SCHRANK 
Baiers. fl. ii, 432 (1789) SIBTH. Fl. oxon. 273 (1794). LAICH. PI. eur. 471 (1794). 
HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 19 (1795). BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. I, 17 (1798), Sp. muse. I, 8 
(1806), Mant. 8 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 41 (1826). SWARTZ Muse. suec. 18 (1799). ABBOT 
Fl. bedf. 229 (1798). ROEHL. Moosg. deutsch. 29 (1800), Ann. Wett. ges. i, 187 (1809), 
Deutsch. fl. iii, 33 (1813). HEDVV. Sp. muse. 22 (1801). SM. Fl. brit. iii, 1155 (1804), 
Eng. Bot. t. 2025. TURN. Muse. hib. 3 (1804). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 82 (1805). SCHULTZ 
Fl. starg. 274 (1806). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 68 (1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. kr. gew. 
P. 2, 8, t. 3 (1810). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 2 (i8n). VOIT Muse. herb. 3 (1812). 
LA PYL. Journ. Bot. 1813, p. 273, t. 19. WAHLEN. Fl. carpat. 333 (1814), Fl. upsal. 392 
(1820). MART. Fl. cr. erl. 125 (1817). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 8, t. 5 (1818). HARTM. 
Skand. fl. 379 (1820). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. 2, 122 (1821), Br. fl. ii, 4 (1833). GRAY Nat - 
arr. br. pi. i, 712 (1821). ZENK. DIETR. Muse, thuring. Fasc. 2, n. 49 (1822). NEES 
HORNSCH. Bry. germ, i, 70, t. 7. f. 18 (1823). HUEBEN. Bry. germ. 15 (1833). MACK. 
Fl. hibern. P. II, 8 (1836). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. Fasc. i, p. 10, t. 4 (1837), et ^ asc - 43 

ToRTULACEjE.] IQO [Phascum. 

(1850). DE NOT. Syllab. 304 (1838), Epil. bri. ital. 756 (1869). FIEDL. Syn. Laubm. 

meckl. 39 (1844). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 82 (1848). C. MUELL. Syn. i, 25 

(1849). WILS. Bry. brit. 31,1. 5 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 16 (1860). BERK. Handb. br. 

m. 299 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 93 (1869). JAEG. Ber. St. Gall. ges. 1869, p. 79. 

HOBK. Syn. br. m. 28 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 34 (1872). JURATX.. Laubm. 

oester.-ung. 15 (1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 42 (1884). 
Bryum bulbiformc NECK. Meth. muse. 230 (1771). 
Phascum acaulon ft- majus EHRH. Hann. mag. 1780, p. 235. 
Pottia cuspidata MITT. Ann. n. h. 2. ser. viii, 311 (1851). 

Paroicous; casspitose and gregarious, deep green. Stem i 4 lines 
high, erect, simple or divided, occasionally flagelliferous. Leaves 
crowded, lowest minute, lanceolate, upper comant, much larger, 
oblongo-lanc. nerve more or less excurrent in a rufous point, margin 
quite entire, subrevolute in the upper half; areolation lax, elongate 
rhombic and hyaline at base, subquadrate and chlorophyllose at apex, 
minutely papillose. Caps, usually several on the same plant, on a very 
short straight pedicel, immersed, or on a curved pedicel emerging 
laterally, globose, apiculate, rufo-castaneous ; cal. cucullate, pale, 
reaching middle of caps. Spores fuscous, very finely granular. Male 
in axils of comal leaves, with one bract and few antheridia. 
Hab. On clay in stubble fields and banks ; common. Fr. i 3. 

Var. (3. piliferum (Schreb.). 

Smaller ; leaves crowded, subconnivent, rufescent, the nerve excurrent 
in a long filiform point ; caps, large, immersed. 

SYN. Phascum piliferum SCHREB. de Phasco 8, t. i, fgg. 6 10. DICKS. Crypt, fasc. II, i. 
TIMM. Fl. meg. n. 717. HOFFM. ii, 19. SWARTZ. M. suec. 17. HULL Br. fl. 252. ROTH 
Germ, iii, no. HEDW. Sp. muse. 20. SM. Fl. brit. 1151 ; Eng. Bot. t. 1888. BRIDEL, 
SCHULTZ, WEB. MOHR, &c. NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ. 65, t. 6. 

Phas. cuspidatum /?. piliferum HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 8. 
HAB. Bare sandy ground, especially by the sea, in uniform patches. 

Yarmouth (Turner] \ Cobham, Kent (Braithicaitc 1850) !! Penzance (Curnow) \ \ Crosby 
(Marratt 1860) ! Middleton, Sussex (Davics 1864) ! Blackhead, Belfast (Stewart 1884) ! ! 

Var. y. Schreberi (Dicks.) End. 

Stem tall, repeatedly divided above ; leaves longer, distant, the comal 
patent ; capsule emerging. 

SYN. Phascum Schreberianum DICKS. Crypt, fasc. IV, 2. SM. Fl. br. 1155 ; Eng. Bot. t. 2026. 

Phas. cusp, ft- Schreberianum BRID. Sp. muse. I, 9; Mant. 8; Bry. univ. 1,42. NEES 

HORNSCH. Bry. germ, i, 72, t. 7, f. 18. 
Phase, affine NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ. 74, t. 7, fig. 19. 
HAB. On rich damp soil. 

Brighton (Borrer) ! ! Darlington (Backhouse). 

Var. o. curvisetum (Dicks.). 

Stem tallish, generally divided ; leaves erecto-patent, aristate ; caps, 
emerging on a geniculate pedicel. 
SYN. Phascum curvisetum DICKS. Crypt, fasc. IV, 2, t. 10, f. 4. SM. Fl. br. 1154 ; Eng. Bot. t. 

2259. TURN. Muse. hib. BRID. Sp. muse. 
Phase, datum BRID. in Schrad. Journ. 1800, II, 269 ; Bry. univ. i, 45. WEB. MOHR Bot. 

Tasch. 68. SCHVVGN. Suppl. I, P. I, 8, t. i. NEES HSCH. Bry. germ, i, 75, t. 7, f. 20. 
Phas. cusp. y. curvisetum NEES HSCH. Bry. germ. 1,72, t. 7, f. 18**. BRID. Bry. univ. i, 42. 

TORTULACE.E.] igi [Phascum. 

HAB. On heaths, not common. 

Croydon (Dickson). Bedford (Abbot). Henfield (Da-vies 1868)!! Coleshill Heath (Bagnall). 
This common moss varies much in size, so that numerous forms are met 
with. The greatest deviation from its ordinary aspect is when it throws out 
several innovations and becomes branched from the base. 


Paroicous ; leaves ovate, gradually acuminate, patulous, margin 
revolute, entire, nerve thick excurrent. Caps, rostellate. (T. XXVII, K.) 

SYN. Phascum Floerkcanum WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 70 & 451 (1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. 
kr. gew. P. 2, 5, t. 2 (1810). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. I, 3, t. 3 (1811). ROEHL. Deutsch. 
fl. iii, 32 (1813). BRID. Mant. 5 (1819); Bry. univ. i, 26 (1826). FUNCK Moost. 2, t. i 
(1821). NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ, i, 52, t. 5, f. 10 (1823). HUEBEN. Muse. germ, n 
(1833). BR - SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. i, p. 8, t. 3 (1837). DE NoT - Syllab. 303 (1838), 
Epil. bri. it. 736 (1869). WILS. Eng. Bot. t. 2887 (1844), Bry. brit. 30, t. 37 (1855). 
RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, s. 3, 80 (1848). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 28 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. 
nord-ouest. 33 (1873). 

Phase, minutum ROEHL. Ann. wetter, ges. i, 185 (1809). 

Acaulon Flocrkeanum C. MUELL, in Bot. Zeit. v, 99 (1847) '> Synops. i, 21 (1848). BRUCH 
SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 42, t. 2 (1849). 

Schistidium Floerk. MITT, in Ann. nat. hist. 2 ser. viii, 311 (1851). 

MicrobryumFloerk. SCHIMP. Synops. n (1860). LINDB. de Tort. 216 (1864). JAEG. Ber. 
St. Gall. ges. 1869, p. 74. JURATZ. Laubm. oester.-ung. 87 (1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses 
N. Amer. 45 (1884). 

Paroicous; minute, scattered, gemmaceous, rufescent. Leaves erecto- 
patent, lower very small ovate nerveless, upper ovato-acuminate, con- 
cave, somewhat recurved at points, minutely papillose at back towards 
apex, cuspidate with the stout, reddish, excurrent nerve ; margins 
slightly reflexed above, entire or subcrenulate towards point ; basal 
cells hexagono-rectangular lax pellucid, upper rhombic incrassate. 
Caps, reddish-brown, immersed, globose-ovate, pachydermous, with a 
thick obtuse point ; cal. somewhat conical, rarely cleft at side, dilated 
and torn at base ; spores pale. Antheridia naked in axils of upper 
leaves, occasionally in distinct plants on the same protonema, bracts 
acuminate, ovate nerveless. 

HAB. Clay fields ; not common. Fr. n 2. 

Durham coast between Sunderland and S. Shields (Bowman 1840) ! ! Ravensworth 
castle, by the Team (Thornhill) ! Sussex, Newtimber (Borrer 1845) ! Hurstpierpoint 
and Woolsonbury hill (Mitten 1845) ! ! Aldrington (Davies 1850) ! ! Castle Howard 
(Spruce). Conway (Wilson 1861) ! ! Llansaintfraid (Wilson 1864). Wolvercott, 
Oxford (Bosivcll 1867) ! ! 

Var. p. badium (Voit) Brid. 

Leaves longer, narrower, brownish ; caps, smaller ovate, badious. 

SYN. Phascum badium VOIT Muse. herb. 7 (1812). NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ, i, 53, t. 5, f. 
ii. BRID. Bry. univ. i, 27. HUEBEN. 1. c. JAEG. op. c. 75. 

Phase. Floerkeanitm R, badium BRID. Mant. 5. 
HAB. Occasionally found with the typical form. 

Bulmer near York (Spruce 1844). Hurstpierpoint (Mitten) \ \ 

TORTULACE.E.J 192 [Pottia. 


Paroicous ; leaves crowded, ovato-lanceolate, denticulate and pale 
at tip. Caps, ovate, acuminate, purple, cernuous on an arcuate pedicel. 
(T. XXVIII, A.) 

SYN. Phascum ciirvicollum EHRH. MSS. et Beitr. iv, 44 (1789). HEDW. St. crypt, i, 31, t. n 
(1787) ; Sp. muse. 21 (1801). ROTH Fl. germ, i, 452 (1788), iii, P. I, 114. DICKS. Crypt, 
fasc. II, i (1790). SCHRAD. Fl. germ. 58 (1794)- RELH. Fl. Cant. Suppl. 3, p. 8 (1795)- 
WITH. Bot. arr. br. veg. 3 ed. iii, 786 (1796). HOFFM. Deutsch. Fl. ii, 26 (1795). 
ABBOT Fl. bedf. 230 (1798). BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. I, 11 (1798) ; Sp. Muse. I, 2 (1806) ; 
Mant. 5 (1819) ; Bry. univ. i. 24 (1826). HULL Br. fl. P. 2, 251 (1799). ROEHL. Moosg. 
deutsch. 17 (1800) ; Ann. Wett. ges. i, 187 (1809) ; Deutsch. fl. iii, 33 (1813). SM. Eng. 
Bot. t. 905 (1801) ; Fl. brlt. 1153(1804). P. tfEAUV. Prodr. 82 (1805). WEB. MOHR 
Bot. Tasch. 65, t. 6, f. i (1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. kr. gew. P. 2, 4, t. i (1810). 
SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 7 (1811). VOIT Muse. herb. 6 (1812). LA PYL. Journ. Bot. 

1813, 279, t. 19, f. 9. HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 9, t. 5 (1818). FUNCK Moost. 2, t. i 
(1821). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 712 (1821). NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ, i, 55, t. 5, f. 
12 (1823). HARTM. Skand. fl. 380. HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 13 (1833). HOOK. Br. fl. ii, 

4 (1833). MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 8 (1836). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. i, p. n, t. 4 (1837) > 
et f. 43, t. 2. DE NOT. Syll. 302 (1838), Epil. 735 (1869). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 27 
(1849). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, P. 3, 83 (1848). WILS. Bry. br. 30, t. 5 (1855). 
SCHIMP Synops. 19 (1860). LINDB. de Tort. 217 (1864). JAEG. Ber. St. Gall. nat. 
ges. 1869, p. 82. MILDE Bry. siles. 93 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 28 (1873). HUSN. 
Mouss. nord-ouest. 35 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. oester.-ung. 90 (1882). 

Phase, cernuum GMEL. in L. Syst. nat. 13 ed. ii, P. II, 1323 (1791). 

Pottia curvicollis MITT, in Ann. Mag. Nat. hist. 1851, p. 311. 

Cycnea curvicolla BERK. Handb. br. m. 301 (1863). 

Paroicous and synoicous ; short, slender, gregarious or subcaes- 
pitant, rufescent. Leaves crowded, erecto-patent, subimbricated, 
ferruginous green, pale at apex, lower ovate acuminate, upper elongato- 
lanceolate, cuspidate with the solid rufous excurrent nerve, margin 
entire, subreflexed, upper cells small hexagonal, chlorophyllose, 
papillose. Caps, solitary or several in one perich. rufous-purple, oval 
with a short apiculus, on a pale cygneous pedicel emerging laterally 
from the perich. leptodermous subpendulous ; cal. pale, reaching below 
middle of caps., spores pale yellow, faintly papillose. 

HAB. Moist banks and fields ; not common. Fr. 2 4. 

Croydon (Dickson). Clapham, Beds. (Abbot). Audley End, Essex (Rev. J. Leefe 1823) ! 
Newhaven (Borrer) ! Burling gap and Goodwood racecourse (Jenner 1835) ! Rottingdean 
(Davies) ! ! Hurstpierpoint (Mitten) ! Todmorden (Nowell) \ \ Pontefract and Castle- 
ford (Dr. Wood) \ Colwyn (Palgrave 1862) ! Dublin. Ilsington, and Catdown, Devon 


(Beitraege i, 175 (1787) .) 

Plants simple or divided from the base, csespitose or pulvinate. 
Leaves broad, enlarging upward, oblong acuminate, soft, opake, usually 
papillose ; areolation lax, rectangular and hyaline at base, quadrate- 
hexagonal and chlorophyllose above. Calyptra cucullate. Caps, erect, 
turbinate or subcylindric, in a few remaining closed, or gymnostomous, 

TORTULACE^E.] 1Q3 [Pottid. 

or with a peristome of 16 teeth, rudimentary or imperfect, or flat lanceo- 
late and united at base by a narrow membrane, bipartite, of a double 
lamina, solid and papillose. Spores granulose. Inhabiting the ground 
and crevices of rocks. Der. after Prof. Pott of Brunswick. 

This genus is by Mitten and Lindberg regarded as a section of Tortula, 
and the foliage will be seen to approach very closely that of Desmatodon, e.g., 
Tort, muralis. 

It is perhaps better to keep it separate as it possesses a certain natural 
habit, and a considerable number of species nearly 40 which have many 
points in common, and when a peristome is present, it does not run out into 
cilia as in Tortula ; the male inn 1 , must be observed early in the season, as it 
is often caducous before the maturity of the fruit. I attach considerable 
importance to the smoothness or scabrosity of the calyptra, as it affords a 
valuable character to discriminate species, otherwise very closely allied. 

Lid minute, persistent. 

Capsule globose. recta. 

Capsule elliptic, acuminate bryoides. 

Lid distinct, deciduous. 
Leaves quinquefarious. 
Nerve not excurrent. 

Leaves divergent serrulate towards apex. Heimii. 

Leaves imbricated, entire. latifolia. 

Nerve excurrent. 

Calyptra smooth. 

Leaves with upper cells smooth. 

Capsule turbinate. trwicatula. 

Capsule oval-cylindric. littoralis. 

Leaves with upper cells papillose. 

Upper cells larger, peristome none. intermedia. 

Upper cells smaller, peristome present. 

Nerve excurrent in a long point. lanceolata. 

Nerve forming a short mucro. ccespitosa. 

Calyptra scabrous. 

Lid conic obtuse. Starkei. 

Lid rostrate. asperula. 

Leaves octofarious. 

Calyptra smooth. 

Nerve excurrent in a short point. viridifolia. 

Nerve excurrent in a long point. crinita. 

Calyptra scabrous. Wilsoni. 

i. POTTIA RECTA (With.) Mitt. 

Paroicous ; leaves broader, oblongo-lanceolate, papillose at back. 
Capsule subglobose, exserted on an erect pedicel ; lid distinct, persistent ; 
cal. rough at point. (T. XXVIII, B.). 

SYN. Phascum curvicollum SM. Eng. Bot. t. 330 (1796). 

Phascum rectum WITH. Bot. arr. Br. veg. 3 ed. Hi, 787, t. 18, f. i (1796). HULL Br. Fl. P 
2, 252 (1799). SM. Eng. Bot. sub t. 905 (1801) ; Fl. brit. 1153 (1804). TURN. Muse. 
hib. 4 (1804). BRID. Sp. muse. I, 2 (1806) ; Mant. 6 (1819) ; Bry. univ. i. 25 (1826). 
SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, ii (1811). LAPYL. Journ. Bot. 1813, p. 279. HOOK. TAYL. 
Muse. br. 9, t. 5 (1818). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 712 (1821). HOOK. Br. fl. ii, 4 (1833). 
HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 12 (1833). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. I, p. ii, t. 5 (1837) et 
fasc. 43, t. 2. DE NOT. Syll. 302 (1838) ; Epil. bri. ital. 734 (1869). RABENH. Deutsch. 
kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 83 (1848). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 27 (1849). WILS. Bry. br. 31, t. 5 
(1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 20 (1860). JAEG. Ber. der St. Gall. nat. ges. 1869, p 82 
HOBK Syn. br. m. 28 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest. 35 (1873). JURATS. Laubm.' 
oester.-ung. 91 (1882). 

TORTULACE^.] 194 [Pottia. 

Pottia recta MITT. Ann. nat. hist. 2 ser. viii, 311 (1851). LINDB. in Oefv. vet ak. ioerh, xx, 

410 (1863) ; de Tort. 218 (1864). 
Bryella recta BERK. Handb. br. m. 300 (1863). 
Tortnla recta LINDB. Muse, scand. 21 (1879). 

Paroicous ; plants very dwarf, densely gregarious, dull green or rufes- 
cent. Leaves crowded, erecto-patent, papillose above, oblongo- 
lanceolate, concave, the margins revolute, nerve excurrent ; cells at 
base narrowly rectangular, above hexagonal. Caps, erect, subglobose, 
apiculate, nitidulous, reddish-orange, often 2 3 in one perichsetium, 
the lid minute, with a simple annulus, not separating ; cal. yellow-brown, 
the beak rough with minute papillae, black at apex ; spores pale, rough. 

HAB. Fields on clay and calcareous soil, and banks by roadsides ; not 

common. Fr. 2 3. 

Sussex and Kent, frequent. Plymouth (Holmes 1867) ! ! Llangollen (Kent 1865) ! ! Be*u- 
maris (Hunt) \ \ Manchester and Pontefract (Hunt 1867) ! ! Levens (Barnes 1869) ! ! 
Todmorden. Dublin (Moore). Near York (Spruce). 

2. POTTIA BRYOIDES (Dicks.) Mitt. 

Autoicous; leaves patent, accrescent upward, oblongo-lanceo- 
late, reflexed at margin, aristate with the excurrent nerve. Caps, 
elliptic-ovate, subobliquely rostrate; lid persistent; cal. smooth. 
(T. XXVIII, C.) 

SYN. Phascum bryoides DICKS. Crypt, fasc. IV, 3, t. 10, f. 3 (1801). SM. Fl. brit. iii, 1154 
(1804) ; Eng. Bot. t. 1280. WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 65 (1807). ROEHL. Ann. Wett. 
ges. i, 193 (1809) ; Deutsch fl. iii, 34 (1813). SCHKUHR Deutsch kr. gew. P. 2, 6, t. 2 
(1810). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 8, t. 2 (1811). VOIT Muse. herb, i (1812). HOOK. 
TAYL. muse. br. 8, t. 5 (1818). SCHULTZ Suppl. Fl. Starg. 63 (1819). FUNCK Moost. 3, 
t. i (1821). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 712 (1821). NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ, i, 76, t. 7, 

f. 21 (1823). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 17 (1833). HOOK. Br. fl. ii,4 (1833). BR - SCHIMP. 

ir. fasc. i, p. n, t. 5 (1837) ; et fasc. 43, t. 2. E 
bri. ital. 734 (1869). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 83 (1848). C. MUELL. Sync 

Bry. eur. fasc. i, p. n, t. 5 (1837) ; et fasc. 43, t. 2. DE NOT. Syllab. 301 (1838) ; Epil. 

i, 28 (1849). WILS. Bry. brit. 33, t. 5 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 18 (1860). BERK. Handb. 

br. m. 300, t. 24, fig. 8 (1863). JAEG. Ber. der St. Gall. nat. ges. 1869, p. 80. HOBK. 

Syn. br. m. 29 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest. 34 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. oester.- 

ung. 90 (1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 42 (1884). 
Phascum gymnostomoides BRID. Sp. muse. I, 7 (1806) ; Mant. 7 (1819) ; Bry. univ. i, 48 


Phase, graniferum WAHL. In Vet. akad. nya handl. xxvii, 131, t. 4, f. 3 (1806). 
Phase, elongatum SCHULTZ Fl, starg. 273 (1806). 
Phase, pusillum SCHLEICH. 
Pottia bryoides MITT. Ann. nat. hist. 2 ser. viii, 311 (1851). LINDB. in Oefv. vet. ak. foer. 

handl. xx, 409 (1863) ; de Tort. 221 (1864). MILDE Bry. siles. 98 (1869). 

Tortula bryoides LINDB. Muse, scand. 21 (1879). 

Autoicous ; gregarious, csespitulose, olivaceous green, \ in. high, 
simple or sparingly branched. Lower leaves very small, patent, remote, 
ovato-lanc. upper crowded in an erect coma, much larger, ovate and 
oblongo-lanc. cuspidate with the solid excurrent nerve, concave, reflexed 
at margin ; areolat. at base oblongo-hexag. hyaline, at apex rounded- 
hexag. chlorophyllose. Caps, on a straight reddish seta, sometimes 

TORTULACE.E.] 195 [Pottia. 

only just emerging from the leaves, ovate or ovato-elliptic, attenuated in 
an oblique rostellum, fuscous ; cal. cucullate, reaching to middle of 
caps, lid conical paler not separating; spores fuscous, nearly smooth. 

Male infl. gemmiform, in axils of upper leaves, bracts broadly ovate, 
acuminate, outer with an excurrent nerve, vanishing in the inner ones. 

HAB. Fallow fields and banks ; rare. Fr. i 3. 

Near Croydon (Dickson). Downs at Piecombe, Lewes and Devil's Dyke (Borrer). Coast 
at Aldrington and Cliff E. of Brighton (Mitten). Gateshead Fell (Thornhill). Map- 
perley hills, Darlington (Backhouse). Ganthorpe, Yorks. (Spruce 1841). Bury St. 
Edmunds (Eagle). Norwich ! Nottingham (Valentine). Buxton (Dr. Wood 1865) ! 
Iffley, Oxford (Bosit'dl 1861) ! ! Woolsonbury hill (Davies 1867) ! ! Dovedale (Frascr 
1866) ! ! Elie, Fife (Howie 1867) ! Whitbarrow, Lyth and Levens Park (Barnes 
1872) ! ! Arnside Towers, on old ant hills (Barnes 1872) ! Howth (Orr). 

Var. (3. Thornliillii(PW/s.). 

Leaves patulous, spathulato-lanceolate, subreflexed, margins plane, 
nerve subexcurrent ; caps, elliptic, rostrate, pedicel elongated. 
SYN. Phascum bryoides var. Thornhillii WILS. Bry. brit. 33. 
HAB. Old stubble fields near Newcastle (Thornhill 1841) ! 

Pottia bryoides has a peculiar looking capsule, much resembling that of 
Voitia hyperborea, but with a distinct persistent lid. Several varieties are 
enumerated which appear to me to be forms passing into each other, thus Mr. 
Davies' specimens are midway between the ordinary state and Var. piliferum, 
but the Var. Thornhillii is very different and Mr. Wilson suggests may be a 
distinct species. 

3. POTTIA HEIMII (Hedw.) Fuernr. 

Autoicous ; taller ; leaves ovate oblong, acuminate, serrate at 
apex, laxly areolate, nerve vanishing or continuous ; caps, truncate 
obovate, lid obliquely rostrate, systylious. (T. XXVIII, D.) 

SYN. Gymnostoinum Heimii HEDW. Stirp. cr. i, 80, t. 30 (1787) ; Sp. muse. 32 (1801). ROTH 
Fl. germ, i, 653 (1788), et iii, P. I, 123. HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 28 (1795). BRID. 
Muse. rec. II, P. I, 41 (1798), Sp. muse. I, 32 (1806), Mant. 15 (1819) ; Bry. univ. i, 71 
(1826'. ROEHL. Moosg. deutsch. 77 (1800) ; Deutsch. fl. iii, 39. SM. Fl. br. iii, 1162 
(1804) ; Eng. Bot. t. 1951. TURN. Muse. hib. 9 (1804). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 59 (1805). 
WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 87 (1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. kr. gew. P. 2, p. 24, t. n 
(1810). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 21 (i8n). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 12, t. 7 (1818). 
FUNK Moost. 6, t. 4 (1821). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 715 (1851). HOOK. Fl. Scot. P. 
II, 123 (1821), Br. fl. ii, 9 (1833). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 42 (1833). MACK. Fl. hib. P. 

2, 10 (1836). 

Bry um Heimii DICKS. Crypt, fasc. II, 4 (1790). GMEL. Syst. Nat. ii, 1333 (1791). LAICH. 

PI. eur. 482 (1794). WITH. Bot. arr. br. veg. 3 ed. iii, 815 (1796). HULL. Br. fl. P. 2, 

257 (!799)- 
Gymnast, obtusiim (baud HEDW.) TURN. op. c. 9, (excl. syn.) t. i, fig. g-i. Eng. Bot. t. 

1407. BRID. Bry. un. i, 72. 

Gymnast, sy sty Hum FUNK MSS. 

Gymnast, affine NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ, i, 140, t. 9, f. 9 (1823). BRID. Bry. un. i, 72. 

WAHLENB. Fl. suec. 772. HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 41. 
Pottia Heimii FUERNR. in Flora xii, P. II, Erganz. 10 (1829). BRUCH SCHIMP. Bry. eur. 

fasc. 18 20, p. 12, t. 7 (1843). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, s. 3, 97 (1848). C. MUELL. 

Synops. i, 551 (1849). WILS. Bry. brit. 96, t. 7 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 125 (1860), 

2 ed. 155 (1876). BERK. Handb. br. m. 271, t. 23, f. 3 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 97 

TORTULACE^.] 196 [Pottia. 

(1869). DE NOT. Epil. Bri. it. 587. LINDB. de Tort. 221 (1864). MITT. Journ. Bot. 

1871, p. 4. HUSN. Mousses nord-ouest. 65 (1873). HOBK. m. 57 (1873). JURATZ. 

Laubm. oester.-ung. 94 (1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 102 (1884). 
Pottia affinis FUERNR. 1. c. 
Tortula Heimii MITT. Journ. Lin. Soc. Bot. xii, 165 (1869). LINDB. Muse, scand. 21 (1879). 

Autoicous and synoicous ; caespitose, pale yellow-green, more or 
less branched. Lower leaves remote, broadly lanceolate, upper larger 
crowded, concave, broadly elongato-lanc. acuminate, acute, serrate at 
apex ; nerve reddish, vanishing in the point or slightly excurrent ; 
margin plane, cells lax, thin pellucid and elongated at base, upper 
hexagonal, minutely papillose, marginal usually smooth ; perich. 
bracts larger and more acuminated. Caps, on a tall red seta, erect, 
obovate and oblong, pachydermous, pale olive brown, finally ferruginous 
and truncate ; cal. smooth, pale brown, with a black point ; lid from a 
plano-convex base, longly and obliquely rostrate, when ripe raised on 
the attached columella ; peristome none. Male on a short lateral 
branch, bracts three, resembling the leaves, rarely synoicous. 

HAB. Moist gravelly banks by the sea and mouths of rivers ; not uncommon. 
Fr. 4-5. 

Variable in size, in the length of the seta, capsule and lid, the serration 
also sometimes becomes obsolete, and the nerve may vanish below the point, 
at the point, or form an excurrent mucro ; it is therefore difficult to 
define any distinct varieties. 


Autoicous ; laxly csespitose. Leaves obovate-oblong, acuminate, 
mucronate with the excurrent nerve ; cells above hexagonal, chloro- 
phyllose, smooth. Caps, obovate-spherical, deoperculate subhemi- 
spherical ; lid rostrate, cal. smooth. (T. XXVIII, E.) 

SYN. Bryum truncatnlum L. Sp. pi. 1119 (1753). HUDS. Fl. angl. 408(1762). WEISS Cr. 

goett. 191 (1770). NECK. Meth. muse. 95 (1771). WITH. Bot. arr. br. veg. ii, 675 (1776). 

LIGHTF. Fl. scot, ii, 730 (1777). WEB. Spic. fl. goett. 109 (1778). CURTIS Fl. Lond. 

F. II, t. 71 (1778). Fl. Dan. t. 537. RELH. Fl. cant. 405 (1785). ABBOT Fl. bedf. 242 

(1798). HULL Br. fl. P. 2, 258 (1799). 
Phascum truncatulum SWARTZ Meth. muse. 25 (1781). 
Gymnostomum truncatulum HEDW. Fundam. ii, 87 (1782). TIMM Fl. meg. n. 726 (1788). 

ROTH Fl. germ, i, 53 (1788). HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 27 (1795). BRID. muse. rec. II, 

P. I, 38, t. i, f. 5 (1798) ; Bry. univ. i, 67 (1826). ROEHL. Moosg. Deutsch. 67 (1800). 

SM. Fl. brit. iii, 1158 (1804), Eng. Bot. t. 1975. TURN. Muse. hib. 7, t. i, fig. d-f. (1804). 

P. BEAUV. Prodr. 60 (1805). SCHULTZ Fl. starg. 279 (1806). HOOK. TAYL. muse. br. 12, 

t. 7 (1818). WAHLENB. Fl. ups. 390 (1820). HARTM. Skand. fl. 382 (1820). HOOK. Fl. 

scot. P. II, 122 (1821), Br. fl. ii, 8 (1833). MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 10 (1836). 
Gymnast, truncatum HEDW. Stirp. i, 13, t. 5, f. 5-14(1787), Sp. muse. 30 (1801). SWARTZ 

Muse. suec. 20 (1799). BRID. Sp. muse. I, 30(1806), Mant. 15 (1819). SCHKUHR 

Deutsch, kr. gew. P. II, 21, 1. 10 (1810). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 19 (1811). WAHLENB. 

Fl. carp. 333 (1814). MART. Fl. cr. erl. 120 (1817). SAVI Bot. etrusc. iii, 32 (1818). 

FUNCK Moost. 6, t. 4 (1821). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 715 (1821). NEES HORNSCH. 

Bry. germ, i, 132, t. 9, f. 6 (1823). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 39 (1833). DE NOT. Syllab. 

285 ( J 838). 
Pottia enstoma ft. minor EHRH. Beitr. i, 188 (1787). 

TORTULACE^.I 197 [Pottia. 

Bryutn truncatnm GMEL. in L. Syst. nat. 13 ed. ii, P II, 1334 (1791). 

Gymnast, truncatnm ft. minus WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 81 (1807). VOIT Muse. herb. 15 

Gymnast, circumscissum ROEHL. in Ann. Wett. ges. ii, P. I, 122 (1810), Deutsch. fl. iii, 38 

Pottia truncata FUERNR. in Flora xii, P. II, Ergang. 10 (1829). BRUCH SCHIMP. Bry. 

eur. fasc. 1820, p. 9, t. 4 (1843). FIEDL. Laubm. meckl. 42 (1844). RABENH. 

Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, s. 3, 97 (1848). WILS. Bry. br. 94, t. 7 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 123 

(1860), 2 ed. 152 (1876). BERK. Handb. br. m. 270 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 97 

(1869). DE NOT. Eptl. bri. it. 589 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 55 (1873). HUSN. 

Mousses nord-ouest. 65 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. oester.-ung. 92 (1882). LESQ. JAMES 

Mosses N. Amer. 101 (1884). 

Pottia eustoma Var. (3. truncata HAMPE in Flora xx, P. I, 287 (1837). 
Pottia eustoma C. MUELL. Synops. i, 553 (1849). 
Pottia truncatula LINDB. de Tort. 220 (1864). 
Tortula truncatula LINDB. Muse, scand. 21 (1879). 

Autoicous ; casspitose or densely gregarious, simple or dichotomous, 
deep green. Leaves obovate-oblong and subspathulate, shortly acu- 
minate, mucronate with the excurrent nerve, patent and patulous, 
widely concave at base, carinate toward apex, plane at margin, soft, 
smooth ; cells at base hexagono-rectang. above large rounded-hexagonal, 
chlorophyllose. Seta short, reddish ; caps, subglobose-turbinate, con- 
stricted below the mouth, when empty truncate and nearly hemispherical, 
fuscous, leptodermous, exannulate ; cal. smooth ; lid plano-convex, with 
a longer or shorter oblique beak, falling with the columella attached ; 
spores nearly smooth, brown. 

Male infl. gemmiform, in axils of upper leaves, bracts 2 3, ovate- 
acuminate, nerveless. 

HAB. Fallow ground in fields and gardens and on hedge-banks ; common. 
Fr. 1-3. 

This common plant varies considerably in size and in the form of the 
fruit at maturity and after the lid is cast off, but is easily recognised by the 
bright green, large celled leaves, and wide mouthed capsule. 

5. POTTIA INTERMEDIA (Turn.) Fuernr. 

Resembling P. truncatula, but larger. Leaves oblong, apiculate, 
margin revolute to above middle. Caps, obovate or subcylindric, 
annulate. (T. XXVIII, F.) 

SYN. Bryum exiguum creberrimis capsulis rujis, Var. major DILL. Hist. muse. 347, t. 45, f. 7 

F-k (1741), et Herbar. 

Pottia eustoma Var. major EHRH. Beitr. i, 188 (1787). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 554 (1849). 
Gymnostomum intermedium TURN. Muse. hib. 7, t. i, fg. a-c (1804). SM. H. brit. iii, 1169 

(1804), Eng. Bot. t. 1976. BRID. Sp. muse. I, 31 (1806), Mant. 13 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 

69 (1826). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 19, t. 7 (1811). MART. Fl. cr. erl. 124 (1817), 

SCHULTZ Suppl. Fl. starg. 65 (1819). FUNCK Moost. 6, t. 4 (1821). NEES HORNSCH. 

Bry. germ, i, 135, t. 9, f. 7 (1823). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 40 (1833). DE NOT. Syllab. 

286 (1838). 

Gymnast, truncatum ROEHL. in Ann. Wett. ges. ii, P. I, 122 (1810), Deutsch. fl. iii, 38. 
Gymnast, truncatum Var. majus WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 81 (1807). VOIT Muse. herb. 

15 (1812). WAHLENB. Fl. carp. 333 (1814). 

TORTULACE^.] 198 [Pottia. 

Gymnast, truncatiihtm var. yg. HOFFM. Duetsch. fl. ii, 27 (1795). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. 

br. 2 ed. 22 (1827). 
Pottia intermedia FUERNR. in Flora xii, P. 2, Erganz. 10 (1829). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. 

ii, S. 3, 97 (1848). DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 588 (1869). LINDB. in Journ. Lin. Soc. 

Botany xi, 461 (1870). JURATZKA Laubm. oester.-ung. 93 (1882). 
Pottia enstoma HAMPE in Flora xx, P. I, 287 (1837). 
Pottia truncata Var (3. major ct y. snbcylindrica BR. SCHIMP. Bry. Eur. fasc. 18 20, p. 9, 

t. 5 (1843). SCHIMP. Synops. 124 (1860). WILS. Bry. br. HOBK. HUSN. 
Pottia lanceolata Var. y. siibgymnostoma LINDB. de Tort. 222 (1864). 
Pottia lane. Var. gymnostoma SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 158 (1876). 
Tortula intermedia LINDB. Muse, scand. 21 (1879). 

Autoicous ; resembling P. truncatula, but larger. Stem erect, longer, 
lax-leaved below, dense above. Leaves pale green, accrescent upward, 
erect, subpatulous, oblong, faintly papillose, the perich. bracts oblongo- 
lanc. narrowed at base, margin more or less revolute above the middle, 
entire, nerve brown, excurrent in an apiculus ; areolation as in P. trun- 
catula. Seta pale red or yellow, caps, elliptico-cylindric, constricted 
below mouth when dry ; cal. smooth, cucullate, subulate ; lid obliquely 
rostellate, paler than caps., ann. broad of 2 3 rows of closely adherent 
cells ; a rudimentary peristome often present. Male infl. gemmaceous. 

HAB. Banks and walls, not uncommon. Fr. 12 3. 

Cork (Taylor). Dublin (Wilson 1830) ! ! Henfield (Borrer 1836) ! Over, Cheshire 
(Wilson 1844) ! ! Beaumaris (Sidebotham 1863) ! Wetherby (Wesley 1878) ! ! Newlyn 
cliff (Curnow 1872) ! ! Bodmin (Tellam 1878) ! ! Miller's dale (Holt 1881) ! ! 

This does not differ from P. truncatula in the form of the capsule only, 
but we have in addition the presence of an annulus, and papillose leaves with 
revolute margins. Mitten regards it as a gymnostomous form of P. lanceolata, 
but the areolation is laxer than in that species. 


Autoicous ; resembling P. intermedia, but with longer leaves ; upper 
cells smaller, quite smooth, the walls much more incrassate. 
(T. XXVIII, G.) 

SYN. Pottia littoralis MITT. Journ. Bot. 1871, p. 4. BRAITHW. Journ. Bot. 1871, p. 290. HOBK. 
Syn. br. m. 56 (1873). 

Autoicous ; resembling P. intermedia, pale below, green or bluish 
green above. Leaves much longer, more erect, sheathing at base, more 
obtuse, with the nerve excurrent in a short point, lower smaller with a 
longly excurrent nerve; upper cells smaller, quite smooth, with the 
wall much more incrassate, basal pellucid, very narrow and elongated. 
Seta pale orange-red, elongated ; caps, oblong-oval, slightly narrowed at 
mouth, ferruginous ; cal. smooth; ann. adherent, of one row of cells, lid 
rostrate, slightly twisted, oblique ; spores ferruginous, scarcely rough. 
Male infl. gemmiform. 
HAB. Sandy ground near the sea ; not common. Fr. 2 4. 

TORTULACE^E.] 1 99 [Pottia. 

Aldrington beach, Shoreham and Hastings (Mitten 1855) ! ! Beaumaris (Hunt 1871) ! ! 

Southport (Boswell 1874) ! ! Tothill, Plymouth (Holmes 1872) ! 
A plant of firmer texture than P. intermedia and difficult to define ; the 
areolation of the apical part of the leaf affords the best distinction, but it 
may be only a variety of the next species. 

7. POTTIA LANCEOLATA (Hedw.) C. Muell 

Autoicous, ceespitulose. Leaves ovato-lanc. acute, revolute ; nerve 
excurrent in a long point. Caps, oval ; cal. smooth ; lid conico- 
rostellate ; teeth of per. longish, perforated or cleft in the divisural 
line. (T. XXIX, A.) 

SYN. Leersia lanceolata HEDW. Stirp. cr. ii, 66, t. 23 (1789). BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. 

I, 55, t. i, f. 8 (1798). 
Afzelia lane. EHRH. Beitr. vii, 4 (1792). 
Bryum lane. DICKS. Crypt, fasc. Ill, 4 (1793). HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 31 (1795). P. 

BEAUV. Prodr. 47 (1805). 
Gnmmia lane. SCHRAD. Samml. kr. gew. i, n. 36 (1796), et in USTERI Neu. ann. xiv, 106 

(1796). SM. Fl. brit. 1186 (1804), Eng. bot. t. 1408. WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 136 

(1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. kr. gew. P. II, 54, t. 23 (1810). VOIT Muse. herb. 31 (1812). 
Anacalypta lane. ROEHL. Moosg. deutsch. 109 (1800). HARTM. Skand. fl. NEES HORNSCH. 

Bry. germ, i, 141, T. 36, f. 3 (1823). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 18 20, 4, t. 3 (1843), 

RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 99 (1848). WILS. Bry. br. 99, t. 14 (1855). DE NOT. 

Epil. bri. it. 580 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 57 (1873). SCHIMP. Synops. 128 (1860). 

BERK. Handb. br. m. 268. 
Encalypta lane. ROTH Fl. germ, iii, P. I, 150 (1800). HEDW. Sp. muse. 63 (1801). TURN. 

Muse. hib. 19 (1804). BRID. Sp. muse. I, 90 (1806). SCHULTZ Fl. starg. 282 (1806), 

Fl. dan. t. 1660, f. 2. SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 61 (1811). ROEHL. Ann. wett.ges. iii, 163. 
Dicranum latifolium TURN. op. c. 79, excl. syn. 

Weissia aciphylla WAHLENB. in Vet. ak. nya handl. xxvii, 133, t. 4, f. I (1806). 
Grim, aciphylla WEB. MOHR op. c. p.p. 137 et 457. 
Weissia lane. ROEHL. Deutsch. fl. 2 ed. hi, 51 (1813). MART. Fl. cr. erl. 113 (1817). HOOK. 

TAYL. Muse. br. 44, t. 14 (1818). BRID. Mant. 47 (1819). HOOK. Fl. scot. P, II, 130 

(1821), Br. fl. ii, 20 (1833). MACK. Fl. Hibern. P. 2, 14 (1836). 
Coscinodon lanceolatus, aciphyllus and connatus BRID. Mant. et Bry. univ. 
Dermatodon lanceolatus HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 112 (1833). 
Desmatodon lane. BRUCH. MSS. DE NOT. Syll. 215 (1838). 
Pottia lanceolata C. MUELL. Synops. i, 548 (1849). LINDB. de Tort. 221 (1864). MITT. 

Journ. Bot. 1871, p. 4. HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest. 67 (1873). SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 

157 (1876). JURATZ. Laubm. oester.-ung. 93 (1882). 

Tortilla lanceolata LINDB. Muse. Scand. 21 (1879). 

Autoicous ; in small bright green tufts, simple or branched. Leaves 
patent, ovato and oblongo-acuminate, carinate-concave, longly cuspidate 
with the excurrent nerve ; margin revolute, reflexed, entire or minutely 
crenulate at apex from the projecting transverse cell walls ; cells nearly 
smooth, hexagonal and incrassated above, elongated and pellucid at 
base. Seta orange red, caps, elliptic, rufous-brown ; cal. smooth, 
subulate ; ann. broad, simple, lid conico-rostellate, red, shining ; teeth 
of per. on a narrow basal membrane, pale red, erect, linear-lane, with 
8 10 articulations, strongly papillose, entire or cleft or perforated in 
the divisural line ; spores small, fuscous, papillose. Male infl. axillar, 
gemmiform, bracts 3, broadly ovate. 
HAB. Bare ground, banks and tops of walls, not uncommon. Fr. 2 4. 

Surrey, Sussex, Kent, and Derbyshire, frequent. 

TORTULACE^.] 200 [Pottia. 

8. POTTIA CJESPITOSA (Bruch.) C. Muell. 

Autoicous ; leaves patent, oblong, mucronate, with plane margins, 
perich. bracts 3, sheathing. Caps, ovate, not tapering at base; lid 
rostrate, cal. smooth. (T. XXIX, B.) 

SYN. Weissia ccespitosa BRUCH MSS. BRID. Bry. univ. i, 808 (1827). 

Anacalypta ccesp. FUERNR. in Flora xii, P. II, Erganz. 25 (1829). NEES HORNSCH. Bry. 

germ, ii, P. II, 146, t. 37, f. 4 (1831). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 1820, 3, t. 2 (1843). 

RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, s. 3, 98 (1848). WILS. Bry. br. 98, t. 41 (1855). SCHIMP. 

Synops. 127 (1860). BERK. Handb. br. m. 268 (1863). DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 581 

(1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 57 (1873). 
Dermatodon caesp. HUEBEN. muse. germ, in (1833). 
Desmatodon cmsp. DE NOT. Syll. 203 (1838). 
Pottia cassp. C. MUELL. Synops. i, 547 (1849). LINDB. de Tort. 219 (1864). MITT. Journ. 

Bot. 1871, p. 4. HUSN. Mous. nord-ouest. 67 (1873). SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 157 (1876). 

Autoicous ; densely caespitulose, simple or branched, yellow-green. 
Leaves patent, lower ovato-lanc. upper oblong-lane, concave with plane 
margins, papillose at back; nerve excurrent in a short mucro ; cells 
minute, incrassate, rectangular at base, rotundo-quadrate above- 
Perich. bracts 3, erect and sheathing, oblong-acuminate ; seta straw- 
coloured ; caps, erect, ovate, often rather asymmetric, not tapering at 
base, orange-brown ; ann. of one row of cells ; lid obliquely rostellate 
red ; cal. smooth ; teeth of per. on a narrow basal membrane, entire or 
cleft, irregular, pale. Male infl. gemmiform, bracts ovato-acuminate, 

HAB. Chalk hills, very rare. Fr. 3 4. 

Woolsonbury hill, Sussex (Mitten 1846) ! ! Near Arundel (Davies 1857) ! ! 

9. POTTIA STARKEI (Hedw.) C. Muell. 

Paroicous ; caespitose. Leaves ovato-lanc. nerve excurrent, margin 
reflexed. Capsule oval, small, calyptra scabrous, lid convexo-conic, 
obtuse, peristome short, more or less imperfect. (T. XXIX, C.) 

SYN. Weissia Starkeana HEDW. Stirp. cr. iii, 83, t. 34 B. (1792), Sp. muse. 65. BRID. 

Muse. rec. II, P. I, 77 (1798), Sp. muse. I, 117 (1806), Mant. 44 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 553 

(1826). ROEHL. Moosg. deutsch. 157 (1800), Deutsch. fl. iii, 50 (1813), Ann. Wett. ges. 

iii, 108. SCHVVAEGR. Suppl. I, P. I, 68 (1811). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 44, t. 14 

(1818). FUNCK Moost. 13, t. 9 (1821). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 729 (1821). HOOK. 

Br. fl. ii, 20 (1833). MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 14 (1836). 

Bryum Stark. HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 32 (1795). P. BEAV. Prodr. 49 (1805). 
Grimmia Stark. ROTH Fl. germ, iii, P. I, 146 (1800). SM. Fl. brit. 1186 (1804), Eng. 

Bot. t. 1490. WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 137 (1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. kr. gew. P. II, 

57, t. 24 (1810). VOIT Muse, herb. 32 (1812). 
Bryuni minutum DICKS. Crypt, fasc. IV, 7, t. 10, f. 17 (1801). 
Anacalypta Stark. FUERNR. in Flora xii, P. II, Erganz. 25 (1829). NEES HORNSCH. 

Bry. germ, ii, P. II, 138, t. 36, f. 2 (1831). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 18-20, p. 2, t. i 

(1843). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, 5.3, 98 (1848). WILS. Bry. br. 97, t. 14(1855). 

SCHIMP. Synops. 126 (1860). BERK. Handb. br. m. 268 (1863). DE NOT. Epil. bri. 

ital. 582 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 57 (1873). 
Dermatodon Stark. HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 109 (1833). 
Desmatodon Stark. DE NOT. Syll. 205 (1838) 


Pottia Stark. C. MUELL. Synops. i, 547 (1849). MITT, in ann. nat. hist. Ser. 2, viii, 312 
(1851), Journ. Bot. 1871, p. 3. LINDB. de Tort. 219 (1864). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest. 
66 (1873). SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 156 (1876). JURATZ. Laubm. oester.-ung. 92 (1882). 
LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 103 (1884). 

Pottia mutica VENTURI DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 592 (1869). 

Tortula Starkci LINDB. Muse, scand. 21 (1879). 

Paroicous ; dwarf, caespitose. Leaves spreading, ovate- and 
oblongo-lanceolate, papillose above, margin recurved, entire, nerve 
reddish, excurrent in a short mucro ; cells rectangular at base, opake 
and hexagonal above. Caps, on an orange seta, minute, oval or oblong, 
glossy, castaneous, leptodermous ; cal. scabrous ; ann. narrow, per- 
sistent ; lid orange, obtuse conic ; teeth flat, linear, obtuse or truncate, 
of 3 4 artic. entire or perforated, papillose, pale yellow, erect when 
dry. Antheridia axillary in upper leaves, sometimes covered by a bract. 
HAB. Fallow fields and banks ; not common. Fr. 12 3. 

Near Dublin and Cork. Cliffs on Sussex coast and Hurstpierpoint (Mitten). Rotting- 
dean (Davies 1855) ! ! Plymouth (Holmes 1867) ! ! Beaumaris (Hunt 1871). Buxton 
(Hunt 1872) ! ! Penzance (Curnow). 

Var. ft. affinis (Hook. Tayl.) 

Leaves longer, paler and more erect ; teeth very short, truncate. 

Sv-K.Weissia affinis HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 44, t. 14 (1818). BRID. Bry. un. i, 354. HOOK. 
Br. fl. 20. GRAY. 

Dermatodon aff. HUEBEN. Muse. no. 
Anacalypta aff. FCERNR. 1. c. 

Anacalypta Stark, ft- brachyodus. Bry. eur. C. MUELL. 

Pottia Stark. Var. ft. brachyoda. LINDB. de Tort. 219. SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 
HAB. Coast of Sussex, Durham and Anglesea, Dublin. 
Var. y. Davallii (Sm.) Lindb. 

Very small ; leaves patulous, becoming red by age, nerve rufous. Caps, 
ovate, truncate, lid large. 

SYH.Gymnostomum Davallianum SM. in KON. SIMS Ann. Bot, i, 577 (1805), et in SCHRAD. 
Journ. i, 191. 

Gymn. rnfescens SCHULTZ Fl. starg. 278 (1806). NEES HNSCH. Bry. germ, i, 121, t. 9, f. 
i. BRID. Mant, 12. Bry. univ. i, 62. 

Gymn. minutulum SCHLEICH. Cat. pi. helv. 29 (1807). WEB. MOHR Tasch. 479. SCHWAEGR. 
Suppl. I, P. I, 25, t. 9. BRID. Mant. 12 ; Bry, un. i, 61. NEES HORNSCH. SCHIMP. 

Gymn. conicum SCHLEICH. 1. c. SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. I, 26, t. 9. HOOK TAYL. 12, t. 8. 

Eng. bot. t. 2676. BRID. op. c. NEES HORNSCH. HUEBEN. DE NOT, &c. 
Gymn. reflexum BRID. Bry. univ. i, 63. 
Pottia minutula, rufescens and conica FUERNR op. c. 10. 

Pottia minutula et Var. ft. rufescens and y. conica Bry. eur. WILS. Bry. br. 93. SCHIMP. 

Synops. BERK. DE NOT. 
Pottia Starkei Var. y. gymnostoma LINDB. de Tort. 219 (1864). 

HAB. Clay soil and fallow fields ; not uncommon. 

Although the three plants here brought together, are usually regarded 
as distinct, there is no structural difference to be detected between them ; 
the capsule is very variable in length, and the peristome equally so in the 
amount of its development. 

TORTULACE^.] 202 [Pottia. 


Paroicous ; densely caespitose. Leaves quinquefarious, obovate- 
spathulate, obscure, papillose, nerve excurrent ; caps, oval, lid conic, 
rostellate, cal. papillose. (T. XXIX, D.) 

SYN. Pottia aspcrula MITT. Journ. Bot. 1871, p. 4. BRAITHW. Journ. Bot. 1871, p. 290. 
HOBK. Syn. br. m. 56 (1873.) 

Paroicous ; densely caespitose, short, pale yellowish-green. Leaves 
quinquefarious, obovate-spathulate, acute, not acuminate, nerve excur- 
rent in a longish point, margin slightly recurved ; upper cells quadrato- 
hexag. rather- obscure, each with several minute conical papillae, lower 
hexagono-rectang. smooth, pellucid. Seta rather short, reddish yellow, 
caps, oval or turbinate when empty, widest about the middle, reddish 
brown ; cal. with scattered obtuse papillae on the upper half; lid paler, 
conic with a short oblique obtuse beak. 
HAB. Banks and crevices of rocks near the sea ; rare. Fr. i 3. 

Henfield, Sussex (Mitten) ! ! Jersey (Piquet). Howth, Dublin (Moore 1856). Penlee 
point, Penzance and Perran cliff (Curnow 1871) ! ! 

This much resembles P. truncatula, but has leaves more obscure and 
papillose, as is also the calyptra. P. viridifolia and crinita are distinguished 
by octofarious leaves and a smooth cal. though in other respects coming very 
near to it. 


Paroicous ; densely caespitose. Leaves octofarious, obovate- 
spathulate, papillose, nerve excurrent ; caps, oblong, lid rostellate, cal. 
smooth. (T. XXIX, E.) 

SYN. Pottia pallida (non LINDB.) BRAITHW. Journ. Bot. 1870, p. 255. 

Pottia viridifolia MITT. Journ. Bot. 1871, p. 5. BRAITHW. Journ. Bot. 1871, p. 290. PI. 
119, f. 4. HOBK. byn. br. m. 57 (1873). 

Paroicous ; densely caespitose, bright yellow green. Leaves 
octofarious, forming a rosette-like coma, obovate-spathulate, erecto. 
patent, obtuse or slightly acute, margin recurved at the middle, nerve 
excurrent in a short point ; upper cells hexagonal, obscure with 
chlorophyl, papillose, lower oblong, hyaline, smooth. Caps, on a short 
yellow seta, oblong, narrower than in P. asperula, rufous brown ; cal. 
smooth, lid rostrate. 
HAB. Earthy ledges of rocks by the sea ; not common. Fr. i 3. 

By an old quarry near St. John's, Plymouth (Holmes 1870) ! ! Slate rocks at Pentire and 
Withiel (Tellam 1871) ! ! Boscawen cliff and Tregyptian cliff, Penzance (Curnow 1872) ! ! 
Basaltic rocks at Blackhead, Belfast (Stewart 1884) ! ! 

The deep green colour and firm texture of this plant are remarkable, 
and the leaves are appressed and twisted when dry. 

TORTULACE.E.] 203 [Pottia. 

12. POTTIA WILSONI (Hook.) By. Schimp. 

Paroicous ; in dense round tufts. Leaves octofarious, obovate- 
oblong, nerve excurrent in a long point ; areolation minute opake. 
Caps, long, elliptic ; cal. scabrous, lid rostrate. (T. XXIX, F.) 

SYN. Bryum exiguum, creberritnis capsiilis rttfis. DILL. Hist. muse. 347, t. 45, f. 7 A E 

(1741) et Herb. 
Gymnostomum Wilsoni HOOK. Bot. miscel. i, 143, t. 41 (1830), Br. Fl. 8 (1833). WILS. in 

Eng. bot. suppl. t. 2710 (1834). 
Pottia Wilsoni BRUCH SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 1820, Mon. n, t. 6 (1843). C. MUELL, 

Synops. i, 554 (1849). WILS. Bry. brit. 95, t. 41 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 124 (1860). 

2 ed. 152 (1876). BERK. Handb. br. m. 270 (1863). LINDB. de Tort. 220 (1864), 

MITT. Journ. Bot. 1871, p. 3. HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest. 66 (1873). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 

56 (1873). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 101 (1884). 
Gymnast. Combos? DE NOT. Syll. 286 (1838). 
Entosthymenium mucronifolium BRUCH in Flora xii, P. II, 387, t. i, f. n (1829), sec. 

Mitten e spec. 

Paroicous ; csespitose, simple, pale glaucous green. Leaves octo- 
farious, crowded, accrescent upward, erecto-patent, when dry subimbri- 
cated, lower obovate-oblong, upper broadly oblongo-spathulate with a 
rounded apex, cuspidate with the longly excurrent nerve, plano-convex 
with the margin recurved ; cells lax and rectangular at base, above 
opake, small quadrate, chlorophyllose, strongly verruculose, the two 
marginal rows larger and more transparent. Cal. fuscescent and 
scabrous above ; caps, with a distinct neck, oblongo-elliptic, narrower 
at mouth, glossy castaneous, on an orange seta, twisted to the right 
when dry ; lid from a convex-conic base, obliquely rostrate, ann. rather 
broad, of i series of cells ; a rudimentary peristome sometimes present 
as an irregular papillose membrane. Male inflor. free in the axils of the 
comal leaves. 
HAB. Sandy rocky ground ; not common. Fr. i 2. 

Over, Cheshire (Wilson 1828) ! ! Barrow hill, Henfield (Borrer) \ Llanfachlog and 
Holyhead (Wilson 1830) ! Old wall at Haymarket, Edinburgh. Carnarvon (Valentine 
1838). Penzance (Curnow 1861) ! ! Marazion bridge (Curnow 1869). West Kirby, 
Birkenhead (Boswell 1862) ! ! Cawsand Bay (Hunt 1871) ! ! Minehead (Miss Gifford 
1867) ! Southport (Wild 1876) ! Blackburn (Dr. Wood 1877) ! St. Minver and Mara- 
zion (Tellam 1879) ! Wrexham (Bowman). 

Best distinguished by its elongated capsule, and the minute opake 
areolation of the upper part of leaf ; the ripe capsule becomes rugose when 
dry. The plant from Marazion bridge has longer hair-points, and a tapering 
apex, composed of narrow incrassate rhomboidal cells. 


Paroicous ; resembling P. Wilsoni. Leaves octofarious, spathulate, 
obtuse, the nerve excurrent in a long pale green hair ; cal. smooth ; 
caps, shorter with a wider mouth, lid obliquely rostellate. (T. XXX, A.) 

SYN. Pottia crinita WILS. MSS. BRUCH SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 42,1.1(1849). C. MUELL. 
Synops. ii, 622 (1851). WILS. Bry. brit. 95, t. 41 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 125 (1860), 

TORTULACE^.] 204 [Pottia. 

2 ed. 153. BERK. Handb. br. m. 271, t. 23, fig. 2 a-d (1863). LINDB. de Tort. 220 
(1864). DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 586 (1869). MITT. Journ. bot. 1871, p. 5. 
m. 56(1873). 

Paroicous ; densely csespitulose, innovating at apex, bright yellow- 
green. Leaves dense, octofarious, spathulate, very obtuse, nerve 
excurrent in a long pale green rigid hair ; margin recurved ; cells at base 
thin, pellucid, narrowly rectangular, above papillose, chlorophyllose, 
larger, hexagonal. Seta orange, twisted to the left above, to the right 
below ; caps, oval with a short neck, leptodermous, shorter and wider 
at mouth than that of P. Wilsoni, reddish brown; cal. large smooth, 
lid short, pale red, obliquely rostellate, ann. very narrow, persistent ; 
spores smooth. Antheridia naked, in pairs in the axils of the comal 
HAB. Moist banks and rocks by the sea. Fr. 3 4. 

Near Forfar (Don 1802). Redhead, Montrose (Drummond 1827) ! Girdleness lighthouse, 
Aberdeen (Dickie 1840) ! ! Penzance and Guernsey (Ralfs 1844) ! ! Torquay (Mrs. 
Griffiths). Aldrington beach, Brighton (Mitten) ! ! Between Garth ferry and Beau- 
maris (Frazer 1867) ! Elie, Fife (Howie 1867) ! St Prideux head, Devon (Holmes 
1870) ! Old Cambus, Northumberland (Hardy 1869) ! Shaugh, Devon ; Trevarthen 
and St. Minver (Tellnm 1879) ! ! Kymyal cliff, and Boscawen cliff, Penzance (Curnow 
1872) ! ! Howth, Dublin; Rossbay and Malahide (Moore). Blackhead, Belfast 
(Stewart 1882) ! Douglas and Kirkmichael, I. of Man (Holt 1880) ! ! 

Closely resembling P. Wilsoni with which it was at first confounded by 
Hooker, but readily separated by the smooth calyptra and lax areolation, 
which is like that of P. truncatula. 

14. POTTIA LATIFOLIA (Schwaeg.) C. MuelL 

Autoicous ; csespitose. Leaves closely imbricated, broadly obovate, 
smooth, nerve vanishing below apex. Caps, oval-oblong, lid oblique, 
rostrate ; teeth of per. lanceolate, cleft. (T. XXX, B.) 

SYN. Weissia lalifolia SCHWAEG. in SCHULTES Reis. Grossglock. IV, App. (1804), Suppl. I, P. 

I, 64, t. 18 (1811). GREV. Scot. Cr. fl. iii, t. 149 (1814). ROEHL. Deutsch. fl. iii, 51 

(1813). BRID. Mant. 44 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 356 (1826). FUNCK Moost. 13, t. 9 (1821). 

HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 2 ed. 80, t. suppl. 3 (1827). HOOK. Br. fl. ii, 20 (1833). 
Grimmia latifolia WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 147 (1807). 
Anacalypta latif. FUERNR. in Flora xii, P. II, Erganz. 25 (1829). NEES HORNSCH. Bry. 

germ, ii, P. II, 135, t. 36, f. i (1831). BRUCH SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 18 20, p. 5, t. 4 

(1843). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, s. 3, 99 (1848). WILS. bry. brit. 100, t. 33 (1855). 

SCHIMP. Synops. 129 (1860). BERK. Handb. br. m. 269 (1863). DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 

579 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 58 (1873). 
Dermatodon latif. HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 116 (1833). 
Desmatodon bulbosus DE NOT. Syllab. 203 (1838). AONGST. in Nov. act. soc. Upsal. xii, 

369 (1844). 

Didymodon bulbosus HARTM. Skand. fl. 4 ed. 382 (1843). 
Pottia latifolia C. MUELL. Synops. i, 549 (1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 158 (1876). 

JURATZ. Laubm. oester.-ung. 94 (1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 103 (1884). 
Pottia pilifera ft. mutica LINDB. de Tort. 223 (1864). 
Tortula bullata ft. mutica LINDB. Muse, scand, 21 (1879). 
Stegonia latifolia VENTURI in Rev. bryol. 1883, p. 96. 

TORTULACE^E.] 205 [Tortula. 

Autoicous ; gregarious or csespitulose, gemmiform, stramineous or 
silvery ; stem simple or innovating. Leaves imbricated, glossy, broadly 
obovate, lower obtuse, upper apiculate, very concave, margin incurved, 
nerve vanishing below apex ; cells at base rectangular, above small, 
rhombic, incrassate. Perich. bracts elongated, narrowed, seta longish, 
orange, caps, oval-oblong, annulate, glossy castaneous, lid obliquely 
rostrate ; teeth lanceolate, entire or cleft to middle, pale or reddish. 
Male infl. gemmiform, bracts three, oval. 

HAS. Crevices of rocks ; very rare. Fr. 5 6. 

Glen Phee, Clova (Drummond 1824) ! ! Carr rocks above Castleton (Dickie 1867) ! ! 

Differing so much in habit from the other species that I have felt tempted 
to follow Venturi and regard this as the type of a distinct genus, but the 
similarity in the capsule and peristome to those of Pottia has inclined me to 
retain it here. According to specimens in Dickson's and Smith's herbaria, 
Bryum piliferum DICKS. Crypt, fasc. IV, 10, t. 10, fig. 14. belongs to 
Tortnla (Desmatodon) systylia (BR. SCHIMP.) a rare species found at great altitudes 
in Norway, and most unlikely ever to have been found at Aberfeldy ; P. latifolia 
var. ft. pilifera (Dicramim bullatum SOMM.) must therefore be excluded from our 
lists as well as Tortula (Desmatodon} latifolia (HEDW.). 


(Fund. muse. II, 92 (1782). ) 

Plants short or tall, caespitose, simple or dichotomously branched, 
yellowish-green. Leaves oblong or spathulate, papillose, usually obtuse 
with the nerve excurrent or extended into a long pellucid hair ; areola- 
tion hyaline and elongated at base, quadrato-hexag. opake and chloro- 
phyllose above ; perich. bracts scarcely diverse. Cal. cucullate. Caps, 
erect, oblong or cylindraceous, subincurved, sometimes gymnostomous, 
teeth of peristome 32, filiform, carinate, papillose, remotely jointed, 
placed on a distinct tubular, more or less elongated basal membrane, 
straight, incurved or spirally contorted. Spores small, nearly smooth. 
Inhabiting the ground, walls, or rocks, rarely trees. Der. tortus 

The genera Tortula and Barbula were founded by Hedwig in his Fund, 
muscorum, but he gives no other distinction than that Tortula has mon- 
oicous infl. (ex. T. muralis and subulata), and Barbtila dioicous (ex. B. 
rurnlis and unguiculata}. This character is, of course, insufficient to 
separate genera, and Schreber amended it by uniting the two, and 
naming it Tortula, in which he has been followed by most English 
authors, while the continental writers sink Tortula and use that of Bar- 
bula. By bringing into greater prominence the colour and structure of 
the leaves, we obtain two series, which may conveniently be retained as 




genera under the old names, Tortula being used for the species with 
broad green leaves, and more or less opake areolation, Barbula for those 
with narrow leaves, becoming rust coloured or yellow, and the cells 
incrassated or dot-like. We are thus able to bring under Barbula 
mosses without peristomes to the fruit, but agreeing so closely in the 
vegetative system with species of Barbula, that in a barren state it is 
impossible to separate them e.g., Gymnostomum curvirostre . 

The teeth of the peristome in Tortula consist of two rows of cells, which 
are not on the same plane ; the inner series larger paler and trans- 
versely striate on a minute scale, the outer more solid and reddish. 


Teeth of peristome not united in a tube. 
Nerve narrow, lamelliferous above. 

Capsule ovate, gymnostomous. pusilla. 

subcylindric, peristome imperfect. lamellata. 

Nerve very broad, covered above with short jointed filaments. 

Synoicous. brevirostris. 


Calyptra reaching half way down capsule. , stellata. 

only covering lid. 

Capsule erect, straight. ericcefolia. 

inclined, subincurved. aloides. 

Nerve free from appendages. 

Nerve much thicker toward apex. atrovirens. 

thin and regular. 

Leaves without a thickened border. 

Leaves with plane margins, points not hoary. 

Caps, oblong ; 1. broad, obovate mucronate. cnncifolia. 

cylindric, 1. subspathulate, long-pointed. Vahlii, 

Leaves with recurved margins and hoary hair-points. muralis. 
Leaves with a thickened border. 

Plants short, simple, 1. acute, pointed marginata. 

tall, branched, 1. obtuse, mucronate. mucronata. 

Lower i f of peristome forming a tesselated tube. 

Nerve gemmiferous above. papillosa. 

Nerve smooth. 

Stem short, leaves yellowish green. 

Leaves piliferous, capsule oblong. canescens. 

Leaves cuspidate, caps, cylindraceous. 

Leaves broad, subspathulate, entire. snbulata. 

narrow, linear oblong, bluntly serrate. angustata, 

Stem elongated, 1. dingy green or rufescent. 

Leaves obtuse, emarginate. mntica. 


Hair point smooth. hevipila. 


Leaves squarroso-recurved. ruralis. 


Dioicous, olivaceous green. montana. 

Synoicous, ferruginous. princeps. 

Sect. i. DESMATODON (End.). Stems short ; leaves like those of 
Pottia, often hair-pointed. Peristome a short basal tubular membrane, bearing 
32 teeth, filiform, free or united at base by transverse bands, slightly 
twisted or spirally contorted. 

A. Pterygoneuron. Nerve on the upper surface bearing 2 or 4 vertical 

TORTULACE^E.] 2O7 [Tortula. 

i. TORTULA PUSILLA (Bed.) Mitt. 

Autoicous. Leaves obovate, piliferous, concave, lamelligerous in the 
upper part. Caps, ovate, gymnostomous. (T. XXX, C.) 

SYN. Bryum pusillurn HEDW. Fund. muse. II, 32 (1782). RELH. Fl. cant. 404 (1785). 

LAICH. PI. eur. 484 (1794). WITH. Bot. arr. br. veg. 3 ed. iii, 811 (1796). ABBOT Fl. 

bedf. 240 (1798). HULL Br. fl. P. II, 256 (1799). 
Gyinnostomum pusillum HEDW. op. c. 87. 
Gymn. ovatum HEDW. Stirp. cr. i, 16, t. b (1787), Sp. muse. 31. ROTH Tent. fl. germ, i, 453 

(1788), iii, P. II, 123. TIMM Fl. meg. n. 724 (1788). SCHRANK Baiers. fl. ii, 438 (1789). 

SIBTH. Fl. oxon. 272 (1794). HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 27 (1795). BRID. Muse. rec. II, 

P. I, 40 (1798), Sp. muse. I, 31 (1806), Mant. 12 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 59 (1826). SWARTZ 

Muse. suec. 20 (1799). ROEHL. Moosg. deutsch. 15 (1800), Ann. wett. ges. i, 121, 

Deutsch. fl. iii, 38 (1813). TURN. Muse. hib. 9 (1804). SM. Fl. brit. 1160 (1804) ; Eng. 

bot. t. 1889. P. BEAUV. Prodr. 59 (1805). SCHULTZ Fl. starg. 279 (1806). WEB. 

MOHR Bot. Tasch. 80 (1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. kr. gew. P. II, 20, t. 9 (1810). 

SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 79 (1811). VOIT Muse. herb. 15 (1812). WAHLENB. Fl. carp. 

334 (1814) ; Fl. ups. 390 (1820). MART. Fl. cr. erl. 420 (1817). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 

ii, t. 7 (1818). HARTM. Skand. fl. 383 (1820). FUNCK Moost. 5, t. 4 (1821). HOOK. 

Fl. scot. P. 2, 122 (1821), Br. fl. ii, 8 (1833). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 715 (1821). 

ZENK. DIETR. Muse. thur. II, n. 47 (1822). NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ, i, 128, t. 9, f. 

5 (1823). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 36 (1833). MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 10 (1836). DE NOT. 

Syll. 284 (1838). 
Pottia cavifolia EHRH. Beitr. i, 187 (1787). KUNZE Deutsch. cr. gew. 20 (1795). BR. 

SCH. Bry. eur. f. 1820, p. 7, t. 2 (1843). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 550 (1849). RABENH. 

Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, s. 3, 96 (1848). WILS. Bry. br. 92, t. 7 (1855). SCHIMP. Syn. 122 

(1860), 2 ed. 151. BERK. Handb. br. m. 269, t. 23, f. 2, e. (1863). DE NOT. Epil. 585 

(1869). MILDE Bry. sil. 95 (1869). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest. 64 (1873). LESQ. JAMES 

Mosses N. Amer. 101 (1884). 
Bryum ovatum DICKS. Crypt. II, 4 (1790). 
Pottia ovata FUERNR. in Flora xii, P. II, Erganz. 10 (1829). 
Pottia pusilla LINDB. in Oefv. vet. ak. foerh. xx, 410 (1863) ; de Tort. 218 (1864). HOBK. 

Syn. br. m. 55 (1873). 

Tortula pusilla MITT. Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. xii, 165 (1869). 
Pterigoneurum cavifolium JURATZ. Laubm. oester.-ung. 96 (1882). 

Autoicous; stems simple, short. Leaves obovate-oblong, very concave, 
subimbricated, erecto-patent, crowded into a gemmule ; nerve excurrent 
as a hair of variable length, bearing on the upper side two follicles which 
burst and form 4 lamellae, decurrent on the nerve ; cells above quadrate, 
at base rectangular. Caps, on a short red seta, ovate or elliptic, brown, 
gymnostomous ; annulus of two rows of cells, lid shorter than caps, 
obliquely rostellate. Male infl. gemmiform at base of fruiting shoot, 
bracts broadly ovate, nerved half-way. 

HAB. On banks and tops of walls. Fr. i 3. 

A very variable plant, in the length of the seta, and the hair-point to 
the leaf, and so closely allied to the next species that it must be placed with 
it, and therefore to be regarded as the connecting link between Pottia and 
Tortula. Another of this group T. subsessilis (BRID.) is found in central 

Var. /3. incana (Nees Hornsch.) 

Plants short in small crowded tufts ; leaves with very long hair-points ; 
capsule scarcely emergent, spheric-oval. 

TORTULACE^E.] 208 [Tortula. 

SYN. Gymn. ovatum Var. incanum NEES HORNSCH. BRY. germ. 130, t. 9, f. 5. BRID Bry. 

univ. i, 61. 
Pottia cavifolla Var. incana SCHIMP. Synops. 122. 

HAB. Newhaven (Borrer 1838) ! Harbury, Warwick (Bagnall] \ \ 


Autoicous ; stem simple. Leaves broad, oval-oblong, mucronate 
with the excurrent nerve, very concave, nerve at upper part with 4 broad 
lamellae. Caps, subcylindric, peristome very fragile, adherent to lid. 
(T. XXX, D.) 

SYN. Gymnostomum ovatum Var. /?. gracile HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 12 (1818) ; Br. Flora ii, 

8 (1833). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 715 (1821). 
Pottia cavifolia Var. S. barbuloides DURIEU MSS. SCHIMP. Coroll. 24 ; Synops. 122 


Pottia cavifolia Var. S. gracilis WILS. Bry. br. 93 (1855). 
Tortula lamellata LINDB. de Tort. 233 (1864). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 64 (1873). 
Barbula concava SCHIMP. in Flora 1864, p. 210. MILDE Bry. siles. no (1869). 
Barb, cavifolia SCHIMP. Bry, eur. suppl. fasc. 3 4 (1866). Synops. 2 ed. 193 (1876). 

HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest. 79 (1873). 
Pterigoneurum lamellatum JURATZ. Laubm. oester.-ung. 97 (1882). 

Autoicous ; stems short, simple, laxly caespitose. Leaves at base 
small, distant, ovate, shortly piliferous, at middle broadly oval-oblong, 
uppermost spathulate-ligulate, slightly acuminate, mucronate with the 
excurrent nerve, all very concave, wings flattened towards margin, 
papillose at back ; nerve furnished on the upper third in front, with 4 
decurrent lamellae ; cells of upper part and of lamellae minute quadrate, 
chlorophyllose, at base lax, hexagono-rectangular. Perich. bracts 
narrower ; caps, on a straight rufous pedicel, erect, oblongo-cylindra- 
ceous, castaneous, with many furrows when dry ; ann. simple, lid with a 
long oblique beak, teeth on a broadish clathrate membrane, very slender 
and fragile, pale, slightly twisted, generally breaking away, and remain- 
ing adherent to the inside of lid, spores smooth. Male infl. basal, 

HAB. On the ground and on walls covered with earth. Fr. i 2. 

Near Pontefract (Now ell 1853) ! ! Coombe Down, Bath (Mrs. Hopkins 1860) ! Kidling- 
ton and Osney, Oxford (Boswell 1864) ! ! Aldrington, Sussex (Davies). Dublin (Moore). 
Helmsley, Yorks. (Wesley 1878) ! ! 

The peristome is best seen through the lid of the young caps., but can 
seldom be found at maturity, or can only be observed in small fragments 
under the pressure of a covering glass. It also differs from the last by the 
long seta, cylindric capsule and oblique beaked lid. 

B. Aloidese. Leaves obtuse, concave with involute margins, nerve very 
broad, covered on upper side with granulose filaments. 

TORTULACE^E.] 209 [Tortula. 


Synoicous; plants gregarious. Leaves Ungulate, obtuse. Caps, 
elliptic, lid its length, obliquely conical. (T. XXX, E.) 

SYN. Tortula rigida SWARTZ Disp. muse. suec. 40, excl. syn. (1799). SM. Fl. brit. 1250 in obs. 

(1804). TURN. Muse. hib. 44 in obs. (1804). BRID. Sp. muse. I, 245, p.p. (1806). HARTM. 

Skand. fl. 403 (1820). WAHLENB. Fl. suec. ii, 763, excl. syn. (1826). 
Tort, brevirostris HK. GREV. in BREWST. Edin. Journ. i, 289, t. 12 (1824). HK. TAYL. 

Muse. br. 2 ed. 53, Suppl. t. 2 (1827). HOOK, in DRUM. Muse. amer. bor. n. 136 (1828). 

AONGST. in nov. act. soc. Upsal. xii, 374 (1844). HARTM. op. c. 5 ed. (1849). HOLMES 

in Grevillea ii, 169, t. 23 (1874). JURATZ. Laubm. oester.-ung. 125 (1882). 
Tort, enervis HARTM. op. c. 24 ed. (baud HK. GREV.). 
Barbula rigida HEDW. Sp. muse. 115, p.p. (1801). LILJEBL. Svensk. fl. 3 ed. 536 (1816). 

SCHULTZ in nova act. acad. cass. Leop. xi, 196, p.p. (1823). BRID. Bry. univ. i, 528, p.p. 

(1826). Var. y. brevi rostris BRID. op. c. i, suppl. 824 (1827). 
Barbula brevirostris (baud FUERNR.) BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 12 15, p. 16, t. 2 (1842). 

C. MUELL. Synops. i, 597 (1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 163 (1860), 2 ed, 189. LINDB. de 

Tort. 233 (1864). MILDE Bry. siles. no (1869). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 115 


Synoicous ; very small, gemmiform, gregarious. Lower leaves 
roundish, very obtuse, upper lingulate, obtuse erect, very concave, all 
sheathing at base, margins hyaline, inflexed ; nerve rather thin, covered 
above with a mass of short cellular threads. Seta reddish, half-inch 
high, caps, erect, elliptico-cylindric, rufo-fuscous ; ann. broad, of 3 rows 
of cells, separating spirally, lid one-third length of caps, conic, rostellate; 
peristome rufous-purple, once contorted. 

HAB. Walls in limestone districts ; v. rare. Fr. 8 10. 

Old wall at Parson's Green, Edinburgh (D. Stuart, 1824). Wall top in Ashwood Dale 
Buxton (George, 1873). 

The little group of aloid Tortula are very closely allied, and transverse 
sections of their leaves will be found useful in their discrimination. There is 
considerable difficulty in fixing on the species intended by some of the early 
authors, and the name rigida has been applied to all four, but, thanks to 
Lindberg's research, we are able to get rid of it altogether, and adopt prior 

T. brevirostris may be immediately recognized by its short lid and 
synoicous inflorescence, and to Mr. Holmes's acuteness we owe the verifi- 
cation of the original specimens with the species intended by the founders. 

4. TORTULA STELLATA (Schreb.) Lindb. 

Dioicous ; leaves oblong, obtuse or shortly pointed. Caps, elliptic- 
oblong, straight ; cal. covering half caps., peristome rather long in 
several spirals. (T. XXX, F.) 

SYN. Bryum stellatum SCHREB. Spic. fl. lips. 80 (1771). HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 45, "ex. el. 

syn. (1795)- 

Barbula rigida SCHULTZ Nov. act. ac. caes. leop. xi, I, 196, p.p. t. 32, f. i (1823). HEDW. 
Stirp. cr. {,65 p.p. t. 25, f. 16 (1787); Sp. muse. 115 p.p. (1801). BRID. Muse. rec. 
II, P. I, 192 excl. syn. t. 3, f. 19 (1798), Mant. 88 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 528 (1826). WEB. 
MOHR Bot. Tasch. 212 (1807). FUERNR. BRUCH in Flora xii, P. 2, 599 (1829). HUEBEN. 
Muse. germ. 309 excl. syn. (1833). BRUCH SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 13 15, p. 13, t. i 

TORTULACE^;.] 210 [Tortula. 

(1842). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 103 (1848). C. MUELL Synops. i, 596 (1849). 

SCHJMP. Syn. 163 (1860), 2 ed. 189. MILDE Bry. siles. in (1869). LESQ. JAMES 

Mosses n. amer. 116 (1884). 
Tortula rlgida SCHRAD. Spic. fl. germ. 66 (1794). BRID. Sp. muse. I, 245 excl. syn. 

(1806). SWARTZ Muse. suec. 40 (1799). ROTH Fl. germ, iii, P. I, 211 (1800). AONGST. 

in Nov. act. soc. Upsal. xii, 373 (1844). SPRUCE in Ann. mag. n. h. 2 ser. iii, 374 (1849). 

WILS. Bry. br. 120, t. 32 (1855). DE NOT. Muse. ital. I, 17, t. 3 (1862) ; Epil. bri. ital. 

529 (1869). BERK. Handb. Br. m. 259 (1863). JURATZ. Laubm. oester.-ung. 125 

Tort, enervis HK. GREV. in BREWST. Ed. journ. i, 288 (1824). HK. TAYL. Muse. br. 2 ed. 

52 excl. syn. Suppl. t. 2 (1827). HARTM. Skand. fl. 5 8 edd. 
Tort, breviroslris HK. GREV. op. c. 289 p.p. HK. TAYL. op. c. 53 (nee diagn.). GREV. 

Scott, cr. fl. vi, t. 331 (1829). 

Desmatodon rigidus MITT. Journ. Lin. soc. i, suppl. 38 (1859). 

Tortula stellata LINDB. de Tort. 233 (1864). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 63 (1873). 

Dioicous ; short, simple, gregarious or laxly csespitulose. Leaves 
from an erect sheathing base, patulous, lower small ovate-oblong, 
ferruginous, upper twice as long, deep green, oblong, muticous or 
apiculate, margin inflexed ; nerve broad, covered on surface with 2 5 
jointed threads. Cal. straw-coloured, long-beaked, reaching to middle 
of caps. Seta reddish brown, caps, erect, ovato-elliptic or subcylindric, 
reddish-brown ; lid long beaked, crenulate at base, ann. broad, revoluble ; 
teeth of per. longer, purplish, twice convolute ; spores smooth. Male 
plants very minute, bracts three, broad, ovate, obsoletely nerved. 
HAB. Mud capped walls in calcareous districts. Fr. 9 3. 

Near York (Spruce). Newtimber, Sussex (Mitten) ! Near Ilkley (Baker, 1859) ! Oxford 
(Boswell, 1860)!! Mottram, Cheshire (Whitehead, 1860) ! Blackburn and Burnley 
(Hunt, 186.7) ' Camborne, Cornwall (Curnow). Craiglockhart and Crookston Edin- 
burgh. Cork and Dublin (Moore). Pontefract and Knottingley (Dr. Wood). Gloucester 
(Stark). Peak forest (Whitehead, 1871) ! Crambeck, Malton, Hovingham, and Scalby 
(Spruce, 1843). Yate, Bristol (Thwaites). Bowness. 

This species is readily recognised by the elliptic capsule, and the 
calyptra reaching halfway down. In dry seasons the upper leaves some- 
times run out into a short hyaline point, which even extends into a long 
hair the var. piligera DE NOT. 

5. TORTULA ERIC-3EFOLIA (Neck.) Lindb. 

Dioicous ; short. Leaves patulous, ligulato-lanceolate, obtuse, 
incurved at tip. Caps, erect, cylindric ; annulus simple, subpersistent, 
cal. covering the lid only ; per. short, once twisted. (T. XXX, G.) 

SYN. Bryum acaulon, Ericce tenuifolio} Ger. folio DILL. Hist muse. 388, t. 49, f. 55 (I74 1 ) et 

Bryum ericcefolium NECKER in Act. ac. Theod.-pal. ii, 451 (1/70); Meth. muse. 193 (1771). 

Barbula rigida HEDW. St. crypt, i, 65 p.p. t. 25 excl. fig. 16 (1787). 

Barbula brevirostris FUERNR, et BRUCH in Flora xij, P. II, 599 (1829). HUEBEN. Muse. 

germ. 308, excl. syn. (1833). 

Tortula alo'ides DE NOT. in Mem. ac. Torin. XL, 306 p.p. et Syllab. 177, p.p. (1838). 
Barbula ambigua BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. f. 1315, Mon. 14, t. 2 (1843). RABENH. Deutsch. 

kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 104 (1848). SCHIMP. Synops. 164 (1860), 2 ed. 190. C. MUELL, Synops. 

i, 596 (1849). MILDE Bry. siles. in (1869). LESQ. JAMES Mosses n. amer. 116 (1884). 

TORTULACE.E.] 211 [Tortilla. 

Tortula ambigna AONGST. in nov. act. soc. Upsal. xii, 376 (1844). SPRUCE in HOOK. 
Journ. Bot. iv, igi (1845), et Ann. mag. n. h. 2 ser. iii, 374 (1849). HARTM. Skand. fl. 
58 edd. WILS. tfry. br. 120, t. 42 (1855). DE NOT. Muse. ital. I, 16, t. 2 (1862) ; 
Epil. bri. ital. 529 (1869). BERK. Handb. br. m. 259 (18^3). LINDB. de Tortul. 234 
(1864). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 64 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. oester.-ung. 126 (1882). 

Dioicous ; short, laxly caaspitose. Leaves longer, horizontal, ex- 
panded, from an ovate base, lineal-lane., incurved at tip, arcuate when 
dry, reddish at back. Seta red below, pale above. Cal. short, reaching 
just to lid ; caps, erect, cylindraceous, brown, sulcate when dry, ann. 
narrow, persistent, lid elongato-conic, entire at margin ; teeth of per. 
longer, red, once twisted, when dry arcuato-incurved; spores smooth. 

HAB. Walls and marly banks. Fr. n 3. 

Welburn, Malton, and near York (Spruce, 1847). Warrington, Clitheroe, and Newton 
Viaduct (Wilson, 1848)!! Pontefract and Knottingley (Nowell). Bristol (Thwaites). 
Blackburn and Burnley (Hunt) \ ! Dublin and Cork (Moore, 1874) ! ! Sussex (Mitten). 
Witney and Oxford (Bosivell) ! ! Bovvness (Barnes) ! Beaumaris (Wilson, 1856)!! 
Plymouth (Holmes) ! Wadebridge and Newlyn cliff, Cornwall (Curnow). Bearley, 
Warwick (Bagnall). Reigate (Holmes, 1873)!! Wetherby, Yorks. (Wesley) ! ! 

Often growing with T. aloides, but easily known by the cucullate tips of 
the leaves, the erect cylindric capsule and the bright red incurved teeth. 

6. TORTULA ALOIDES (Koch) De Not. 

Dioicous ; short. Leaves long, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, acute. 
Caps, cylindraceous, inclined, subarcuate; cal. reaching a little below 
the lid, per. scarce twisted, arcuato-incurved when dry. (T. XXXI, A.) 

SYN. Bryum rigidum SM. Eng. Bot. t. 180 (1794)- 

Tortula rigida SM. Fl. brit. 1249 (1804). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 30 p.p. t. 12 (1818). 

HOOK. GREV. in BREWST. Edin. Journ. i, 289 p.p. (1824). WILS. in Eng. Bot. Suppl. t. 

2759 (1834). HARTM. Sk. fl. 48 edd. 
Trichostomum aloides KOCH MSS. SCHULTZ Recens. Barb. 197 (1823). BRID. Bry. univ. 

i, Suppl. 816 (1827). WALLR. Fl. crypt, germ, i, 172. 
Barbula aloides FUERNR. BRUCH in Flora XII, P. II, 598 (1829). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 

307 (1833). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. f. 13 15, p. 15, t. 2 (1842). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 

596 (1849). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 104 (1848). SCHIMP. Synops. 165 (1860) ; 

2 ed. 191. MILDE Bry. siles. in (1869). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest. 78 (1873). 

Tortula aloides DE NOT. Syllab. muse. 177 (1838) ; Muse. ital. I, 15, t. i (1862) ; Epil. bri. 
ital. 528 (1869). BERK. Hand. br. m. 259 (1863). LINDB. de Tort. 235 (1864). HOBK. 
Syr. br. m. 64 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. oester.-ung. 126 (1882). 

Dioicous ; short, dull green. Leaves erecto-patent, longer, rigid, 
linear-lanceolate, acuminate, acute, nerve incrassate in the middle, 
convex at back, often reddish. Caps, from curving of the seta, cernuous 
or subhorizontal, cylindraceous, subarcuate, rufo-fuscous on upper side, 
pale fuscous beneath ; cal. reaching a little beyond lid, ann. of small 
cells, long persistent, lid rostrate, acute ; teeth of per. very slender, 
pale red, simply contorted, when dry arcuato-incurved with the points 
assurgent ; spores larger, smooth. 
HAB. Clay banks and wall tops. Fr. n 2. 

Dublin, Mayo, Sligo and Galway (Moore). Ripley, Yorks. (Baker 1856) ! Islip and 
Shotover, Oxford (Boswell 1858) ! ! Beaumaris and Bangor (Wilson 1863) ! ! Black- 

TORTULACE^E.] 212 [Tortilla. 

burn and Marple (Hunt 1863) ! Ltvens (Barnes 1867) ! Sussex Downs (Davies) \ ! 
Crambeck and Welburn, Yorks. (Spruce 1843)! Newton Viaduct (Wilson, 18.47)!! 
Masham (Mudd). Thirsk and Byland Abbey (Baker). Hovingham, Ingleboro and 
Settle, Yorks. (Hobkirk). Greenheugh, Burnmouth and Wooler (Hardy}. Bearley, 
Red Hill and Maxtoke, Warwick (Bagnall). Ashwood Dale, Derby. (Holt 1880) ! ! 
Common in Devon and Cornwall. 

C. Desmatodon. Nerve free from appendages ; leaves soft, highly 


Autoicous ; dwarf, csespitulose. Leaves spreading, oblong, sub- 
spathulate, concave, apiculate, with reflexed margins ; nerve thickened 
anteriorly above the middle, slightly excurrent. Caps, oval, lid 
obliquely rostellate, teeth of per. unequal, short, obliquate, not con- 
torted. (T. XXXI, B.) 

SYN. Trichostomum convolutum BRID. Sp. muse. I, 232 (1806), Mant. 83 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 
492 (1826). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 590 (1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 153 (1860). BERK. 
Handb. br. m. 261, t. 22, f. 8 (1863). HUSN. Mouss. nord.-ouest. 75 (1873). 
Grimmia atrovirens SM. Eng. Bot. t. 2015 (1809). 

Didymodon nervosus HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 66, t. 20 (1818). BRID. Bry. univ. i, 516. 

GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 742 (1821). HOOK. Br. fl. ii, 28 (1833). MACK. Fl. hibern. P, 

2, 17 (1836). 
Trichostomum nervosum FUERNR. in Flora xii, P. II, Erganz. 32 (1829). HUEBEN. Muse. 

germ. 295 (1833). 
Desmatodon nervosus BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. f. 18 20, Mon. 6, t. 3 (1843). RABENH. 

Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 100 (1848). SPRUCE in Ann. mag. n. h. 2 ser. iii, 374 (1849). 

SCHIMP. Coroll. 26 (1855). WILS. Bry. brit. 103, t. 20 (1855). DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 

576 (1869). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 113 (1884). 
Tortula atrovirens LINDB. de Tort. 236 (1864). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 65 (1873). 
Barbula nervosa MILDE Bry. siles. 112 (1869). 
Barbula atrovirens SCHIMP. Synops, 2 ed. 194 (1876;. 
Desmatodon atrovirens JURATZ. Laubm. oester.-ung. 136 (1882). 

Autoicous; dwarf, csespitulose or subpulvinate, dingy green. 
Leaves densely imbricated, spirally convolute when dry, erecto-patent 
when moist, oval-oblong, concave, nerve yellowish, thickened above 
anteriorly, excurrent in a short acute mucro, margin entire, revolute, 
cells at base lax shortly rectangular with two marginal rows quadrate, 
above minute quadrate, opake very finely papillose. Caps, on a short 
reddish seta, erect, oval, fuscous, exannulate ; lid half length of caps., 
conic obliquely rostellate ; teeth of per. on a pale exserted basal mem- 
brane, irregular, unequal, papillose, rufo-ferruginous, erect and straight 
when dry, slightly twisted obliquely when wet ; spores smooth. Male 
infl. minute gemmaceous, at base of female, bracts ovato-lanc., faintly 
HAB. Dry banks and old walls, especially near the sea. Fr. 3 5. 

Killiney Bog, Dublin (Taylor). Cork (Carroll). Bray Head, Wicklow and Youghal 
(Sargint). Hastings (Jenner) ! ! Dawlish (Holmes). Seaton Cliffs, Cornwall (Brent). 
Truro (Tellam). Drayton Bushes, Warwick (Bagnall). Old Cambus and Eyemouth, 
Northumberland (Hardy). Anglesea (Wilson). Barmouth (Holt 1882) ! ! 

ToRTULACE,E.] 213 [Tortilla. 

The tufts of this little moss are generally filled with fine sand or mud, 
so that the lower part becomes brown and dead ; the peristome when moist 
shows a decided tendency to become twisted, though straight when dry. 


Autoicous ; densely gregarious, pellucid green. Leaves rosulate 
above, obovate-spathulate, smooth ; nerve thin vanishing or excurrent ; 
cells lax, quadrate. Caps, erect, oblong, lid conic, oblique ; peristome 
closely contorted. (T. XXXI, C.) 

SYN. Bryum humile, pills carens viride et pellucidum. DILL. Hist. muse. 356, t. 45, f. 15 

(1741), et Herbar. 
Bryum murale Var. ft, HUDS. Fl. angl. 406 (1762). 

Bryum cuneifolium DICKS. PI. crypt. Ill, 7 (1793). HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 45 e synon. 
(1795). HULL Br. fl. P. II, 256 (1799)- 

Tortula cuneifolia ROTH Tent. fl. germ, iii, P. I, 213 (1800). SM. Fl. brit. iii, 1257 (1804); 
Eng. Bot. t. 1510. TURN. Muse. hib. 51 p.p. (1804). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 31, t. 12 
(1818). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 723 (1821). HOOK. GREV. in BREWST. Ed. Journ. i, 
297 (1824). MONT, in Arch. Bot. i, 137 (1832). HOOK. Br. fl. ii, 46 (1833). MACK. 
Fl. hibern. P. 2, 26 (1836). DE NOT. in Mem. ac. Torin. xl, 296 (1838), Syllab. 174 
(1838), Muse. ital. I, 28, t. 10 (1862), Epil. bri. ital. 534 (1869). SPRUCE in Ann. mag. 
n. h. 2 ser. iii, 375 (1849). WILS. Bry. Brit. 128, t. 12 (1855). BERK. Handb. br. m. 
254 (1863). LINDB. de Tort. 237 (1864). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 65 (1873). 

Tortula spathulcefolia DE NOT. op. c. 297, et Syllab. 174. 

Barbula Dicksoniana SCHULTZ Recens. Barb, et Syntr, 224, t. 34, f. 33 (1823). HUEBEN. 

Muse. germ. 311 (1833). 
Barbula cuneifolia BRID. Bry. univ. i, 549 excl. syn. (1826). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. f. 

13 15, Mon. 31, t. 17 (1842). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 628 (1849). BERTOL. Fl. ital. 

crypt. 209. SCHIMP. Synops. 182 (1860), 2 ed. 198. HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest. 84(1873). 

LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 117 (1884). 
Desmatodon cuneifolius JURATZ. Laubm. oester.-ung. 133 (1882). 

Autoicous ; laxly caespitose or gregarious, bright green. Lower 
leaves remote broadly ovate, shortly acuminate, upper crowded in a 
patulous rosette, obovate-spathulate, smooth, soft, thin, often com- 
plicate-concave ; nerve thin, vanishing below apex or excurrent in a 
mucro or longer point, margin erect, more or less flexuose, cells at base 
elongated, very lax and pellucid, above roundish-quadrate, soft and 
diaphanous, with granular chlorophyl. Caps, on a long purple straight 
seta, erect oblong or subcylindric, regular or very slightly incurved, 
olive brown, ann. simple, persistent, lid length of caps., conic ; per. 
on a broadish basal membrane, reddish, much contorted. Male infl. 
near the female, gemmaceous, bracts broadly ovate, obtuse. 
HAB. Banks near the sea, and edge of ditches. Fr. 3 4. 

Devon and Cornwall, frequent. Scotland (Dickson). Yarmouth (Turner). Tunbridge 
wells (Forster). Hastings (Jenner, 1841) ! Shere (Dr. Capron, 1869) ! ! Grosty Hill, 
Halesowen (Bagnall, 1872)! Garth Ferry, Anglesea (Wilson)\\ Bantry (Miss 
Hutchins). Cork (Wilson). Howth (Orr). Littlehampton and Maresfield (Mitten). 
Torquay and Torpoint (Hooker). Plymouth (Holmes) ! ! Budleigh Salterton (Dickie). 

This moss belongs more especially to the Mediterranean area of 
distribution, and hence with us it occurs most frequently in the south of 

TORTULACE.E.] 214 [Tortula. 

Ireland, and on the coast of Devon, Cornwall and Dorset. It is remarkable 
for the soft texture of the leaves, which when old, lose their chlorophyl and 
become entirely diaphanous. Dickson's specimens were adulterated with 
T. muralis Var. y. and thus led to some confusion in early continental writers. 

9. TORTULA VAHLII (Schultz) Wils. 

Autoicous ; short, resembling T. muralis. Leaves oblong-cuneate, 
diaphanous, not revolute at margin, nerve excurrent in a green arista. 
Caps, cylindraceous, lid conico-rostellate, per. with a broad basal 
membrane. (T. XXXI, D.) 

SYN. Barbula Vahliana SCHULTZ Recens. Barb, et Syntr. 222, t. 34, f. 31 (1823). BRID. Bry. 

univ. i, 545 (1826). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. f. 13 15, Mon. 33, t. 18 (1842). C. MUELL. 

Synops. i, 626 (1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 183 (1860), 2 ed. 199 (1876). LESQ. JAMES 

Mosses N. Amer. 117 (1884). 
Tortula muralis a. HOOK. GREV. in BREWST. Edin. Journ. i, 292 p.p. (1824). ARNOTT 

in Mem. soc. d'hist. nat. Paris, ii, 285 p.p. (1825). 

Tortula extenuata DE NOT. in Mem. ac. Torin. xl, 299 (1838), et Syllab. 174. 
Tortula Vahliana WILS. Bry. Brit. 129 (1855). DE NOT. Muse. ital. I, 27, t. 9 (1862) ; 

Epil. bri. ital. 534 (1869). LINDB. de Tort. 237 (1864). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 65 (1873). 

Autoicous ; short, pale green, gregarious or csespitulose. Leaves 
densely crowded, erecto-patent and flaccid when moist, appressed or 
twisting when dry, papillose at back, lower small, ovate, mucronate, 
upper oblong-lingulate, channelled, subundulate, apex obtuse or some- 
what pointed, shortly piliformi-aristate with the excurrent nerve, margin 
more or less revolute ; cells at base hexagono-rectangular, hyaline, upper 
small, obtusely angular, a single row at margin larger, rounded, yellowish, 
with projecting papillae. Caps, on a pale purple seta, narrowly elongato- 
cylindric, slightly incurved, brown ; lid elongato-conical, one-third 
length of caps, pale red; annulus broad, compound ; per. contorted, 
orange, on a very short obscurely tessellated basal membrane. 

Male infl. on a short lateral branch, bracts ovate, concave, obtuse 
or hair pointed. 
HAB. Damp clay soil by roadsides and ditches ; rare. Fr. 4 5. 

Angmering, Sussex (Davies 1863) ! ! Between Mayford heath and Pirbright common, 
Woking (S/ieppard and Westell 1871) ! ! Cherryhinton, Cambridge (H. N. Dixon 
1882) ! ! 

Var (3. subflaccida Lindb, 

Plants smaller, dull green ; leaves more opaque, shorter, flaccid, with 
plane margins, the nerve only excurrent in a short mucro ; capsule and lid 

SYN. Tortula muralis y8. DRUMMOND Mss. 

T. oblongifolia WILS. Bry. brit. 129, t. 43. BERK. Handb. br. m. 254. 
Barbula oblongifolia SCHIMP. Coroll. 141 et Synops. 185. 
Tortula Vahlii Var. /?. subflaccida LINDB. op. c. 238 

TORTULACE.E.] 215 [Tortula. 

HAB. Moist banks. 

Near Dublin (Drummond 1829) ! Bray and Glasnevin, Dublin (Moore 1860) ! ! Near 
Blanchardstown (Orr 1867) ! 

This and the next throe species are closely allied in habit and form of 
leaf, but may each be easily recognized with a little care. T. Vahlii comes 
nearest to T. muralis, but is distinguished by its cylindraceous capsules, and 
absence of the strongly recurved margins to the leaves. 

The typical form, and also T. cuneifolia, vary considerably in the form of 
the leaf as well as in the extent of the nerve-point, and in this country it 
appears to prefer calcareous soil. 

10. TORTULA MARGIN AT A (Br. Sch.) Spruce. 

Dioicous ; short. Leaves linear-oblongate, cuspidate with the 
excurrent nerve, the margin with a thickened border of narrow cells. 
Caps, oblong, erect, lid conic acuminate, peristome closely contorted. 
(T. XXXI, E.) 

SYN. Bryum tegular e humile, pilosum et incanum, Var. non pilosa DILL. Hist. Muse. 356, t. 45, 

fig. 14, F, G. (1741) et Herbar. 
Tortula caspitosa HOOK. GREV. in BREWST. Ed. Jour, i, 296 (1824). DE NOT. in Mem. 

ac. Torin. xl, 298 (1838), et Syllab. 174 (1838). 
Barbula caspitosa BRUCH MSS. (non SCHWAEGR.) 
Barbula marginata BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 13 15, Mon. 33, t. 19 (1842). C. MUELL. 

Synops. i, 629 (1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 183 (1860), 2 ed. 199. MILDE Bry. siles. 114 

(1869). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 85 (1873). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 118 

Tortula marginata SPRUCE in HOOK. Lond. J. iv, 192 (1845), et in Ann. mag. n. h. 2 ser. 

iii, 375 ( J 849). WILS. Bry. brit. 131, t. 43 (1855). DE NOT. Muse. ital. I, 24, t. 7 

(1862), Epil. bri. ital. 532 (1869). BERK. Handb. br. m. 253 (1863). LINDB. de Tort. 

238 (1864). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 65 (1873). 

Desmatodon marginatus MITT. Journ. Linn. soc. i, Suppl. 38 (1859). JURATZ. Laubm. 
oesterr.-ung. 132 (1882). 

Tortula acuminata MITT. Journ. Linn. soc. Bot. xii, 167 (1869). 

Dioicous ; very short, densely gregarious. Leaves soft, pale green, 
erecto-patent, somewhat twisted when dry, sublingulate-oblong and 
narrowly subspathulate, apex obtuse or slightly acuminate, shortly 
piliformi-cuspidate with the yellow excurrent nerve ; concave, carinate 
towards apex, margin erect with a narrow border of a double layer 
of 2 3 series of narrowly rectang. pachydermous yellowish cells, upper 
cells minutely papillose, hexagono-quadrate, opake and indistinct, 
basal smooth, hexagono-rectangular. Caps, on a longish purple seta, 
leptodermous, ovate-oblong or subcylindric, brown ; lid pale red, conic 
elongated, oblique, half length of caps., annulus simple rather broad ; 
per. on a short pale basal membrane, light red. 

Male plants very small, simple ; infl. gemmaceous, bracts ovato- 
HAB, Sandstone walls and by roadsides ; not common. Fr. 4 5. 

TORTULACE.E.] 216 [Tortula. 

Norfolk (Eagle). Castle Howard and Coneysthorpe (Spruce 1843) ! Hurstpierpoint 
(Mitten 1847) ! Vale bridge, Sussex (Davics 1855) ! Hincksey and Great Tew, Oxon 
(Boswell 1861). Budleigh Salterton (Dickie). Ashley mill and Green lane, Bowdon 
(Hunt 1870) ! ! Kirkham Abbey (Hunt 1871) ! ! Shere, Surrey (C apron 1879) ! ! 
Tunbridge Wells (Jenner 1846)! Shanklin (Salwey 1857)! Appleton lane (Wilson 
1854) ! ! Pope's walk, Bath, <J (Mrs. Hopkins 1861) ! Button park, Warwick 
(Bagnall) ! ! Towton, Yorks. (West 1881) ! I 

Resembling T. muralis but more slender, the leaves with a scarcely 
revolute margin, thickened border and shorter points ; they vary in length 
and width. All the specimens I have examined have been certainly dioicous. 


Autoicous ; short, hoary when dry. Leaves oblongo-lanceolate, 
piliferous, scarcely revolute at margin. Caps, erect, elliptic ; lid conic ; 
peristome tubular at base for nearly half its length. (T. XXXI, F.) 

SYN. Tortula canescens MONTAGNE in Arch. Bot. i, 133, t. 4, fig. 3 (1832), et Sylloge crypt. 40 
(1856). DE NOT. in Mem. ac. Torin. xl, 300 (1838), Syllab. 175 (1838), Muse. ital. I, 
30, t. ii (1862), et Epil. bri. ital. 535 (1869). SPRUCE in Ann. mag. n. h. 2 ser. iii, 375 
(1849). WILS. Bry. brit. 130, t. 43 (1855). BERK. Handb. br. m. 253 (1863). LINDB. 
de Tort. 238 (1864). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 66 (1873). 

Barbula canescens BRUCH MSS. BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 13 15, Mon. 34, t. 19 (1842). 
RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, s. 3, no (1848). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 625 (1849). 
SCHIMP. Synops. 184 (1860), 2 ed. 201. BERTOL. Fl. ital. cr. 210 (1858). MILDE Bry. 
siles. 113 (1869). HUSN. Mouss. nord.-ouest. 85 (1873). 

Desmatodon canescens JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 133 (1882). 

Autoicous ; short, gregariously caespitose, bright green when moist, 
hoary when dry. Leaves patulous, oblong and oblong-ligulate, concave, 
obtuse at apex, very minutely papillose above, margin very slightly 
revolute, nerve excurrent in a long hair; cells at base pellucid, 
elongato-rectangular, the rest quadrate-hexagonal. Caps, on a shortish 
red seta, leptodermous, erect, elongato-elliptic, reddish brown, lid 
conic, elongated, half length of caps., annulus rather broad, breaking 
up ; per. with the basal membrane forming a pale red tessellated tube 
for nearly half its length, teeth red, contorted. 

Male infl. gemmiform, on a slender branch, bracts ovate-oblong. 
HAB. Channel coast, very rare. Fr. 5. 

On loose sandy earth, on face of chalk cliffs near the Lover's Seat, Hastings (Jenner 
1844) ! ! 

Quite a Mediterranean species and resembling T. muralis, but with 
broader leaves of laxer texture, slightly acuminate at points and the margins 
much less recurved ; it is readily distinguished from it by the tube of the 


Autoicous ; compactly tufted, bright green and hoary. Leaves 
spathulate-oblong, obtuse, the margin strongly revolute, nerve excurrent 
in a hyaline hair. Caps, oblongo-cylindric, lid conic rostellate ; 
peristome with a very narrow basal membrane. (T. XXXI, G.) 

TORTULACE^.] 217 [Tortilla. 

Svu.Muscus capillaceus minor, capitulis erectis vitlgatissimus RAY Synops. 2 ed. 28, n. 1. 

Muscus trichoides parvus, capitula creberrima oblonga erecta habitiora, per siccitatem 

atrorubentla proditcens Vernon. RAY op. c. 33, n. 30. 
Bryum minus, erectis minus falcatis capitulis, foliis latiusculis congestis in pilum 

canescentem desinentibus DILL, in RAY. Syn. 3 ed. 94 (1724). 
Bryum tegular e humile pilosum et incanum DILL. Hist. muse. 355, t. 45, f. 14 A E 

(1741), et Herbar. 
Bryum murale L. Sp. pi. ii, 1117 (1753). Fl. suec. 2 ed. 993 (1755)- HUDS. Fl. angl. 

406 (1762). WEISS Crypt. Goett. 192 (1770). Neck. Meth. muse. 197 (1771), Del. 

Gallo-belg. ii, 458. WITHER. Bot. arr. br. veg. ii, 673 (1776). LIGHTF. Fl. scot, ii, 

720 (1777)- WEBER Spic. fl. goett. 100 (1778). RELHAN Fl, cant. 403 (1785). HOFFM. 

Deutsch. fl. ii, 45 (1795). ABBOT Fl. bedf. 240 (1798). HULL Brit. fl. II, 256 (1799). 
Mnium murale SWARTZ Meth. muse. 27 (1781). 
Tortula muralis HEDVV. Fund. II, 92 (1782), Sp. muse. 123. SIBTH. Fl. oxon. 284 (1794). 

BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. I, 186, t. 3, f. 20 (1798), Sp. muse. I, 250 (1806). SWARTZ 

Muse. suec. 39 (1799). ROTH Fl. germ, iii, P. I, 203 (1800). ROEHL. Moosg. 

deutsch. 400 (1800). SMITH Fl. bnt. 1256 (1804) 5 Eng. Bot. t. 2033. TURN. 

Muse. hib. 50 (1804). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 92 (1805). SCHULTZ Fl. starg. 304 (1806). 

WAHLENB. Fl. carp. 238 (1814), Fl. upsal. 375 (1820). HOOK. TAYL. muse. brit. 30, 

t. 12 (1818). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. 2, 127 (1821), Br. fl. ii, 44 (1833). GRAY Nat. arr. 

br. pi. i, 722 (1821). MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 25 (1836). DE NOT. in Mem. ace. Torin. 

xl, 301 (1838), Syllab. 175 (1838), Muse. ital. I, 31, t. 12 (1862), Epil. bri. ital. 536 

(1869). WILS. Bry. br. 130, t. 12 (1855). BERK. Handb. br. m. 253, t. 22, f. 3 (1863). 

LINDB. de Tort. 239 (1864). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 66 (1873). 
Barbula muralis TIMM Fl. megap. 240 (1788). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 206 (1807). 

SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 732 (1811). VOIT Muse. herb. 55 (1812). ROEHL. Deutsch. 

fl. iii, 78 (1813). MART. Fl. cr. erl. 90 (1817). ZENK. DIETR. Muse, thuring. I, n. 13 

(1821). SCHULTZ Recens. 221, t. 34, f. 29 (1823). BRID. Bry. univ. i, 546 (1826). 

HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 313 (1833). BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 13 15, Mon. 35, t. 20 

(1842). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 109 (1848), C. MUELL. Synops. i, 625 

(1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 185 (1860), 2 ed. 201. MILDE Bry. siles. 113 (1869). LESQ. 

JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 119 (1884). 
Mollia muralis SCHRANK Bayer. Fl. ii, 456 (1789). 
Desmatodon muralis JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 134 (1882). 

Autoicous ; densely pulvinate or caespitant, yellowish or glaucous 
green and canescent, sparingly branched. Leaves when dry appressed 
and twisting, when moist patent, lower oblongo-lanceolate, upper elon- 
gate-ligulate, with the apex obtuse, unequally prolonged or subcordate, 
minutely papillose, the margin yellowish, strongly revolute ; nerve yellow, 
excurrent in a diaphanous hair; upper cells small, chlorophyllose, indis- 
tinct, basal rectangular, hyaline. Caps, on a purple or yellow seta, 
oblongo-subcylindric, pachydermous, regular, dark brown, annulus 
narrow, subpersistent ; calyptra large, pale brown, lid obliquely conico- 
rostellate ; peristome purple, closely convolute, on a very narrow basal 

Male infl. gemmaceous, on a short lateral branch, bracts ovate, 
obtuse, mucronate with the nerve. 

HAB. On walls, stones and rubbish ; very common. Fr. 4 5. 
Var. (3. rupestris (Schultz). 

Plants robust, taller, more branched ; leaves broader, oblong ; caps, 
cylindraceous, on a long seta. 

TORTULACE^;.] 218 [Tortilla. 

SYN. Barbiila muralis ft. rupcstris SCHULTZ Recens. 221, t. 34, f. 29 B. BRID. Bry. univ. i, 
548. SCHIMP. 1. c. 
Tortnla muralis g. nipestris WILS. 1. c. 

HAB. Wet, shady rocks and rotten trees, most frequent in limestone 

Var. y. sestiva (End.). 

Plants short in large flat tufts ; leaves longer, narrower, lineal, nerve 
ending in a mucro or very short hair ; caps, shorter on a shorter seta. 
SYN. Mollia tegular is SCHRANK Baiers. fl. ii, 457. 

Tortula muralis ft. astiva BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. I, 137. HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 30. 

Tortula cestiva P. BEAUV. Prodr. 91. 

Barbula cuncifolia WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 207. TURN. Muse. hib. p.p. 

Barbula cestiva SCHULTZ Recens. 223, 1.^34, f. 32. BRID. Bry. univ. i, 548. 

HAB. On sandstone and calcareous rocks ; rare. 

Henfield, Sussex (Borrer) ! Ashley Mill, Cheshire (Dr. Wood). 

One of our commonest mosses and also a most variable one in size of 
leaf, seta and capsule ; the obtuse leaves with strongly recurved margins and 
smooth white hair points are the most distinctive characters of the species. 
The hair points are longest when the plants grow in dry exposed localities, 
but this condition is hardly sufficient to constitute a distinct variety. 

13. TORTULA MUCRONATA (End.) Lindb. 

Dioicous ; tall, branched, deep green. Leaves elongato-lingulate, 
papillose on both sides, mucronate with the stout nerve, suddenly 
incrassate at margin. Caps, cylindraceous, lid with an oblique beak; 
teeth on a narrow basal membrane, clathrate at base. (T. XXXII, A.) 

SYN. Barbula mucronata BRID. Sp. muse. I, 268 (1806). 

Rhacomitrum flavipes BRID. Mant. 81 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 224 (1826). 
Desmatodon dichotonms BRID. Bry. univ. i, 823. 

Trichostomum flavipes STEUD. Nomencl. 421 (1824). DE NOT. Syll. 183 (1838). 
B. Brebissoni BRID. Bry. univ. i, 834 (1827). SCHIMP. Bry. eur. Suppl. fasc. 3 4(1866). 
Synops. 2 ed. 222 (1876). MILDE Bry. siles. 122 (1869). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest. 80 
Didymodon Cinclidotus DE NOT. in Mem. acad. Torin. xl, 325 (1838). 

Tortula Brebissoni FIOR.-MAZZ. Bry. rom. 2 ed. 9 (1841). DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 547 

Cinclidotus riparius Var. ft. terrcstris BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 16, p. n, t. 2 (1842). 
WILS. Bry. brit. 138, t. 44 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 195 (1860). BERK. Handb. br. m. 248 

Tortula cylindrica WILS. in Phytol. 1845, P- 282 - 

Cinclidotus flavipes DE NOT. MSS. 1861. 

Guembelia ripariaVzr. ft. terrestris C. MUELL. Synops. ii, 651 (1851). 

Barbula romana C. MUELL. in Bot. zeit. 1856, p. 419. 

Tortula mucronata LINDB. de Tort. 239 (1864). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 66 (1873). 

Desmatodon Brebissoni JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 136 (1882). 

TORTULACE^.] 219 [Tortnla. 

Dioicous ; laxly tufted, i 2 in. high, bright green above, dull 
green below, dirty fuscous at base, fastigiate branched, with red radicles 
and persistent nerves of decayed leaves at lower part. Leaves crowded 
and erecto-patent above, twisted when dry, elongato-lingulate, mucro- 
nate with the stout semi-terete nerve, concave, margin lightly recurved, 
suddenly iricrassate, except at the hyaline base, densely and minutely 
papillose above ; cells at base lax, hexagono-rectang. hyaline, median 
oblongo-hexag. chlorophyllose, apical minute, subpunctiform, rounded 
hexag. Perich. bracts with a thinner nerve, narrower, not recurved, 
the margin scarcely incrassate ; caps, on a stout yellow seta, lepto- 
dermous, erect, elongated, cylindraceous, slightly incurved, pale fuscous, 
calyptra large brownish, lid orange, conical with a blunt oblique beak, 
falling with the columella, annulus none; teeth on a narrow basal 
membrane, clathrato-conjoined at base, once twisted, orange red, 

Male plants intermixed with female, infl. terminal, gemmaceous, 
outer bracts ovato-lanc., inner broadly ovato-acuminate. 
HAB. At roots of old trees by rivers, not common. Fr. 5. 

Near the Mole at Beeching wood, Micklefram (Borrer) ! ! Llanffinnan, Anglesey (Wilson 
1828)! Stapleton, Bristol (Thwaites 1843) !! Hurstpierpoint (Mitten} \ Great Bard- 
field, Essex (Borrer 1844) ! Tyffry, Anglesey (Hunt 1858) ! Eggleston bridge, Tees- 
dale (Spruce 1845) ! Willenhall cemetery (Kirk 1863) ! Brighton (Davics 1868) ! ! 
Plymouth (Holmes 1868) ! ! Banks of the Alne, Wootton (BagnalL 1873) ! ! Sherborne, 
and by the Monnow and Wye, Monmouth (Boswell 1877) ! ! Menmuir and Caterthun, 
Forfar (Anderson). Kinnordy (Fcrgusson). Houghton, Northampton (Dixon) \ \ 
Glanvilles Wootton, Dorset (Rev. H. Wood 1880) ! ! 

Although long united to Cinclidotus riparius, that moss differs from the 
present by its cladocarpous fruit, its lurid blackish colour, the leaves straight 
and appressed when dry, with plane margins and more slender nerve lost in 
the apex, the basal cells quadrate, incrassate, the upper rounded, 4 6 angled 
and quite smooth. 

Neat specimens of this moss are difficult to meet with, as its close 
vicinity to streams renders it liable to receive deposits of mud, and the soft 
lamina? of the leaves are easily abraded. 

Sect. 2. ZYGOTRICHIA (End.}. Stems short ; leaves spathulate, 
green, pointed with the excurrent nerve. Peristome combined at lower part 
into a long tube, spirally tessellated. 


Autoicous ; leaves spathulate-oblong, rosaceous, entire, with a 
yellowish border, nerve excurrent in a mucro. Caps, very long, 
cylindric, slightly curved, the tube of per. obliquely tessellated. 
(T. XXXIL, B.) 

SYN. Muscus trichoides minor, capitulis longissimis Doody. RAY. Syn. Stirp. br. 243 (1690). 
Muscus capillaris corniculis longissimis incurvis RAY Syn. 2 ed. 29 (1696). 

TORTULACE^E.] 22O [Tortilla. 

Bryunt erectis longis et acutis falcatis capitulis, calyptra subfusca, foliis serpylli pellncidis 

DILL. Cat. Giss. 223 (1719), et in RAY. Syn. 3 ed. 92 (1724). 

Bryum capsulis longis subulatis DILL. Hist. muse. 350. t. 45, fig. 10 (1741), et Herbar. 
Bryum subulatum L. Sp. pi. ii, 1116 (1753), Syst. Nat. ii, 701. HUDS. Fl. angl. 405 

(1762). WEISS Crypt, goett. 187 (1770). NECK. Meth. muse. 194 (1771). WITH. Bot. 

arr. br. veg. ii, 672 (1776). LIGHTF. Fl. scot, ii, 719 (1777). WEB. Fl. goett. 99 (1778). 

CURT. Fl. Lond. fasc. 3,t. 66 (1778). RELH. Fl. cant. 402 (1785). HOFFM. Deutsch. 

fl. ii, 46 (1795). ABBOT. Fl. bedf. 242 (1798). HULL Br. fl. P. 2, 263 (1799). Fl. Dan. 

t. 1000, f. 2. 

Mnium subulatum Sw. Meth. muse. 28 (1781). 
Tortula subulata HEDW. Fund, ii, 92 (1782), Sp. muse. 122, t. 37 (1801). ROTH Fl. 

germ, i, 461 (1788). TIMM Fl. meg. 220 (1788). SIBTH. Fl. oxon. 284 (1794). BRID. 

Muse. rec. II, P. I, 184 (1798). SWARTZ Muse. suec. 39 (1799). ROEHL. Moosg. 

deutsch. 384 (1800), Deutsch. fl. iii, 77 (1813). SM. Fl. brit. iii, 1255 (1804), Eng. Bot. 

t. noi. TURN. Muse. hib. 44 (1804). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 135, t. 34 (1811). 

WAHLENB. Fl. lapp. 316 (1812), Fl. carp. 337 (1814). HOOK. TAYL. muse. br. 31, t. 12 
(1818). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 723 (1821). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. 2, 127 (1821), 
Br. fl. ii, 45 (1833). MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 26 (1836). DE NOT. in Mem. ace. Torin. xl, 

293, et Syllab. 173 (1838), Muse. ital. I, 46, t. 21 (1862), Epil. bri. ital. 545 (1869). 

WILS. Bry. brit. 132, t. 12 (1855). BERK. Handb. br. m. 252 (1863). LINDB. de Tort. 

242 (1864). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 72 (1873). 

Mollia subulata SCHRANK Bayers. Fl. ii, 455 (1789), Fl. Salisb. n. 830 (1792). 
Barbula subulata P. BEAUV. Prodr. 43 (1805) et in Mem. Soc. Linn. Par. i, t. 6, f. 2 (1822). 

BRID. Sp. muse. I, 267 (1806). SCHULTZ Fl. starg. 305 (1806). BR. SCH. Bry. eur. 

fasc. 1315, Mon. 36, t. 21 (1842). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, no (1848). 

C. MUELL. Synops. i, 623 (1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 186 (1860), 2 ed. 223. MILDE Bry. 

siles. 125 (1869). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest. 86 (1873). LESQ. JAMES Mosses 

N. Amer. 130 (1884). 
Syntrichia subulata WEB. MOHR. Bot. Tasch. 214 (1807). VOIT Muse. herb. 53 (1812). 

MART. Fl. cr. erl. 87 (1817). BRID. Mant. 97 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 579 (1826). SCHULTZ 

Recens. 226, t. 34, f. i A (1823). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 335 (1833). 
Desmatodon subulatus JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 138 (1882). 

Autoicous ; laxly caespitose, robust, bright green, short, simple or 
branched. Leaves rosaceous, erecto-patulous, obovato- and spathulate- 
oblong, mucronate with the excurrent nerve, entire or obscurely serrate 
at apex, subundulate, with the margin plane and a yellow border of 
narrow pachydermous cells, more or less distinct or wanting ; cells at 
base lax, rectangular, hyaline, above opake, chlorophyllose, finely 
papillose. Calyptra large, brownish, caps, on a stout reddish seta 
twisted to the left, elongated, cylindraceous, subarcuate, brown, 
pachydermous, lid narrowly conic, annulus of a double series of cells ; 
tube of per. very long, pale red, obliquely quadrately tessellated, teeth 

Male infl. gemmiform, on a short lateral branch, bracts ovato-lanc., 
the nerve vanishing. 

HAB. Sandy banks by roadsides and hedges ; common. Fr. 5 6. 
Var. ft. subinermis (Br. Sch.). 

Dull green ; leaves dense, oblong and ovato-lanceolate, mucronate, 
indistinctly bordered ; caps, shorter on a shorter pedicel. 

SYN. Barbula subulata Var. subinermis BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. Mon. 37. 
Tortula subulata Var. /?. subinermis WILS. Bry. brit. 132. 

TORTULACEAC.] 221 [Tortilla. 

HAB. Shady places and on stumps of trees. 

Thelwall, Warrington (Wilson 1843) ! Largo, Fife (Howie 1873) ! ! New Forest 
(Lycll). Dailly, Ayrshire (Schimpcr). 

T. subulata is easily recognized by its broad pale green leaves and long 
capsules, but varies considerably in the marginal cells of the leaves. T. 
mucronifolia SCHWAEG. has not been recorded as British, but appears to be only 
a variety of subulata with a shorter capsule and smooth leaves. T. inermis 
MONT, is a closely allied species, with oblong obtuse muticous leaves, strongly 
revolute at the margin, and more minutely areolate ; it should be sought for 
in the S.W. of England, as it is found in France and Portugal. 


Autoicous ; resembling T. subulata, but more slender. Leaves 
lanceolate, acute, with a narrow thickened border, obtusely serrate 
above. Caps, cylindric, narrow, subarcuate. (T. XXXII, C.) 

SYK.Tortnla angustata WILS. MSS. LINDB. de Tort. 243 (1864), et Muse. Scand. 20 (1879). 
Barbula subulata Var. 8. angustata SCHIMP. Syn. 2 ed. 224 (1876). 
Desmatodon subulatus Var. y3. augtistatus JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 138. 

Autoicous ; resembling T. subulata, but more slender. Leaves 
narrowly ovato-lanceolate, tapering into a very acute point, erecto- 
patent when moist, erect and less twisted when dry, subserrated 
toward apex, margin incrassate, of very long narrow hyaline smooth 
cells. Calyptra more glossy ; seta longer and more slender, twisted to 
the right below, to the left above ; caps, paler, suberect, long, narrowly 
cylindric, per. paler, tubular for three-fourths its length, lid longer and 
more acute. 
HAB. Moorland banks, rare. Fr. 3 4. 

Castle mill, Ringway, Cheshire (Wilson 1833) ! Clifton Scope, York (Spruce 1843) ! ! 

Although generally regarded as a variety of subulata, this moss has all 
the appearance of a distinct species, and this view the characters and figures 
here given will we think sufficiently confirm. 

Sect. 3. SYNTRICHIA (End.). Stems tall, branched ; leaves large, 
oblong, obtuse, the nerve usually piliformi-aristate. Peristome tubular 
below, striato-tessellate. 


Dioicous ; caespitose, dark dull green. Leaves spathulate-ovate, 
obtuse, emarginate, nerved to apex. Caps, cylindraceous, annulus 
simple, peristome tubular in lower third part. (T. XXXII, D.) 

S\x. Syntrichia lavipila Var. /?. mutica SCHULTZ Recens. Barb, et Syntr. 230, t. 34, .46 
(1823). BRID. Bry. univ. i, 836 (1827). 

Syntrichia latifolia BRUCH Flora vii, P. 2, p. 761 (1824). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 342 
(1833). AHNF. in FRIES Fl. scand. 240 (1835). JURATZ. Laubm. oest.-ung. 142 (1882). 

TORTULACE^E.] 222 [Tortula. 

Tortula ruralis Var. /?. latifolia ARN. in Mem. Soc. d'Hist. nat. Paris ii, 286 (1825). 
Syntrichia ruralis Var. y. latifolia SPRENG. in L. Syst. veg. 16 ed. iv, P. I, 177 (1827). 
Tortula latifolia HARTM. Skand. fl. 2 ed. 322 (1832). SPRUCE in Ann. mag. nat. hist. 

2 ser. iii, 376 (1849). WILS. Bry. br. 133, t. 43 (1855). BERK. Handb. br. rn. 251 

(1863). LINDB. de Tort. 243 (1864). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 72 (1873). 
Barbula latifolia Br. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 1315, p. 41, t. 24 (1842). RABENH. 

Deutsch kr. fl. ii, 8.3, in (1848). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 632 (1849). JENS. Bry. 

dan. no, t. 6, f. 30 a c (1856). SCHIMP. Synops. 190 (1860), 2 ed. 227. MILDE Bry. 

siles. 128 (1869). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 2 ed. 77 (1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. 

Amer. 130 (1884). 
Tortula mutica LINDB. Muse. Scand. 20 (1879). 

Dioicous; irregularly csespitose, sparingly branched. Dark dirty 
green. Lower leaves remote, obovate-oblong, upper crowded in a 
patulous rosette, larger, soft, erecto-patent, spathulate-lingulate, obtuse, 
emarginate at apex, when dry complicate and twisted ; margin slightly 
recurved in lower half; nerve stout, vanishing at apex, or slightly 
excurrent, rough at back of apex ; cells at base very lax, hexagono- 
rectangular, pellucid, above minute, obscure, roundish-hexagonal, very 
finely papillose. Inner perich. bracts more complicate and oblong. 
Caps, on a short stout reddish seta, castaneous, erect, oblongo-cylindric, 
slightly curved ; annulus narrow of 3 rows of cells, lid paler, ^ length 
of caps, subobliquely subulate ; per. pale red, tubular in lower third. 
Male infl. unknown. 

HAB. Tree trunks and rotten wood at edge of streams, liable to be over- 
flowed ; not common. Fr. 5. 

Henfield, Sussex (Borrer 1844). Hurstpierpoint c. fr. (Mitten) \ Suffolk (Eagle 1851). 

Near York c. fr. (Spruce 1843) ! Glasgow (Drummond). Bristol (Thwaites) \ 

Warrington (Wilson) \ Buckingham c. fr. (Holmes 1874) ! ! Glasnevin (Moore). 

Lagan, Drumcro, Co. Down (Rev. C. H. Waddell) ! ! Ascott under Wychwood 
Buswell). Codbeck, Sowerby c. fr. (Baker, 1855) ! By the Adur, Shermanbury 
Borrer 1844) ! Jedburgh (Jerdon). Bowdon (Hunt 1865) ! ! By the Cherwell, Islip 
Boswell 1859) ! ! Kingsthorpe, Northampton c. fr. (Dixon 1884) ! ! Oswestry 

(Cash 1882) ! Drum Bridge, Antrim (Stewart 1878) ! ! Shere (Capron) ! ! 

Readily known by its lurid green colour, and broad epilose leaves, 
narrowing towards the base. Mr. WaddelFs specimen has minute globular 
gonidia scattered over the upper surface of the leaf, not unlike those of 
T. papillosa. The specific name latifolia is preoccupied by the union of 
Desmatodon with this genus. 


Dioicous ; short, tufted, dull green. Leaves obovate, concave, 
shortly hair-pointed ; nerve gemmiparous on the upper half. Caps, 
short, erect, cylindric. (T. XXXII, E.) 

SYN. Tortula ruralis var. HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 2 ed. 56 (1827). 

Tortula papillosa WILS. MSS. SPRUCE in HOOK. Lond. J. iv, 193 (1845), et Ann. mag. 
n. h. 2 ser. iii, 376 (1849). WILS. Bry. brit. 135, t. 44 (1855). MITT, in HOOK. J. viii, 
259 (1856), in Fl. Tasm. ii, 176 (1858), et Journ. Lin. soc. xii, 174 (1869). LINDB. in 
HARTM. Sk. fl. 8 ed. 391 (1861), de Tort. 244 (1864). BERK. Handb. br. m. 250 (1863). 
DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 543 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br.. m. 71 (1873). 

TORTULACE^E.] 223 [Tortula. 

Tortula rotundifolia HARTM. Skand. fl. 5 ed. 381 (1849). C. MUELL. Synops. ii, 
632 (1851). 

Barbula papillosa C. MUELL. Synops. i, 598 (1849). MILDE Bry. siles. 127 (1869). 

HUSN. Mouss. nord.-ouest. 80 (1873). SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 231 (1876). LESQ. JAMES 

Mosses N. Amer. 133 (1884). 

Barbula rotundifolia JENS. Bry. dan. no, t. 6, f. 30 f. g. (1856). 
Syntrichia papillosa JURATZ. Laubm. oester.-ung. 141 (1882). 

Dioicous ; short, tufted, dull olive green or brown, slightly 
branched, fastigiate. Leaves erecto-patent, soft, lower obovate, upper 
obovate-spathulate, panduriform, very concave and subcochleariform, 
very slightly acuminate at apex, or rounded or obcordate ; margin 
strongly involute ; nerve thick and spongy, rufescent, excurrent in a 
mucro, or short smooth hair, with long papillae at the back ; and in 
front at the upper end in the younger leaves bearing chlorophyllose 
subglobose 2-4-celled gonidia, the wings papillose at back ; cells above, 
rounded hexagons, at base lax, quadrate or hexagono-rectangular, 
hyaline. Caps, erect short, on a short seta, cylindraceous, rufescent, 
lid conico-subulate, oblique ; per. pale, half length of caps, its lower 
third tubular. 
HAD. Trunks of tree, not uncommon but always sterile. 

Rumsey churchyard, Hants. (Lyell 1818). Marl, Conway (Wilson 1844) ' ' Near York 
(Spruce) \ Hurstpierpoint (Mitten). Castle Howard (Spruce 1844) ' Newtimber 
(Davies 1857) ! ! Dailly, Ayr (Shaw 1861) ! Isle of Man (Holt 1881) ! ! Levens 
(Barnes 1868) ! Witney (Westell). Silverdale, Lane. (Now ell) ! Stone walls at 
Perth. Killin (Hunt 1866) ! Noran, Forfar (Anderson 1868) ! Dublin, Powers,court 
and Belfast (Moore). Watford (Holmes) ! ! 

The fruit of this moss has only been tound at Sealer's Cove, Australia, 
by Baron Mueller, and Canterbury, New Zealand, by Sinclair and Haast. 
The gemma? are very easily detached, and must be looked for on the upper- 
most leaves. 

18. TOBTULA LAEVIPILA (Brid.) Schwaegr. 

Autoicous ; in lax deep green tufts. Leaves spathulate-oblong, 
obtuse, nerve reddish, excurrent in a white smooth reflexed hair. 
Caps, subcylindric, curved ; per. contorted, tubular in lower third. 
(T. XXXII, F.) 

SYN. Syntrichia Iwvipila BRID. Mant. muse. 98 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 586 (1826). SCHULTZ 

Rec. Barb, et Syntr. 230, t. 34, f. 4 (1823). WALLR. Fl. cr. germ, i, 193 (1831). 

HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 340 (1833). AHNF. in FRIES Fl. scand. 240 (1835). JURATZ. 

Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 140 (1882). 
Tortula Icnvipila SCHWAEG. Supp. II, P. I, 66, t. 120 (1823). SPRUCE Ann. mag. n. h. 

2 ser. iii, 376 (1849), HARTM. Skand. fl. 58 edd. p.p. WILS. Bry. Brit. 133, t. 43 

(1855). BERK. Handb. br. m. 252 (1863). LINDB. de Tort. 245 (1864). HOBK. Syn. br. 

m. 71 (1873). 
Tortula ruralis (3. Icevipila HOOK. GREV. in Ed. J. sc. 5, 293 (1824). HARTM. Skand. Fl. 

34 edd. ARM. in mem. soc. d'hist. nat. ii, 286 (1825). HOOK. Br. fl. ii, 45 (1833). 
Barbula Icevipila BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 1315, p. 4, t. 25 (1842). RABENH. 

Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, s. 3, in (1848). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 638 (1849). JENS. Bry. dan. 

109 (1856). SCHIMP. Synops. 189 (1860), 2 ed. 226. MILDE Bry. siles. 127 (1869). 

HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 86 (1873). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 132 (1884). 

TORTULACE.E.] 224 [Tortula. 

Autoicous ; in wide lax deep green tufts I in. high, subpulvinate, 
with dense rufous tomentum, dichotomously branched. Leaves patent, 
more or less recurved above, oblong or obovate-spathulate, the apex 
rounded and emarginate, not bordered, or with a yellowish border of 
rounded-hexag. pachydermous cells; nerve rufous, excurrent in a 
smooth or slightly denticulate, reflexed hyaline arista ; basal cells lax, 
hexagonal, pellucid, upper minute, opake, finely papillose, margin plane 
above, slightly recurved below ; perich. bracts more acuminate. 
Caps, on a stout purple seta, oblong or cylindraceous, slightly curved, 
pachydermous, deep brown, ann. double, lid paler, elongate conic, per. 
pale red, contorted, tubular in the lower third. 

Male infl. axillar, sessile on a short branch, gemmiform, bracts 

HAB. Trunks of trees and rails, not uncommon ; sometimes on rocks. 
Fr. 56. 

In appearance intermediate between the T. ruralis and T. mumlis var. /?., 
from the former it is known by the smooth arista, brighter green colour and 
larger areolation, from the latter by the tubular peristome. 

T. loevipiliformis DE NOT. is a variety with the leaf distinctly bordered ; 
Barbula pagorum MILDE, a smaller obtuse leaved form, bearing numerous 
oblong, pointed gemmae in the axils of the leaves. 

19. TORTULA MONTANA (Nees) Lindb. 

Dioicous ; densely pulvinate, dull green. Leaves erecto-patent, 
oblongo-spathulate, plane, obtuse, with a rough arista, densely areo- 
late. Caps, subcylindric, tube of per. short. (T. XXXIII, A.) 

SYN. Syntrichia montana NEES Flora ii, P. I, 301 (1819). 

Syntrichia intermedia BRID. Bry. univ. i, 586 (1826). JURATZ. Laubm. oester.-ung. 144 

Tortula ruralis g. crinita DE NOT. in Mem. ac. Torin. xl, 291 (1838), Syllab. 171 (1838), 

Muse. ital. I, 36, t. 15 (1862). 
Barbula ruralis ft. rupestris BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 1315, p. 43 (1842). C. MUELL. 

Synops. i, 640 (1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 192 (1860). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 87 

( l8 73)- 

Tortula ruralis (3. minor WILS. Bry. brit. 134 (1855) ; et Var. rupestris WILS. in Suppl. 
Tortula intermedia BERK. Handb. br. m. 251 (1863). LINDB. de Tort. 246 (1864). DE NOT. 

Epil. bri. ital. 540 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 71 (1873). 

Barbula intermedia MILDE Bry. siles. 129 (1869). SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 229 (1876). 
Tortula montana LINDB. Muse, scand. 20 (1879). 

Dioicous; densely casspitose, dull green and canescent above, 
fuscous below; stems short, dichotomous, fastigiate. Leaves crowded, 
erecto-patent, a little recurved at apex, appressed and scarce curved 
when dry, oblongo-spathulate, rounded or emarginate at apex, concave 

TORTULACE.E.] 225 [Tortula. 

or nearly plane, margin lightly recurved up to middle, very minutely 
crenulate, with a broad yellowish border and no plaits ; upper cells 
very obscure, verruculose, only half the size of those of T. ruralis, basal 
rectangular, diaphanous ; nerve stronger, rufous, prolonged into a hair 
less rough than that of T. ruralis. Caps, shorter on a shorter seta ; peris- 
tome and its tube shorter, less distinctly tessellated, paler, with only a 
single spiral. Male plant more slender, inner bracts roundish-ovate, 
concave, nerve vanishing. 

HAB. Sunny limestone rocks and walls ; not uncommon. Fr. 4 5. 

Near Conway, Aber and Malham (Wilson) ! ! Stenton rocks, Dunkeld (Dr. B. White 
1865) ! Bridge of Lochay (Hunt 1866) ! ! Thornton Gill, Ingleton and Bolton bridge 
(Hunt 1867) ! ! Witney, Oxon (Boswell 1878) ! ! Levens and Syergh Fell (Barnes 
1868) ! Millersdale, Bakewell and Chapel-en-le.Frith (Holt 1882) ! ! Angmering 
(Davies 1863) ! ! Dunsinko, Dublin (Orr 1857) ' Castle Taylor, Galway (Moore). 
Port Greenock, I. of Man (Holt 1881) ! ! 

Readily distinguished from T. ruralis by the direction of the leaves and 
smaller areolation, as well as by the short and dense tufts. 


Dioicous ; tall, loosely matted. Leaves from an erect base, squar- 
roso-recurved, carinate, oblong, obtuse, with a long spinulose arista. 
Caps, cylmdraceous, peristome very long, with a long tube. 
(T. XXXIII, B.) 

SYN. Muscus capillaris tectorum, densis cespitibus nascens, capitulis oblongis, foliis in pilum 
longum dcsinentibus RAY Synops. st. br. 2 ed. 28 (1696), Hist. pi. iii, 34 (1704). 

Bryum erectis falcatis capitulis, trichodcs, foliis latiusculis extantibiis, in pilum canescentem 

desinentibus DILL. Cat. Giss. 224, t. 2 A E (1719), in RAY Syn. 3 ed. 94 (1724). 
Bryum caule crecto, foliis re/lexis seta tcrminatis, capitulis falcatis L. Fl. lapp. 315 (1737). 
Bryant rurale unguiculatum hirsutum elatius et ramosius DILL. Hist. muse. 352, t. 45, 

f. 12 A C (1741), et Herb. 
Bryum rurale L. Sp. pi. 1116 (1753), Syst. nat. ii, 701. Huns. Fl. angl. 405 (1762). 

NECK. Meth. muse. 225 (1771). WITH. Bot. arr. br. veg. ii, 672 (1776). LIGHTF. Fl. 

scot, ii, 720 (1777). RELH. Fl. cant. 403 (1785). HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 45 (1795). 

ABBOT Fl. bedf. 790 (1798). HULL Br. fl. II, 265 (1799). 
Hypnum rurale WEISS Cr. goett. 210 (1770). WEBER Fl. goett. 73 (1778). 
M nium rurale SWARTZ Meth. 27 (1781). 
Barbula ruralis HEDW. Fund. II, 92 (1782), Sp. muse. 121 (1801). ROTH. Fl. germ, i, 461 

(1788). TIMM Fl. meg. n. 793 (1788). BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. I, 195 (1798), Sp. 

muse. I, 258 (1806). ROEHL. Moosg. deutsch. 410 (1800). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 43 (1805). 

SCHULTZ Fl. Starg. 304 (1806). WAHLENB. Fl. lapp. 318 (1812). BR. SCH. Bry. eur. 

fasc. 13 15, p. 42, t. 27 (1842). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 112 (1848). C. 

MUELL. Synops. i, 639 (1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 191 (1860), 2 ed. 229. MILDE Bry. 

siles. 128 (1869). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 86 (1873). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 

132 (1884). 

Mollia ruralis SCHRANK Bayers, fl. ii, 456 (1789). Fl. Salisb. n. 831 (1792). 
Tortula ruralis EHRH. Beitr. vii, 100 (1792). SWARTZ Muse. suec. 39 (1799). SMITH Fl. 

brit. 1254 (1804), Eng. Bot. t. 2070. TURN. Muse. hib. 50 (1804). SCHWAEG. Suppl. 

I, P. I, 137, t. 35 (i8ii). ROEHL. Deutsch. fl. iii, 78 (1813). WAHLENB. Fl. carp. 338 

(1814), Fl. upsal. 375 (1820). HOOK. TAYL. 31, t. 12 (1818). GRAY Nat. arr. 

br. pi. i, 723 (1821). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. 2, 127 (1821), Br. fl. ii, 45 (1833). MACK. Fl. 

TORTULACE^E.] 226 [Tortuld. 

hib. P. 2, 26 (1836). DE NOT. in Mem. ac. Torin. xl, 290 (1838), Syllab. 171 (1838), 
Muse. ital. I, 35, t. 14 (1862), Epil. bri. ital. 538 (1869). WILS. Bry. brit. 134, t. 12 
(1855). BERK. Handb. br. m. 250, t. 22, f. 4 (1863). LINDB. de Tort. 246 (1864). 
HOBK. Syn. br. m. 71 (1873). 

Syntrichia ruralis BRID. in Schrad. Journ. iii, P. 2, p. 299 (1801), Mant. 98 (1819), Bry. 
univ. i, 584 (1826). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 215 (1807). VOIT Muse. herb. 52 (1812). 
Mart. Fl. cr. erl. 88 (1817). SCHULTZ Recens. 229, t. 34, f. 3 (1823). HUEBEN. Muse, 
germ. 338 (1833). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 143 (1882). 

Dioicous ; in loose tall expanded tufts, ferruginous below, deep 
green and hoary above, dichotomously branched. Leaves remote, 
crowded at apex, carinate, from a long erect subvaginant base, recurvo- 
squarrose from the middle, appressed and twisted when dry, oblong, 
elongated, apex rounded or emarginate, margin revolute almost to 
apex ; nerve red, excurrent in a flexuose hoary spinulose arista ; cells at 
base rectangular, hyaline, above soft, hexagonal, coarsely papillose. 
Seta long, purple at base, yellowish above, calyptra large, fuscescent ; 
caps, erect, elongated, cylindraceous, a little curved, brown, pachyder- 
mous ; annulus double, lid red, suboblique, elongate-conic ; per. very 
long, the lower half tubular, pale, spirally tessellated, teeth purple, 

Male plant more slender. Infl. terminal, gemmaceous, inner bracts 
ovate, nerved, submuticous. 

HAB. On old thatched roofs, sandy banks and walls ; rarely on trunks of 
trees, common. Fr. 4 5. 

Var. /3. arenicola Braithw. 

Plants taller, more slender, yellow-green. Leaves more distant, longer, 
of thinner texture, becoming narrowed toward the apex, the point shortly 
acuminate in a scarious membrane, prolonged on the arista and sometimes 
denticulate at the margin. 

SYN. Barbtda ruraliformls BESCH. in Musci Gall. n. 457. HUSNOT Mouss. nord-ouest 
2 ed. 79. 

HAB. Sandy ground near the coast. 

St. Andrew's Links (Braithwaite 1865) ! ! Southport (Holt 1879) ! ! Cromer (H. N. 
Dixon 1884) ! ! 

The recurved leaves with revolute margins best distinguish this species, 
and Lindberg also describes as peculiar to it two longitudinal plaits, just 
within the margin of the leaf. Barbula pulvinata JURATZ. is intermediate 
between montana and mralis, though the structure of the leaf agrees better 
with the latter, of which it must probably be regarded as a variety. 

Tortula norvegica (WEB. 1804). Bavbula aciphylla BRUCH SCHIMP. 1842, is 
a close ally of ruralis resembling our Var. ft. but has a green nerve running 
out into a reddish brown rigid arista only faintly spinulose. It is confined to 
mountain regions, but may turn up here as it reaches to the Dovrefjeld and 

TORTULACE.E.] 227 \Pleurodicete. 


Synoicous ; tall, rufescent. Leaves patent, broadly oblong-ovate, 
obtuse, nerve excurrent in a slender spinulose arista. Caps, erect, 
cylindric ; peristome with a long tube. (T. XXXIII, C.) 

SYN. Tortula princeps DE NOT. in Mem. ac. Torin. xl, 288 (1838), Syllab. 170 (1838), Muse. 

ital. I, 33, t. 13 (1862), Epil. bri. ital. 537 (1869). LINDB. de Tortulis 247 (1864). 

HOBK. Syn. br. m. 70 (1873). 
Syntrichia Mueller i BRUCH MSS. 
Barbula Muelleri BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 1316, Mon. 44, t. 28 (1842). SCHIMP. 

Synops. 192 (1860), 2 ed. 232. HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 87 (1873). LESQ. JAMES 

Mosses N. Amer. 133 (1884). 

Barbula princeps C. MUELL. Synops. i, 636 (1849). 

Tortula Muelleri WILS. Bry. br. 134, t. 44 (1855). BERK. Handb. br. m. 250 (1863). 
Syntrichia princeps MITT. Journ. Lin. soc. i, Suppl. 39 (1859). JURATZ. Laubm. 

oesterr.-ung. 145 (1882). 

Synoicous and polygamous ; in tall lax ferruginous brown tufts. 
Stems repeatedly interrupted by innovations, dense-leaved, radiculose 
at base. Leaves imbricated patent, when dry appressed and complicate, 
rosulate at apex of innovations, broadly oblong-ovate, obtuse, concave, 
carinate in the middle, the margin subrevolute in the lower half; nerve 
rufous, excurrent in a slender hyaline faintly spinulose arista ; cells at 
base lax, pellucid, above quadrate, not opake, soft, papilloso-scabrous. 
Caps, on a red flexuose seta, cylindraceous, arcuate, brown ; annulus of 
a double series of cells, lid elongato-conic ; per. pale, the lower half 
tubular, obscurely tessellated, teeth red. 

Male infl. mixed with the female or sometimes with female infl. also 
on the same plant. 
HAB. On rocks, walls and sometimes trunks of trees ; rare. Fr. 4 5. 

Menstrie glen, Ochils (Greville 1855). Blair Atholl (Miss Mcjnroy 1859) ! ! Craiglockart, 
near Edinburgh (Dr. B. White 1865) ! Ram rocks, Ben Wyvis (Howie 1864) ! On the 
Cruise, Brechin and Menmuir (Rev. M. Anderson 1869) ! Kirriemuir and Loch mill, 
Forfar (Rev. J. Fergusson 1866) ! ! Raith, Kirkcaldy, Fife, on weathered trap (Ewing 
1885) ! ! Deer park, Glenarm, Antrim and Benbulben, Sligo (.Moore). 

This fine moss is easily known by its interrupted stem, and dense soft 
broad rusty-coloured leaves ; its head quarters is the Mediterranean basin. 


Oefv. af kong. Vet. akad. foerh. xxi, 253 (1864). 

Perichaetia axillary, with the b r acts accrescent inward. Fruit on 
an elongated seta, resembling that of Tortula, lateral, peristome scarce 
twisted. Leaves with a vaginant hyaline base, stellato-comant, serrate. 
Inhabiting barren stony places, especially near the sea. Der. 
the side, x^rr) a seta. 

TORTULACE.E.; 1 228 [Mollitt. 


Dioicous ; laxly tufted. Leaves squarrose from a broad sheathing 
base, lanceolate, serrate at point. Setae lateral, caps, subcylindric. 
(T. XXXIII, D.) 

SYN. Barbula squarrosa BRID. Bry. univ. i, 833 (1827). BRUCH SCHIMP. Bry. eur. f. 31, 
Suppl. t. i (1846). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 601 (1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 180 (1860), 
2 ed. 221. BERTOL. Fl. ital. cr. 207 (1858). MILDE Bry. siles. 124 (1869). HUSN. 
mouss. nord-ouest 84 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 124 (1882). LESQ. JAMES 
Mosses N. Amer. 130 (1884). 

Tortilla squarrosa DE NOT. in Mem. ac. Torin. xl, 321 (1838), Syllab. 180 (1838), Muse, 
ital. I, 61, t. 31 (1862). SPRUCE in HOOK.' L. journ. iv, 193 (1845), et Ann. Mag. n. h. 
2 ser. iii, 377 (1849). WILS. Bry. brit. 126, t. 33 (1855). MITT. Journ. Lin. soc. i, 
Suppl. 27 (1859). BERK. Handb. br. m. 255 (1863). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 74 (1873). 

Pleurochate squarrosa LINDB. de Tort. 253 (1864). DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 560 (1869). 

Dioicous ; laxly and irregularly caespitose, tufts yellow-green above, 
fuscescent at base, fragile, not tomentose. Stem simple or dichoto- 
mous. Leaves comant at apex of stem, from a broad sheathing base, 
recurvo- and incurvo-squarrose, flaccid and cirrato-crispate when dry, 
elongate-lanceolate, subundulate at margin, serrate above, nerve thick, 
vanishing at apex or excurrent ; areolation minute, chlorophyllose and 
rectangular above and at mid base, very finely papillose, at sides of base 
thin lax and hyaline. Perichsetia numerous, lateral, the bracts shorter, 
semivaginant, reflexed : seta red below, yellowish above, calyptra very 
narrow, fugacious, caps, erect, cylindraceous, subarcuate, deep rufous, 
annulus narrow of a single series of cells, lid conico-subulate, per. pale 
purple, twice convolute, fugacious, teeth very slender, short-jointed, 
strongly papillose. 
HAB. Bare stony ground on the south coast and in chalky fields. Fr. 5 6. 

Beeding chalk-pit, Sussex (Borrer). Shoreham beach (Wilson 1837) ' ' Woolsonbury 
hill (Mitten). Between Brighton and Newhaven (Davics 1868) ! ! Tothill, Plymstock, 
St. Minver and Berryhead (Holmes) ! ! Minehead, Somerset (Boswell 1867) ! ! Holton, 
Oxford (Boswell) \ \ Portmarnock, Dublin (Taylor). Arklow, Wicklow (Moore). Win- 
chelsea (Holmes). Ballard down, Swanage (Holmes). Lathkill dale, Derbyshire 
(Whitchcad 1882) ! ! Holton stone pits, Oxford (Boswell) ! ! 

For the beautiful fertile specimen figured, I am indebted to my friend 
Mr. Boswell, in this country it is always sterile. There is something in the 
look of the plant very different from all our other species and approaching 
that of Leptodontium. 


Baiers. Fl. ii, 455 (1789). 

Plants dwarf or tall, caespitose or pulvinate, dichotomously 
branched. Leaves lanceolate, papillose, bright or dark green, usually 
crisped or contorted when dry, the areolation lax and hyaline at base, 
minute obscure and chlorophyllose above. Capsule in a few cases 

TORTULACE^E.1 22Q [Mollia. 

with an adherent lid, or gymnostomous, the mouth being sometimes 
closed by a membrane, or with a peristome consisting of a narrow 
basal membrane supporting 16 teeth, more or less developed, papillose, 
cleft to base into two equal or irregular legs, straight or occasionally 
contorted. Inhabiting the ground, walls or rocks. Der. after K. E. 
von Moll, Archbishop of Salzburg, author of " Naturhist. Briefe ueber 
Salzburg" (1785). 

The genus Mollia, founded by Schrank as an equivalent to Tortula or 
Barbula, may well be retained for this group, as Trichostomum was established 
by Hedwig in 1782, for the section of Grimmia named Rhacomitrium and some 
species of Ditrichum, and it was not until more than 20 years after this 
that any of the species now referred to Trichostomum were brought into it. 

Taken as a whole, we must look upon the genus Mollia as an eminently 
natural one, ascending from several little phascoid mosses, through a series 
of closely allied forms, to the taller species culminating in M. tortuosa, all 
marked by their narrow opake papillose leaves, curled or twisted when dry, 
and a peristome of one common type, presenting various stages of develop- 
ment. A little study of the species will soon convince the student that 
Systegium, Weissia, Gymnostomum, Didymodon, Hymenostomum, Eucladium, Gyro- 
weissia, Leptobarbula have no sound basis as genera, but may be readily 
distributed in the three sections adopted. 

Hymenostomum stands to Mollia almost exactly in the same relation as 
Pottia does to Tortula, and we see in the species it includes, only miniatures 
of the larger forms of the third section, and just as closely allied to each other 
as certain Pottias are. 

In Tovtella a very important character may be noticed in the relation of the 
two kinds of cells composing the leaf base, in some species the white thin 
elongated hyaline cells meet the small chlorophyllose cells at the same level 
from nerve to margin, in others at a certain height, the hyaline cells leave the 
nerve and ascend obliquely outward to the margin, so that the demarcation 
between the two is very distinct. 

Besides the continental species incidentally referred to in the text, 
the second edition of Schimper's Synopsis contains a number of others, 
both in this genus and the last, which it may be useful to enumerate, as atten- 
tion is thus drawn to them, though except Tortula cernna and inermis, it is not 
probable that any of them will be met with here. 

Under Tortula in the section Dcsmatodon, we find T. squamigera (Viv.), 
B. membranifolia SCHULTZ, T. crassinervis DE NOT., B. chloronotos B. & S. 
Guepini B. & S. anomala (B. & S.) barbuloides (BwnJfiexiseta (BRUcn.) 
systylia (B. & S.) latifolia (HEDW.) cernua (HUEBEN.), limbata (LiNDB.) 
obtusifolia SCHLEICH. D. flavicans (B. & S.),Solmsii SCHIMP. the last three 
near 7. marginata ; in Zygotrichia, T. Lauveri (SCHULTZ) and T. suberecta 
HOOK., D. obliquus B. & S. and in Syntrichia, T. alpina (B. & S.) 

Under Mollia in Sect. Hymenostomum, we have M. muralis (SPRUCE). 
crispata (NEES HORNSCH.), Wimmeri (SENDTN.), Welwitschii (ScniMP.), 
triumphans (DE NOT), Monspeliense (SCHIMP.) berica (Ds NOT.), meridionalis 
and Winteri (SCHIMP.) ; in Eucladium, M. reflexa (BRID.) near tenuis, Philiberti 

TORTULACE.E.] 230 [Mollia. 

(ScmMP.)pallidiseta (H. MUELL.), undata (ScniMP.), all near M.crispula, and 
cuspidata (ScniMP.), and Bambergeri (ScniMP.), near brachydontia ; in Tortella, 
M. humilis (HEDW.), B. caspitosa (SCHWAEG.) near flavo-virens, and inflexa 
(BRUCH), near inclinata. 

It is very probable that several of these, on careful examination, will 
not be able to hold their ground as species. 


Sect. i. HYMF.NOSTOMUM. Plants small, nearly simple; leaves linear or lanceolate; 
caps, with a persistent lid, or closed by an epiphragm, or gymnostomous, or with a peristome of 
16 small teeth. 

Capsules immersed, lid not falling off. 

Leaves lanceolate-subulate, with involute margins. crispa. 

Leaves lanceolate acute, with plane margins. 

Leaves recurved, perich. bracts long erect. multicapsularis. 

Leaves patent, perich. bracts shorter spreading. Mittenii. 

Capsule exserted, lid falling off. 
Leaves with plane margins. 

Capsule not elevated above perich. bracts. rostellata. 

Capsule elevated on a longer seta. 

Gymnostomous, leaves squarrose. squarrosa. 

Peristomate, leaves erecto-patent. rutilans. 

Leaves with involute margins. 

Gymnostomous, slightly branched, lax leaved. inicrostoma. 

repeatedly branched, dense leaved. tortilis. 

Peristomate, leaves linear-lanceolate. viridula. 

Sect. 2. EUCLADIUM. Plants larger, dichotomously branched ; leaves accrescent upward 
and comant, fragile, thick nerved ; peristome O, or of 16 slender papillose teeth. 
Nerve vanishing below apex. 

Stem short, leaves lingulate obtuse. 

Loosely matted, lid conical. tenuis. 

Densely pulvinate, lid rostrate. calcarea. 

Stem elongated, leaves linear-lanceolate, rather obtuse. ceruginosa. 

Nerve excurrent. 

Leaf with basal margin serrate. verticillata. 

Leaf with basal margin entire. 

Apex cucullate, boat shaped. crispula. 

flat, obtuse mucronate. litoralis. 

flat, acute acuminate. brachydonila. 

Sect. 3. TORTELLA. Plants robust, dense-leaved ; leaves long, cirrhato-crispate when 
dry, hyaline at base. Peristome of longer teeth, sometimes twisted. 

Basal hyaline cells not extending higher up the margin than at the nerve. 

Leaves long linear undulate, base equal, margin coarsely crenulate. tenuirostris. 
Leaves shorter lanceolate subulate, not undulate, base wider upward, 

margin entire. hibernica. 

Basal hyaline cells ascending higher at the margin. 

Apex of leaf obtuse, cucullate. flavo-mrens. 

Apex of leaf acute. 

Leaves short with short points. 

Leaves rigid, with reddish nerve, arcuato-incurved when dry. nitida. 
Leaves soft, with green nerve, cirrhato-crispate when dry. inclinata. 
Leaves long with lanceolate-subulate points. 

Leaves flexuose, flaccid, undulate. tortuosa. 

Leaves erect rigid, straight. fragilis. 

Sect. i. HYMENOSTOMUM (Brown). Plants small, simple or with 
a few innovations ; leaves linear or lanceolate. Capsule phascoid with a 
persistent lid, or exserted and gymnostomous with or without an epiphragm, 
or with a peristome of 16 more or less perfect lanceolate teeth. 

TORTULACE^.] 231 [Mollia. 

i. MOLLIA CRISPA (Hedw.) Lindb. 

Autoicous, csespitulose, branched at apex. Perich. bracts lanceo- 
late-subulate, carinate, with involute margins, crisped when dry. Caps, 
spherical, immersed, lid minute, persistent. (T. XXXIII, E.) 

SYN. Phascum crispum HEDW. Fund. muse. II, 85 (1782), Muse, frond, i, 25, t. 9 (1787). Sp. 
muse. 21 (1801). SCHRANK Bayer, fl, ii, 433 (1789). HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 20 (1795). 
BRID. muse. rec. II, P. I, 19 (1798), Sp. muse. I, 10, (1806), Mant. 9 (1819), Bry. univ. 
i, 46 (1826). ROTH Fl. germ, iii, P. I, in (1800). ROEHL. Moosg. deutsch. 34 (1800', 
Ann. Wett. ges. i, 139 (1809), Deutsch, fl. iii, 34 (1813). DICKS. PI. crypt, fasc. IV, 2 
(1801). SMITH Fl. brit. iii, 1151 (1804), Eng. Bot. t. 1680. TURN. Muse. hib. 2 (1804). 
P. BEAUV. Prodr. 82 (1805). SCHULTZ Fl. starg. 274 (1806). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 
64 et 477 (1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. kr. gew. P. II, 6, t. 2 (1810). SCHWAEG. suppl. 

1, P. I, i (1811). VOIT Muse. herb. 5 (1812). LA PYL. Journ. Bot. 1813, p. 281. 
MART. Fl. crypt, erl. 125 (1817). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 6, t. 5 (1818). CASSEB. Ann. 
Wett. ges. iv, 94 (1819). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. II, 121 (1821). Br. flora ii, 2 (1833). 
FUNCK Moostasch. i, t. i (1821). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 711 (1821). NEES HNSCH. 
Bry. germ, i, 57, t. 4, f. 13 (1823). HUEBEN, Muse. germ. 7 (1833). MACK. Fl. hib. P. 

2, 7 (1836). BR. Sen. Bry. eur. fasc. i, p. 13, t. 6 (1837). DE NOT. Syllab. 308 
(1838). R*BENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 81 (1848). C. MUELL. in Bot. zeit. 1847, p. 
98 ; Synops. I, 24 (1849). WILS. Bry. brit. 37, t. 5 (1855). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 
30 (1873). 

Astomum crispum HAMPE Bot. zeit. 1832. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 43, t i (1850). JAEG. 

Ber. st. Gall. nat. ges. 1869, p, 69. LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 51 (1884). 
Weissia crispa MITT. Ann. mag. n. h. 2 ser. viii, 316 (1851). LINDB. de Tort. 230 (1864). 

MILDE Bry. siles. 43 (1869). 
Weissia longifolia MITT. op. c. 317. 
Systegium crispum SCHIMP. Synops. 31 (1860). BERK. Handb. br. m. 296 (1863). DE 

NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 740 (1869). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 37 (1873), Muscol. gall. 4, t. 

i (1884). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 7 (1882). 
Simophyllum crispum LINDB. Rev. crit. ic. fl. dan. 38 (1871). 
Mollia crispa LINDB. Muse, scand. 22 (1879). 

Autoicous, gregarious or csespitulose, fastigiate, branched at top, 
dull green. Leaves cirrhoso-crispate when dry, erecto-patent when 
moist, cauline distant, lanceolate, short, upper densely comant, long 
lineal-lanceolate, densely and minutely papillose at back, margin 
involute, nerve strong, excurrent in a mucro, basal cells smooth, 
hyaline, elongate hexagonal, upper minute roundish quadrate, obscure. 
Caps, immersed, subglobose, fuscous, lid minute, conic, easily separable. 

Male infl. gemmiform, near the top of stem, bracts ovato-lancolate, 

HAB. By the edge of paths in woods and clay fields, especially in calcareous 
districts; not uncommon. Fr. 4 5. 

Frequent in Surrey and Sussex. Darlington (Backhouse). Beverley, Yorks. (Teesdale). 
Bedford (Abbot). Kilcullen bridge, Ireland (Brown). Plymouth (Holmes). 

Var. (3. aciculata (Mitt.) 

Plants more slender ; perich. bracts more attenuated, very acute, the 
margins erect, not involute. Caps, almost sessile and covered by the bracts, 
lid shorter. 

SYN. Weissia aciculata MITT. Ann. mag. n. h. 2 ser. viii, 318 (1851). 
HAB. Roadside at Hurstpierpoint (Mitten) ! 

232 [Mollia. 

In this little moss we have the first departure from the cleistocarpous 
state, where the operculum is organically united with the capsule wall, for 
although in M. crispa the lid does not fall off, a very slight lateral pressure 
when moist is sufficient to remove it. The large perich. bracts are charac- 
teristic of this and the next two species. 


Autoicous ; laxly tufted, tall, ascending. Leaves distant, spreading, 
recurved, lanceolate, with plane margins ; perich. long, slender, erect. 
Caps, roundish ovate, immersed, rostellate. (T. XXXIII, F.) 

SYN. Phascum sphcerocarpon ABBOT Fl. Bedf. 230 (1798). 
Phascum crispum SMITH Eng. Bot. t. 618 (1799). 
Phascum multicapsularc SMITH Fl. brit. iii, 1152 (1804). BRID. Sp. muse. I, 10 (1806), 

Mant. 10 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 48 (1826). LA PYL. Journ. Bot. 1813, p. 281. WILS. 

Bry. brit. 37, t. 37 (1855). 

Phascum crispum /8. multicapsulare HOOK. TAYL. Muse. Brit. 6 (1818). 

Astoinum multicapsulare SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 43, t. 3 (1850). JAEG. Ber. St. Gall. nat. 

gesells. 1869, p. 70. 
Weissia multicapsularis MITT, in Ann. mag. n. h. 2 ser. viii, 317 (1851). LINDB. de Tort. 

230 (1864). 

Weissia convolutacea MITT. MSS. (Perich. bracts convolute at base). 
Systegium multicapsularc SCHIMP. Synops. 33 (1860). BERK. Handb. br. m. 297 (1863). 

HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 38 (1873), Muse. gall. 5, t. i (1884). 

Autoicous ; laxly tufted or gregarious, dingy green. Stems J in. 
high, from a procunbent base, erect, simple or dichotomous, with 
flexuose, small leaved innovations. Stem-leaves distant, patulous, 
recurved from the middle, flexuose, flaccid, oblongo- and elongato- 
lanceolate, apiculate, margin plane, comal leaves and perich. bracts 
much longer, incurved and slightly crisped when dry, erect, lineal-lane, 
plane, channelled in the middle, lurid green, nerve dilated at base, 
semiterete above, vanishing in apex or slightly excurrent. Caps, 
immersed ovato-elliptic, lid subobliquely rostellate. Male infl. terminal 
on a branch, gemmiform. 
HAB. Clay fields and bare ground ; rare. Fr. 3. 

Clapham park wood and Ampthill, Bedford (Abbott 1798). Appleton, Cheshire (Wilson 
1836) ! ! Darlington (Backhouse}. Hurstpierpoint (Mitten) \ Railway bank at Ashley 
(Hunt 1870) ! Leckhampton hill, Chelmsford. Sutton park, Warwick (B agnail 1877) ! ! 

Differs from crispa by its size and dingy colour, the perich. bracts broader 
and longer, straight, lanceolate, less crisped when dry, more suddenly subulate 
from a dilated base ; occasionally two capsules are found in one perichaetium, 
but the specific name is certainly not an apt one. 

The plant has the shabby dirty look, often seen in Archidium. 

3. MOLLIA MITTENII (Br. Sch.) Braithw. 

Autoicous and polygamous, taller. Leaves broadly lane, recurved, 
more rigid, nerve vanishing at apex, perich. bracts lanceolate, shorter, 
divergent. Caps, ovate. (T. XXXIII, G.) 

TORTULACE^.J 233 [Mollia. 

SYN. Astomum Mittcnii BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 43, t. 2 (1850). JAEG. Ber. St. Gall. nat. 
gesells. 1869, p. 70. 

Hymenostomum sphcericarpon MITT, in lit. 

Weissia Mlttenii MITT. Ann. Mag. n. h. 2 ser. viii, 317 (1851). 

Phascum multicapsulare Var. ft. Mittenii WILS. Bry. brit. 37 (1855). 

Systegium Mittenii SCHIMP. Synops 32 (1860). BERK. Handb. br. m. 297 (1863). 

Autoicous and polygamous ; stem taller, flexuoso-erect, simple or 
branched, brownish. Leaves squarrose and recurved, rigid, broadly lane. 
the comal few lineal-lane, shorter, divergent, margin not involute, nerve 
thick, terete, fuscous, vanishing in the apex; perich. bracts lanceolate, 
thinner with a narrower nerve. Caps, emergent, on a longer pale pedicel, 
solitary, ovate, lid minute, conic rostellate. Male at base of fertile 
HAB. Clay banks at Hurstpierpoint, and in a stubble field at Little-ease 

(Mitten 1846) ! Fr. 3. 

This differs from M. multicapsulans by the shorter more rigid leaves, 
scarcely curling, the perich. bracts fewer, shorter, patent from the middle, 
broader and thinner, the shorter caps, with larger spores. The force of Mr. 
Wilson's reasoning that this is a var. of M. multicapsulans, because the 
following year that species only was found, is not apparent. 

4. MOLLIA EOSTELLATA (Brid.) Lindb. 

Autoicous ; in small tufts. Leaves linear-lane, spreading, crisp when 
dry, mucronate with the excurrent nerve, margin plane. Caps, elliptic, 
rostellate, scarcely exserted. (T. XXXIV, A.) 

SYN. Phascum rostellatum BRID. Mant. n (1819), Bry. univ. i, 46 (1826). NEES HORNSCH. 
Bry. germ, i, 59, t. 6, f. 14 (1823). SCHWAEGR Suppl. Ill, P. II. t. 296 (1830). BR. 
SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. i, p. 13, t. 6 (1837). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 83 (1848). 
C. MUELL. Syn. i, 24 (1849). WILS. Bry. brit. 38, t. 38 (1855). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 31 

Hymenostomum microstomum /?. mutilatiint HUEBEN. muse. germ. 67 (1833). 
Hymenostomum obliquumWiLS. Eng. Bot. Suppl. t. 2831. 

Hymenostomum phascoides WILS. MSS. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 42, t. i (1850). 
Astomum rostellatum SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 43, t. i (1850). 

Gymnostomum rostellatum SCHIMP. Synops. 33 (1860). BERK. Handb. br. m. 296 (1863). 
HUSN. mouss. nord-ouest 39 (1873). 

Hymenostomum rostellatum SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 33 (1876). HUSN. muse, gall 5, t. 2 

Weissia rostellata LINDB. De Tort. 230 (1864). MILDE Bry. siles. 43 (1869). JURATZ. 

Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 8 (1882). 
Mollia rostellata LINDB. 

Autoicous ; in small lax, dingy green tufts, i 3 lines high. Leaves 
spreading, entire, crisped when dry, lower lane, upper linear-lane, long, 
erecto-patent, flexuose, nerve excurrent in a short mucro, margin plane, 
cells at base hexagono-rectang. narrow at margin, above minute, 
quadrate, opake, minutely papillose on both sides. Caps, not elevated 
above perich. bracts, olive brown, elliptic, obliquely rostellate. 

Male infl. gemmiform. 

TORTULACEJE.] 234 [MoUia. 

HAB. Dried mud at edge of pools ; rare. Fr. 10 3. 

Mere, Cheshire (Wilson 1834) ' ' Newcastle Town-moor (Robinson and Thornhill). Edge 
of a fishpond at Hurstpierpoint (Mitten 1847) Weald of Sussex (Davies 1872) ! ! 

This little moss bears fruit richly, and carries us onward a step higher 
from the cleistocarpous mosses to those with a dehiscent lid and peristome. 
Like other similar species it often disappears altogether from the locality it 

5. MOLLIA MICROSTOMA (Hedw.) Lindb. 

Autoicous ; in short dense tufts. Leaves lanceolate, crisped when 
dry, acute, nerve excurrent, margin incurved. Caps, elliptic, contracted 
at the mouth, closed by a perforated membrane, lid obliquely rostrate 
(T. XXXIV, B.) 

SYN. Gymnostomum microstomum HED-W. Stirp. Cr. iii, 71, t. 30, B (1792), Sp. muse. 33 (1801). 
HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 29 (1795). BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. I, 44 (1798), Sp. Muse. I, 33 
(1806), Mant. 15 (1819). SWARTZ Muse. Suec. 21 (1799). ROEHL. Moosg. deutsch. 79 
(1800). ROTH Fl. germ, iii, P. I, 128 (1800). SMITH Fl. brit. iii, 1165 (1804), Eng. Bot. 
t. 2215. P. BEAUV. Prodr. 59 (1805). SCHULTZ Fl. starg. 279 (1806). WEB. MOHR 
Bot. Tasch. 85 (1807). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. I, 28 (1811). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 
13, t. 7 (1818). HARTM. Skand. fl. 283 (1820). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 716 (1821). 
FUNCK Moost. 7, t. 4 (1821). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. II, 123 (1821), Br. Fl. ii, 10 (1833). 
MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, p. ii (1836). WILS. Bry. brit. 44, t. 7 (1855). SCKIMP. Synops. 
34 (1860). BERK. Handb. br. m. 295 (1863). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 39 (1873). 
HOBK. Syn. br. m. 33 (1873). 

Bryum microstomum DICKS. PI. crypt. Fasc. IV, 9 (1801). 

Hymenostomum microstomum R. BROWN Trans. Linn. Soc. xii, 572 (1819). NEES HORNSCH. 

Bry. germ, i, 139, t. 12, f. 4 (1823). BRID. Bry. univ. ii, 77 (1827). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 

67 (1833). DE NOT. Syllab. 293 (1838). Epil. bri. ital. 607 (1869). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. 

eur. fasc. 33 36, p. 4, t. i (1846). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 123 (1848). SCHIMP. 

Synops. 2 ed. 34 (1876). HUSN. Muse. Gall. 6, t. 2 (1884). 
Weisia microstoma C. MUELL. Synops. i, 660 (1849). Fl. danica t. 2612, fig. i. LINDB. 

De Tort. 230 (1864). MILDE Bry. siles. 44 (1869). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 9 


Simophyllum microstomum LINDB. Rev. crjt. icon. fl. dan. 74 (1871). 
Mollia microstoma LINDB. Muse, scand. 22 (1879). 

Autoicous ; densely tufted, lurid green. Leaves lanceolate from an 
erect base, patent, twisted and crisped when dry, comal elongato-lanc. 
concave, the margin incurved, mucronate with the excurrent nerve ; 
cells at base elongate hexagonal, above minute, opake. Caps, exserted 
on a yellowish seta, oval or elliptic, equal or gibbous, olivaceous when 
filled with spores, pale brown when empty, mouth very narrow, the 
closed orifice finally perforated in the centre ; lid paler, more or 
less elongated, acute obliquely rostrate, annulus simple. Male infl. 
near the female, gemmiform. 
HAB. On banks and barren fields, not uncommon. Fr. 3 4. 

Var. ft. obliqua (Nets Hornsch.) 

Plants shorter with a shorter seta ; caps, asymmetric, incurved, lid more 

SYN. Hymenostomum obliqutim NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ. 194, t. 12, f. 2. BRID. Bry. univ. 

H. microstomum Var. (3. obliquum. Bry. eur. 

TORTULACE^.] 235 [Mollia. 

HAB. Helk's wood, Ingleton (Nowell 1850) ! ! 

The leaves of this species closely resemble those of M. viridula, and it is 
only by the small mouth of the capsule closed by the epiphragm that they can 
be separated ; yet a character of such trivial weight is still used to establish 
genera, and separate species having the closest natural affinity. 

6. MOLLIA SQUARROSA (Nees Hornsch.) Lindb. 

Autoicous : in small lax tufts. Leaves squarrose, lanceolate, 
broader with plane margins. Caps, elliptic, lid conico-rostellate. 
(T. XXXIV, C.) 

SYN. Hymenostomiim squarrosum NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ, i, 193, t. 12, f. i (1823). BRID. 
Bry. univ. ii, 74 (1827). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 69 (1833). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 
33- -36, p. 5, t. 2 (1846). RAB^.NH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 124 (1848). SCHIMP. 
Synops. 2 ed. 34 (1876). HUSN. Muse. gall. 6, t. 2 (1884). 

Weissia squarrosa C. MUELL. Synops. i, 663 (1849). LINDB. De Tort. 230 (1864). 
MILDE Bry. siles. 44 (1869). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 8 (1882). 

Gymnostomum sqnarrosum WILS. Bry. brit. 43, t. 38 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 34 (1860). 

BERK. Handh. br. m. 295 (1863). HUSN. Mouss. nord.-ouest. 39 (1873). HOBK. Syn. 

br. m. 33 (1873). 
Mollia squarrosa LINDB. Muse, scand. 22 (1879). 

Autoicous ; in small lax deep green tufts. Stem ^ in. high, becoming 
decumbent after fruiting, and throwing out innovations below the 
perichaetium. Leaves distant, squarrose, dirty green, lanceolate, 
mucronate, margins erect not involute, upper comant, lineal-lane, twice 
the length. Capsule small, elliptic, often oblique, brownish, on a short 
yellowish seta, lid conico-rostellate. 
HAB. Clay fields and banks ; not common. Fr. 10 3. 

Over, Cheshire (Wilson 1830) ! ! Hurstpierpoint (Mitten 1846)! Hale barns and Ashley, 
Cheshire (Hunt 1868) ! ! Bowdon, Cotterall wood, Helsby and Mobberley (Hunt 
1870) ! Handforth, Cheshire (P. G. Cunliffe). Buckingham (Holmes). Brant Fell, 
Westmoreland (West 1879) ! ! Stirrup wood (Scholefield 1868). Penan, Braemar 
(Sim 1872). 

Very close to M. microstoma, but best distinguished by the decumbent 
stem and squarrose leaves with plane margins. 

7. MOLLIA TORTILIS (Schwaegr.) Braith. 

Autoicous ; densely tufted, fastigiate. Leaves crowded, oblong- 
lancelate, mucronate, with incurved margin. Caps, oval, equal, lid 
obliquely rostrate. (T. XXXIV, D.) 

Svx.Gymostomum tortile SCHWAEGR. in SCHRAD. Neu. Bot. journ. iv, 17, t. i (1810), Suppl. 
I, P. I, 29, t. 10 (1811). SCHKUHR Deutsch. kr. gew. P. II, 29, t. ii, c. (1810). BRID. 
Mant. 17 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 74 (1826). FUNCK Moost. 7, t. 4 (1821). NEES 
HORNSCH. Bry. germ, i, 182, t. n, f. 28 (1823). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 48 (1833). DE 
NOT. Syllab. 291 (1838). WILS. Bry. brit. 45, t. 38 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 35 (1860). 
BERK. Handb. br. m. 296 (1863). HUSN. Mouss. nord.-ouest. 40 (1873). HOBK Syn 
br. m. 33 (1873). 

Gymnostomum condensatum VOIT in STURM Deutsch. fl. P. xi (1810), Muse, herbip. 14 
(1812). ROEHL. Deutch. fl. iii, 37 (1813). 

TORTULACEJE.] 236 [Mollia. 

Hymenostomnm tortile BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 3336, p. 6, t. 34 (1846). DE NOT. 

Epil. bri. ital. 606 (1869). SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 35 (1876). HUSNOT Muse. gall. 6, 

t. 2 (1884). 
Weissia tortilis C. MUELL. Synops. i, 661 (1849). MILDE Bry. siles. 44 (1869). JURATZ. 

Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 10 (1882). 
Weissia condensa LINDB. de Tort. 230 in obs. (1864). 

Autoicous ; in more robust densely crowded tufts, dichotomous, 
fastigiate, dingy green above, rufescent below. Leaves crowded, 
appressed and twisting when dry, erecto-patent when moist, lower 
minute ovate, upper broadly lane, obtusely pointed, mucronate with 
the stout excurrent nerve which is reddish in old leaves ; margin 
incurved, subundulate, cells quadrate, diaphanous at base, opake above. 
Perich. bracts longer lane. -subulate ; caps, on a yellow seta, pachyder- 
mous, ovate or oblong, yellow-brown with a red mouth, annulus simple, 
lid conico-subulate, oblique, epiphragm perforated. Male infl. near the 
female, gemmaceous. 
HAB. Limestone rocks, banks and walls ; rare. Fr. 3 4. 

St. Michael's mount (Greenwood). Lathkilldale, Derby (Wilson, 1831) !! Cliffs, near 
Newhaven, and at Crowhurst (Borrer, 1837) ' Plymouth (Holmes, 1867) ! ! Levens, 
Westmoreland (Barnes, 1874) ! ! Otford and Sandgate, Kent (Holmes). Bembridge, 
I. of Wight (Davies, 1865) ! Marazion (Curnow). 

Readily known from its allies by the broader rather obtuse leaves, erect 
and incurved when dry, and fasciculate at the top of each shoot. Mr. 
Holmes has noticed that it has a curious habit of detaching itself from the 
substratum it grows upon, and becoming loose. 


Autoicous ; laxly caespitose. Leaves crisped, linear-lanceolate, 
mucronate, involute at margin. Caps, oval, lid rostrate, teeth small, 
irregular, variable. (T. XXXIV, E.) 

SYN. Brynm triclwides exile, erectis capitulis in pediculis brevissimis DILL. Cat. Giss. 224 

(1719), in RAY Synops. 3 ed. 97 (1724). 
Bryum capillaceum breve, pallide et Icete-vircns, capsulis ovatis DILL. Hist. muse. 380, t. 

48, f. 43 (1741) et Herbar. 
Bryum viriduhim L. Sp. plant, ii, 1119 (1753), Syst. nat. ii, 702. HUDS. Fl. angl. 408 

(1762). WEISS Crypt. Goett. 193 (1770). WITH. Bot. arr. br. Veg. ii, 676 (1776). 

LIGHTF. Fl. Scot, ii, 731 (1777). CURT. Fl. Lond. fasc. 2, 132, t. 70, f. i (1778). 

RELHAN Fl. cant. 405 (1785). HULL Br. Fl. P. 2, 258 (1799). 
Weissia viridula HEDW. Fund, II, 90 (1781). LEYS. Fl. Hal. n. 1037 (^s)- ROTH Fl. 

germ, i, 456 (1788). BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. I, 75 (1798), Mant. 38 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 

334(1826). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 33 36, p. 5, t. 2 3 (1846). RABENH. Deutsch. 

kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 125 (1848). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 651 (1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 50(1860), 

2 ed. 51. MILDE Bry. siles. 45 (1869). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 42 (1873), Muse. gall. 

12, t. 4 (1884). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. ii (1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses 

N. Amer. 55 (1884). 

Bryum virens DICKS. PI. crypt. I, 4 (1785). ABBOT Fl. bedf. 243 (1798). 
Mnium -viridiilum SVVARTZ Meth. muse. 365 (1787). 
Weissia crispa TIMM Fl. megap. n. 736 (1788). 
Afzelia crispa. EHRH. Crypt, exs. n. 222 (1790). 

TORTULACEjE.] 237 [MolUd. 

Weissia controvcrsa HEDW. Muse, frond, iii, 13, t. 5, B. (1792), Sp. muse. 67 (1801). 

SWARTZ Muse. suec. 26 (1799). TURN. Muse. hib. 27 (1804). SCHKUHR Deutsch. kr. 

gew. P. II, 52, t. 25 (1810). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. I, 77 (1811). WAHLENB. Fl. 

carp. 340 (1814), Fl. ups. 384 (1820). ROEHL. Deutsch. fl. iii, 48 (1813), Ann. Wett. 

ges. iii, 98. HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 47, t. 15 (1818), HOOK. Fl. scot. P. II, 131 

(1821), Brit. fl. ii, 22 (1833). FUNCK Moost. 15, t. 10 (1821). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 

731 (1821). ZENK. DIETR. Muse, thuring. II, n. 45 (1822). NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ. 

ii, P. 2, 42, t. 27, f. 7 (1831). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 123 (1833). Fl. danica t. 2304, fig. 

2. MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 15 (1836). DE NOT. Syllab. 234 (1838), Epil. bri. ital. 599 

(1869). WILS. Bry. brit. 46, t. 15 (1855). BERK. Handb. br. m. 291 (1863). HOBK. 

Syn. br. m. 33 (1873). 
Grimmia controversa SCHRAD. Samml. SIBTH. Fl. oxon. 277 (1794). SMITH. Fl. brit. iii, 

1187 (1804), Eng. Bot. t. 1367. WEB. MOHR. Bot. Tasch. 133 (1807). VOIT Muse. 

herb. 32 (1812). 
Bryunt controversum HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 32 (1795). P. BEAUV. Mem. Soc. Linn. Par. 

t. 5, f. 5 (1822). 

Weissia vlrens BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. I, 69 (1798). ROEHL. Moosg. deutsch. 147 (1800). 
Weissia microdonta et Dicranum xantliodon HEDW. Sp. muse. t. n & 30 (1801). 
Weissia mutabilis BRID. Sp. muse. I, 103 (1806). MART. Fl. crypt, erl. 112 (1817). 
Hymenostomum subglobosum NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ, i, 103, t. 12 (1823). BRID. Bry. 

univ. ii, 79. 
Weissia humilis , fallax et Bruchiana NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ, ii, P. II, 36, t. 26 27 


Sitnophyllum uiridulum LINDB. Rev. crit. icon. fl. danicae 51 (1871). 
Mollia viridula LINDB. muse, scand. 21 (1879). 

Autoicous ; short, laxly caespitose or subpulvinate, bright green, 
nearly simple. Leaves when dry, involuto-crispate, when moist erecto- 
patent, the lower lane, upper longer, comant, flexuoso-patulous, from 
an oblong concave base with plane margins, lineal lane, the wings 
above connivent, involute at margin, nerve strong, yellowish excurrent 
in a short mucro ; cells at base rectang. pellucid, above very minute, 
opake. Caps, on a rather short pale seta, erect, oval or oblong, 
occasionally subcylindric, rufescent or fuscous, when dry slightly 
contracted below the mouth and sulcate ; annulus narrow, lid obliquely 
subulate, reddish at base, peristome very variable, teeth lineal-lane. 
often truncate or cleft at apex; rufo-ferruginous, roughish at back, 
with 2 5 joints. 

Male infl. terminal on the innovations, minute, gemmaceous, bracts 
ovate, acuminate. 
HAB. Banks, roadsides and sandy ground ; common. Fr. 3 5. 

Var. ,8. amblyodon Brid. 

Leaves shorter, oblong-lanceolate ; teeth pale, short and truncate or 
cloven at apex, lid shorter. 

SYN. Weissia amblyodon BRID. Bry. univ. i, 805. NEES HORNSCH. op. c. 52, t. 28. 

W. gymnostomoides & microstoma NEES HORNSCH. op. c. 33, t. 25. 

W. viridula, 8. amblyodon Bry. eur. 
HAB. Peaty soil. 

Forth Dafarch (Wilson 1856)!! Milnthorpe, Syergh fell and Helsington Barrows 
(Barnes 1870) ! ! Malham cove (Nowell) ! Plymstock (Holmes). 

Var. y. gymnostomoides Brid. 

TORTULACE^.] 238 [Mollia. 

Teeth rudimentary, pale and truncate ; leaves rather shorter ; caps, 
small, elliptic. 
SYN. W. gymnostomoidfs BRID. Bry univ. i, 342. 

W. Rudolphiana NEES HORNSCH. op. c. 31, t. 25. 

W. viridula c. gymnostomoides Bry. eur. 
HAB. Occasionally with the ordinary form. 

Var. 8. densifolia Wils. 

Densely tufted, stems taller, much branched ; leaves crowded, narrower ; 
seta often short, teeth imperfect. 
SYN. W. densifolia Wils. MSS. 

W. viridula y. densifolia Bry. eur. Bry. brit. 
HAB. Kenmare (Wilson 1829) ! Rhayadr-y-Pare Mawr (Wilson 1845) ! ! 

Malham (West 1882) ! ! 

Like all mosses of wide distribution, this is extremely variable in size as 
well as in the leaves and fruit, its most constant character being the involute 
margin of the leaves and small pale teeth, the latter often very unequal or 
with projecting lateral processes ; occasionally the lid is longer than the 

It is curious that while the description by Linneus of Bvyum viridulum 
certainly refers to this plant, there is no specimen in his herbarium, the 
mosses there so named being Fissidetis viridulus> Pottia truncatula and 
Anisothecium rubrum. 

9. MOLLIA EUTILANS (Hedw.) Lindb. 

Autoicous ; leaves lanceolate, mucronate, with plane margins. 
Caps, oblong, substriate, teeth very short, truncate, fugacious. 
(T. XXXIV, F.) 

SYN. Gymnostomum rutilans HEDW. Sp. muse. 37,1. 3, f. 8 u (1801). BRID. Sp. muse. I, 34 
(1806), Mant. 16 (1819). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. I, 29 (1811). 

Gymnostomum microstomiim SCHULTZ Fl. starg. 279 (1806). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 85 
(1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. kr. gew. ii, P. II, 23, t. 10 (1810). 

Hymenostomum rutilans NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ, i, 201, t. 12, f. 5 (1823). BRID. Bry. 
univ. ii, 78 (1827). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 70 (1833). 

Weissia apiculata NEES HORNSCH. op. c. ii, P. II, 40, t. 26 (1831). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. 
fl. H, S. 3, 126 (1848). 

Weissia mncrumdata BRUCH, SPRENG. L. Syst. Veg. iv, 158. HUEBEN. op. c. 124. 

Weissia mucronata BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 33 36, p. 7, t. 4 (1846). WILS. Bry. brit. 
47, t. 38 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 52 (1860), 2 ed. 51. BERK. Handb. br. m. 292 (1863). 
MILPE Bry. siles. 46 (1869). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest. 42 (1873), Muse. gall. 13, t. 4 
(1884). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 34 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 12 (1882). 

Weissia viridula S. mucronata C. MUELL. Synops. i, 652 (1849). 
Mollia rutilans LINDB. 

Autoicous ; resembling M. viridula. Leaves broader with a longer 
mucro, the upper part very concave, with plane margins. Caps, 
oblongo-cylindraceous, fuscescent with ferruginous striae and a red 
mouth ; lid bright red, with a shorter beak ; teeth broader, irregular, 
cleft, cribrose, very fugacious ; spores twice the size. 
HAB. Clay soil in woods and shady places ; not common. Fr. 3 4. 

TORTULACE.E. 1 23Q [Mollia. 

Hurstpierpoint (Mitten, 1847) ' Lindfield, Palmer and Newtimber (Davies) ! ! Hattersley, 
Cheshire (Whitehead 1868)!! Forest hill (George). VVhitstable (Holmes}. Ashley 
mill (Holt 1884) ! ! Bowdon, Helsby and Oakmere (Hunt 1870) ! ! Whitbarrow 
(Barnes 1870) ! Tregawn, near Withiel (Tellam). Menmuir and Caterthun (Rev. 
M. Anderson). Alton and Maxtoke, Warwick (Bagnall). Northumberland coast (Hardy). 
Rathmullen, Donegal (Capt. Hutton). Ben Laoigh (Ewing). 

Sect. 2. EUCLADIUM (Br. Sch.) Plants larger, densely caespitose, 
repeatedly dichotomous ; leaves erecto-patent, lanceolate, rigid, fragile, with 
a thick nerve. Capsule erect, ovate, teeth linear-lane, obliquate, flat 
punctulate, bi-trifid, or wanting. 

10. MOLLIA TENTHS (Schrad.) Lindb. 

Dioicous ; very short. Leaves linear-lane, obtuse, faintly crenulate, 
nerve vanishing below apex. Caps, erect, oblong, broadly annulate, 
gymnostomous, lid conical. (T. XXXIV, G.) 

SYN. Gymnostomum tenue SCHRAD. Samml. crypt, gew. n. 31 (1796), et in USTERI Neu. ann. 
xiv, 105 (1796). ROTH Fl. germ, in, P. I, 127 (1800). HEDW. Sp. muse. 37. t. 4 
(1801). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 60 (1805). BRID. Sp muse. I, 33 (1806), Mant. 13 (1819), 
Bry. univ. i, 64 (1826). WEB. MOHR Tasch. 86 (1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. kr. ge%v. li, 
P. II, 24, t. n (1810). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. I, 27 (i8n). ROEHL. Deutsch. fl. iii, 
39 (1813), Ann. Wett. ges. ii, 126. HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 13, t. 8 (1818). GRAY 
Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 716 (1821). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. II, 123 (1821), Br. fl. ii, 10 (1833), 
NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ, i, 151, t. 10, f. 14 (1823). HUEBEN. muse. germ. 46 (1833). 
MACK. Fl. Hib. P. 2, p. ii (1836). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 3336, p. 5, t. 2 (1846). 
RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 121 (1848). WILS. Bry. br. 41, t. 7 ^855). SCHIMP. 
Synops. 38 (1860). BERK. Handb. br. m. 294 (1863). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 40 
(1873). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 31 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 13 (1882). LESQ. 
JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 54 (1884). 
Weisia tennis C. MCELL. Synops. i, 660 (1849). 

Trichostomnm reflexum ft- gymnostomtim LINDB. de Tort. 230 (1864). MILDE Bry. siles. 

108 (1869). 

Gyroweissia tennis SCHIMP. Syn. 2 ed. 38 (1876). HUSNOT muse. gall. 7, t. 2 (1884). 
Mollia tennis LINDB. muse, scand. 21 (1879). 

Dioicous ; in flat deep green tufts, very short, repeatedly divided 
from the base. Lower leaves linguiform, upper linear-lane, obtuse, 
concave, nerve not reaching apex. Cells at base rectang. at margins 
paler, quadrate. Perich. bracts sheathing in lower half, then patent, 
thin-nerved, innermost paler, nerveless. Caps, oblongo-elliptic, ferrugi- 
nous, finally bay color and glossy, the mouth red very glossy ; annulus 
very broad. Calyptra reaching down caps, lid conico-rostellate. 

Males very dwarf, bracts ovato-lanc. obtuse. 

HAB. Rocks and stones of sandstone or limestone ; not common. Fr. 7 8. 
Near Glasgow (Don). Auchindenny and Den of Dupplin (Arnott). Timperley, Cheshire 
(Wilson) ! Belfast (Drummond). Henfield (Mitten). Thirsk and Studley (Baker 
1854) ! Oxford and Blenheim park (Bagwell 1862) ! ! Ashley mill and by R. Bollin 
(Hunt 1862) ! ! Park lane, Manchester (Holt 1882) ! ! Brandon Kerry (Taylor). 
Edgbaston (Bagnall). 

ii. MOLLIA CALCAREA. (Nets Hornsch.) Lindb. 

Dioicous; compactly tufted, very slender, branched. Leaves linear 
lane, entire, the nerve vanishing ; cells minute quadrate, opake above. 
Caps, small oblong, scarcely annulate, lid obliquely subulate. 
(T. XXXV, A.) 

TORTULACE^E.j 240 [Mollid. 

SYN. Gymnostomum calcareum NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ, i, 153, t. 10, f. 15 (1823). BRID. 
bry. univ. i, 65 (1826). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 48 (1833). DE NOT. Syllab. 291 (1838), 
Epil. bri. ital. 603 (1869). BRUCH SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 33 36, p. 6, t. 3 4 (1846). 
RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 121 (1848). SCHIMP. Synops. 39 (1860), 2 ed. 40 
HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 40 (1873), Muse. gall. 8, t. 3 (1884). JURATZ. Laubm. 
oesterr.-ung. 14 (1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 53 (1884). 
Weissia calcarea C. MUELL. Synops. i, 659 (1849). 
Hymenostylium calcareum MITT. Journ Linn. soc. i, Suppl. 33 (1859). 
Trichostomum calcareum LINDB. de Tort. 229 (1864). MILDE Bry. siles. 107 (1869). 
Mollla calcarea LINDB. 

Dioicous ; short, very tender and slender, in densely compacted 
tufts, bright light green above, ferruginous below. Lower leaves very 
small, erecto-patent, narrowly lane, upper much larger, lineal-lane, 
rather obtuse, concave, margin very minutely crenulate, nerve stout, 
prominent at back, vanishing towards apex, cells minute quadrate. 
Perich bracts from a broader subvaginant laxly areolate base, lanceolate- 
subulate, patulous ; caps, on a pale straw-coloured seta, erect, oblong, 
short-necked, pale brown with a red mouth, when empty, subcylindric 
truncate, slightly contracted below the mouth ; annulus very narrow, 
persistent, lid conic with an acute oblique beak. Male plant more 
slender, infl. very minute, lateral, bracts ovato-acuminate. 
HAB. Calcareous rocks ; very rare. Fr. 6 7. 

Cheedale, Derbyshire (Holmes 1874) ! ! Monsal Dale, Ashwood Dale and Ravensdale 
c. ir. (Holt 1883) ! ! 

Var. /?. viridulum (Brid.) 

Plants very short and slender, darker green, branched; lower leaves 
minute, remote, upper crowded, oblongo-lanc. shorter, recurved from the 
middle, subacute or muticous ; caps, minute, ovate. 
SYN. Gymnostomum viridulum BRID. op. c. 66. 

G. calcareum Var. y. viridulum Bry. eur. 1. c. t. 3. 

G. calcareum Var. S. brevifolium SCHIMP. Synops. 40. 
HAB. Damp rocks. Blackball, Banchory (J. Sim 1871) ! ! 

This moss is most striking by its lovely light green mats, and it is 
extraordinary that it should so long have escaped notice. Mr. Holt has had 
the good fortune to find it in fruit, which is only produced sparingly and in 
crevices away from the light. The plant is very variable in the fruit, the 
capsule being sometimes nearly globose, and in other cases subcylindric ; the 
density of the stems is also in some cases so great as to attain an almost 
corky consistence. 


Dioicous; densely tufted, dichotomously branched. Leaves lanceo- 
late-linear, rather obtuse, crenulate with papillae at base, nerve 
vanishing. Caps, oval, riot annulate, lid rostrate. (T. XXXV, B.) 

SYN. Gymnostomum ceruginosum SMITH Fl. brit. iii, 1163 (1804), Eng. Bot. t. 2200. BRID. Sp. 
muse. I, 36 (1806), Mant. 18 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 80(1826). SCHKUHR Deutsch. kr. 
gew. ii, P. II, 25, t. ii (1810). 

TORTULACE^;.] 241 [Mollia. 

Gymnostomum rupestre SCHLEICH. Cat. pi. helv. 29 (1807). SCHWAEGR. Suppl. I, P. I, 
31, t. 10 (1811), BRID. Mant. 17, Bry. univ. i, 77. NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ, i, 150, 
t. 10, f. 16 (1823). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 2 ed. 19, Supp. t. 2 (1827). HUEBEN. 
Muse. germ. 49 (1833). MACK. Fl. hibern. P. 2, 10 (1836). HOOK. Br. fl. ii, 8 (1833). 
DE NOT. Syllab. 291 (1838^, Epil. bri. ital. 603 (1869). BRUCH SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 
3336, p . 7. t. 56 (1846). KABENH. Deutsch kr. fl. ii, S. 3, p. 122 (1848). WILS. 
Bry. brit. 41, t. 32 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 41 (1860). BERK. Handb. br. m. 294 
(1863). HOBK Syn. br. m. 32 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr-ung. 15 (1882). LESQ. 
JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 53 (1884). HUSNOT Muse. gall. 9, t. 3 (1884). 

G. articulatum SCHKUHR op. c. 29, t. n. BRID. Mant. 18, Bry. univ. i, 78. NEES 
HORNSCH. op. c. i, 156, t. 10, f. 17. 

G. stelligerum (non SMITH, nee DICKS, nee BRID.). NEES HORNSCH. op. c. 168, t. ii, f. 23. 

G. rupestre Var. stelligerum Bry. eur. Bry. brit. 

G. erythrostomum BRID. Bry. univ. i, 84. 

Weissia rupestris C. MUELL. Synops. i, 657 (1849). 

Trichostomum ceruginosum LINDB. de Tort. 229 (1864). 

Trichostomum rupestre MILDE Bry. siles. 106 (1869). 

Mollia ceruginosa LINDB. Muse. Scand. 21 (1879). 

Dioicous ; densely caespitose, ^ 3 in. high, slender, deep green 
above, fuscescent below, tomentose, dichotomously branched, fastigiate. 
Leaves accrescent, fasciculate, patent and curved upward, when dry 
erect and incurved, lower narrowly lane, upper narrowly lineal-lane, 
muticous, nerve thick yellowish, vanishing in the apex, margin plane, 
very minutely geminato-papillose ; cells rectang. and pellucid at base, 
quadrate and minute above. Perich. bracts sheathing, laxly hexagono- 
reticulate at base ; caps, leptodermous, on a shortish pale red seta, oval, 
short necked, when empty pale yellow, glossy, mouth rufous or blackish 
red, not annulate, lid conic, shortly rostrate, the beak pale. Male plant 
more slender, inner bracts ovate, fuscous. 
HAB. Wet rocks, especially in calcareous subalpine districts. Not 

uncommon. Fr. 8 9. 

Var. fi. ramosissima Br. Sch. 

Compactly pulvinato-caespitose, olivaceous-green. Plants very slender, 
very much branched, fragile ; leaves short and narrow, more obtuse ; 
capsules small, elliptic, lid conical. 
HAB. Castleton, Derbyshire (7*. Rogers 1881) ! ! Millers Dale (Holt 1882) ! ! 

This moss is of frequent occurrence among the limestone hills of the 
north of England, as well as in Scotland, forming dense mats of a deep rich 
green colour. 

Although resembling Barbula curviyostns very much in habit, the areola- 
tion of the upper part of the leaf will at once distinguish them ; in the 
present plant the cells are minute and opake, in B. curvirostris larger, empty 
and clearly denned. The Var. stelligera is merely a form with repeated 


Dioicous; laxly tufted, dichotomously branched. Leaves from a 
broader base with toothed margin, lanceolate, narrow and subsubulate, 

TORTULACE^E.] 242 [Mollia. 

nerve stout, excurrent in a thick point. Caps, erect, oval, lid obliquely 
subulate, teeth i5 lineal-lane, papillose, oblique. (T. XXXV, C.) 

SYN. Bryum trichodes brevifolinm, angustis cauliculis, capitulis erectis parvis et minus aduncis 

DILL, in RAY Syn. stirp. br. 3 ed. 98 (1724). 

Muscus trichodes aquaticus minimus, capitulis parvis erectis Richardson. RAY Syn. ibid. 
Bryum pilosum verticillatum DILL. Hist. muse. 374, t. 47, f. 35 (1741), et Herbar. 
Bryum angustissimis folds crebrioribus capitulis erectis brevibus, pediculis e surculis novis 

et longis enasccntibus DILL, in RAY Syn. 3 ed. 99. 
Muscus palustris cestivus, capitulis parvis erectis, foliis dense stipatus Richardson. RAY 

Syn. ibid. 

Bryum palustre cestivum, confervas facie DILL. Hist. 375, t. 47, f. 36; et Herbar. 
Bryum verticillatum L. Sp. plant, ii, 1120 (1753). Syst. nat. ii, 702. HUDS. Fl. angl. 

411, excl. var. (3. (1762). WITH. Bot. arr. br. veg. ii, 677 (1776). VILLARS PI. 

dauph. iii, 877 (1786). ROTH Tent. fl. germ, i, 473 (1788). HULL Br. fl. P. II, 259 

(1799). BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. Ill, 40 (1803). 
Barbula atlantica BRID. muse. rec. II, P. I, 202, t. 6, f. 13 (1798), Mant. 93 (1819), Bry. 

univ. i, 559. 
Grimmia vcrticillata SM. Fl. brit. iii, 1191 (1804), Eng. Bot. t. 1258. TURN. muse. hib. 

31 (1804). 

Grimmia fragilis WEB. MOHR Archiv. I, P. I, 129, t. 4, f. 4 (1804). SCHKUHR Deutsch. 
kr. gew. II, P. II, 55, t. 24 (1810). 

Weissia verticillata BRID. Sp. muse. I, 121 (1806). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 71, t. 20 
(1811). ROEHL. Ann. Wett. ges. iii, no. HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 48, t. 15 (1818). 
iuNCK Moost. 14, t. 13 (1821). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 732 (1821). NEES HORNSCH. 
Bry. germ.ii, P. II, in, t. 35, f. 29 (1831). HUEBEN. Miisc. germ. 147 (1833). HOOK. 
Br. fl. ii, 23 (1833). MACK. Fl. hib. P. II, 15 (1836). DE NOT. Syllab. 229 (1838). 
Epil. bri. ital. 598 (1869). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 656 (1849). WILS. Bry. brit. 49, 
t. 15 (1855). BERK. Handb. br. m. 293 (1863). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 43 (1873). 
HOBK. Syn. br. m. 34 (1873). 

Tortula atlantica BRID. Sp. muse. I, 255 (1806). 

Weissia gypsacea SCHLEICH. Cat. pi. helv. 31 (1807). 

Coscinodon verticillatus BRID. Bry. univ. i, 374 (1826). 

C. clongatus BRID. op. c. 376. 

Eucladium verticillatum BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 33 36, Mon. p. 3, t. i (1846). 

RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, 8.3, 130 (1848). SCHIMP. Synops. 134 (1860), 2 ed. 45. 

LINDB. de Tort. 231 (1864). MILDE Bry. siles. 109 (1869). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.- 

ung. 16 (1882). HUSNOT Muse. gall, n, t. 3 (1884). 

Hymenostylium verticillatum MITT. Journ. Linn. Soc. i, Suppl. 32 (1859). 
Mollia verticillata LINDB. Muse, scand. 21 (1879). 

Dioicous; densely tufted, repeatedly dichotomous, fastigiate, i 2 in. 
high, pale glaucous green above, dirty white or fuscescent below, usually 
encrusted with calcareous deposit. Leaves lax rigid fragile, nearly 
smooth, erecto-patent, lanceolate-subulate, the base dilated, with the 
margin toothed, the cells lax pellucid, elongated, above irregularly 
quadrate ; nerve stout, occupying nearly all apex. Caps, on a shortish 
purple seta, chesnut brown, erect, ovate or oval, pachydermous, annulus 
very narrow, lid obliquely subulate, teeth 16, deep orange, flat, slightly 
papillose, oblique, lineal-lane, remotely articulate, entire or 2 3 fid. 

Male plants more slender, infl. terminal, outer bracts ovali-lanceo- 
late, inner acuminate, the nerve vanishing. 

HAB. Dripping calcareous rocks or occasionally on sandstone ; not uncom- 
mon but unfrequent in fruit. Fr. 6 7. 

TORTULACE.E.] 243 [Mollia. 

Very variable in height and density, but easily recognised by the 
dentate basal margin of the leaf. Lindberg determined the Hyssopus Salomonis 
HASSELQUIST to be a variety of this with recurved leaves. 

14. MOLLIA CRISPULA (Bruch) Lindb. 

Dioicous ; densely casspitose. Leaves linear-lanceolate, with the 
apex incurved or cucullate, mucronate with the excurrent nerve, the 
margin incurved. Caps, erect ovate, lid with a long beak, teeth in 
pairs, unequal, very slender. (T. XXXV, D.) 

SYN. Trichostomum crispidum BRUCH in Flora xii, P. II, 395, t. i, f. 4 (1829). DE NOT. 
Syllab. 191 (1838), Epil. bri. ital. 503 (1869). BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 1820, Mon. 8, 
t. 5 (1843). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 114 (1848). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 571 
(1849). WILS. Bry. brit. in, t. 41 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 151 (1860), 2 ed. 171. 
BERK. Handb. br. m. 261 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 104 (1869). HUSN. Mouss. nord- 
ouest 74 (1873), Muse. gall. 88, t. 25 (1885). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 61 (1873). JURATZ. 
Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 103 (1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 109 (1884). 

Didymodon crispulus WILS. HOOK. Br. fl. ii, 30 C 1 *^), Eng. Bot. Suppl. t. 2734 (1834). 
MACK. Fl. hibern. P. 2, 18 (1836). 

Plaubelia tortuosa (non BRID.) BRUCH MSS. 
Mollia crispula LINDB. Muse, scand. 21 (1879). 

Dioicous; densely caespitose, fastigiate, bright green. Comal 
leaves patulous, when dry with involute wings, incurved cirrhate, lineal, 
margin erect, subundulate, cucullato-incurved at apex, concave, very 
minutely papillose, upper cells small, indistinct, basal narrowly 
rectangular, nerve terete shortly excurrent in a mucro. Perich. bracts 
2 3 semivaginant, with an erect lane, acute apex ; seta red below, 
yellowish above, caps, erect, ovate or elliptic, irregularly sulcate when 
dry and empty, lid long-beaked, red at margin, teeth in two unequal 
legs, more or less perfect, finely papillose. 

Male plants like the female or nearly simple, bracts ovate 

HAB. Rocks, walls and banks in calcareous districts, particularly near the 
sea ; not common. Fr. 5 6. 

Ormeshead and Tros-y-Marian, Anglesey (Wilson 1829) ! Frequent in Sussex (Mitten). 
St. Vincent's rocks and Leigh woods (Thwaites 1844) ! Cliff at Scalby mill, Yorks. 
(Spruce 1843) ! Common about Plymouth (Holmes 1868) ! ! Torquay (Dickie). 
Arthur's seat (Hunt 1864) ! Shere, Surrey (Dr. Capron 1869) ! Buckfastleigh and 
Swanage (Holmes) ' ! Folkestone, Kent (Holmes) \ \ Muckross, Dunkerron and Ben- 
bulben, Ireland (Moore) ! ! Rushen Abbey, I. of Man (Holt 1884) ! ! Great Doward 
hill, Monmouth (Boswell 1875) ! ! Falmouth and St. Ouens. Jersey (Holmes.) Monsal 
Dale (Holt 1882) ! ! 

Var. ft. viridula (Bruch). 

Plants smaller, bright yellow-green ; leaves longer, lanceolate, gradually 
narrowed upward, acuminate ; fruit smaller. 

S YN . Trichostomum viridulum BRUCH in Flora xii, P. II, 401, t. 2, f. 5. HUEBEN. Muse. 

germ. 303. 

T. trifarium HARTM. Skand. fl. 7 ed. 381. 

T.planum LINDB. in Oefv. vet. ak. foer. xvi, 210. HARTM. op. c. 8 ed. 396. 
T. crispidum Var. angitstifolium et longi folium SCHIMP. Synops. 

TORTULACE^E.] 244 [Mollta. 

HAB. Cliffs at Babbicombe, Devon (Davies 1866) ! ! Vale of Llanthony 

(Boswell 1871)! ! 

Var. y. elata 5 'chimp. 

Tall, in large tufts, deep green above, fuscescent below, 2 in. high ; leaves 
longer, more solid, muticous. 

SYN. Trichostomum crispulum Var. . datum Schimp. Synops. 2 ed. 172. 
HAB. Muckross and Cromaglown (Hunt 1864) ! ! Cheddar Cliffs (Boswell 

1873)!! Ingleton, Yorks (West 1882)!! Barmouth (Holt 1882)!! 

Rathlin Is., Ireland (Stewart 1882) ! ! 

Var. 8. nigro-viridis Bmithw. 

Plants tall, very slender, in very dense cushioned tufts, deep green above, 
black below ; stems repeatedly dichotomous ; leaves small, shorter, more 
patent, with smaller areolation, the margins incurved above, upper cells 
papillose at back. 
HAB. Near the summit of Ingleboro (Nowell 1857) ! ! 

This moss is most variable and presents forms which offer the greatest 
difficulty in assigning them a place under this species or M . bracliydontia ; 
the typical form is definite enough, for the nerve apex being curved up and 
then excurrent from the lamina as a short mucro, gives the leafpoint a 
mimic resemblance to the bow of a boat, but in the vai. viridulum this is so 
tapered off as frequently to become indefinite, and we have then only to 
rely on the general obtuseness and incurved edges of the leaf-apex. Lindberg 
is of opinion that the var. ft. is Didymodon trifarius SWARTZ. 

15. MOLLIA LITORALIS (Mitt.) Braithw. 

Dioicous; densely caespitose. Leaves oblong-ligulate, obtuse, 
mucronate with the excurrent nerve. Caps, oblong ; lid conico, rostrate. 
(T. XXXV, E.) 

SYN. Trichostomum litorale MITT, in SEEM. Journ. Bot. 1868, p. 99, t. 77, fig. 7 9, 
HOBK. Syn. br. m. 61 (1873). HUSNOT Mouss. nord-ouest 74 (1873), Muse. gall. 88. 
t. 25 (1885). SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 180 (1876). 

Dioicous; densely csespitose, dull yellow green above, brown at 
base. Stems 1 in. high, simple or innovating, interrupted and 
comose. Leaves short erecto-patent, slightly recurved in the upper 
half, when dry incumbent and arcuato-incurved, oblongo-ligulate, 
obtuse, channelled ; nerve yellowish, stout, excurrent in a short mucro ; 
cells at base oblongo-rectang. pellucid, above rounded and obscure, 
minutely papillose. Capsule on a short pale yellow seta, oblong, tapering 
at base, fuscescent, with a red mouth, lid yellow, conico-rostellate ; 
peristome pale, the teeth rather short, with two slender nearly equal legs. 
HAB. Sea-coast in the S. and West of England. Fr. 3 4. 

Sandy ground below the cliffs east of Hastings (Mitten). Whits?nd bay (Brent). 
Aldrington beach, Sussex (Davies 1864) ! ! Staddon heights, Plymouth, Devonport 
and Newquay (Holmes 1868) ! ! Badger's cross, Penzance c. fr. (Curnow 1867) ! ! 
St. Minver, Cornwall (Tellam 1871) ! ! Penmon, Anglesey (Boswell 1874) ! ! Tigh- 
na-bruaich on the Clyde (Dr. Stirton 1864, named by Wilson T. mntabilc Var. 
brevifolium) ! Between Loch Ness and Loch Oich, a very tall form (Hunt 1866) ! ! 
Rannoch (Dr. B. White 1867) ! Douglas, Gobey valley and sandy cliffs at Peel, I. of 
Man (Holt 1884) ! ! Carlingford Mtn., Ireland (Rev. C. Wadddl 1883) ! ! Barmouth] 245 [Mollia. 

Var. /?. angustifolia Lindb. in lift. 

Stem more slender, with laxer, more patent, narrower linear leaves. 
HAB. Cromaglown, Killarney (Lindberg, 1873) ! ! 

This moss is almost exactly intermediate between M. crispula and brachy- 
dontia, and some of the varieties of these species so nearly connect the two, that 
it is rather difficult to define the present one. The most important character 
is derived from the form of the leaf, this is short and almost lineal in outline 
on the main axis, but on the innovations broader towards the point as in 
some Pottias, the apex ends somewhat as in crispula, but the nerve does not 
curve up, but runs straight out in an acute triangular mucro as in flavo-virens, 
while the margins do not roll inward, but are plane, in which, as well as in 
the areolation it agrees best with brachydontia. The stem varies greatly in 
size and branching, lateral innovations being very frequent, the leaves of 
which on the lower part are very small and distant, suddenly becoming 
accrescent upward into a coma. 

Prof. Lindberg also sends M. litoralis from Dingle, Howth, and O'Sulliva's 
cascade, and the male plant from Cromaglown ; the latter is in lax tufts, i inch 
high, the male infl. minute, gemmiform, in the axils of the comal leaves, the 
bracts 4 5, ovate acuminate, laxly areolate, nerved to apex. 


Dioicous ; caespitose. Leaves broadly lanceolate, gradually 
acuminate, cuspidate with the flat straight excurrent nerve. Caps, 
ovate, lid conic, rostrate, teeth of peristome very short and irregular. 
(T. XXXVI, A.) 

SYN. Trickostomum brachydontiuin BRUCH in Flora xii, P. II, 393, t. i, f. 3 (1829). LINDB. de 

Tort. 228 (1864). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 60 (1873). 
Didymodon brachydontius WILS. in HOOK. Br. Fl. ii, 30 (1833), Eng. Bot. Suppl. t. 2735 

(1834). MACK. Fl. hib. P, II, 18 (1836). 
Trichostomum mutabile BRUCH MSS. DE NOT. Syllab. 192 (1838), Epil. bri. ital. 504 

(1869). BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 1820, Mon. 8, t. 5 (1843). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. 

fl. ii, S. 3, 114(1848). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 571 (1849). WILS. Bry. brit. 112, t. 41 

(1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 150 (1860), 2 ed. 170. BERK. Handb. br. m. 261 (1863). 

MILDE Bry. siles. 103 (1869). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 74 (1873), Muse. gall. 87, 

t. 25 (1885). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 103 (1882). 

Tortnla brachydontia, MITT. Journ. Linn. soc. Bot. xii, 148 (1869). 
Mollia brachydontia LINDB. Muse, scand. 21 (1879). 

Dioicous ; densely caespitose, ^ 2 in. high, dull yellow-green above, 
fuscous below. Leaves firm and twisting when dry, erecto-patent when 
moist, lower minute, upper comant, elongato-lanceolate, acuminate, the 
nerve flattish, stout, yellowish, excurrent in a flat straight acute point ; 
margin subundulate, erect, cells at base small, rectangular, pellucid, 
above very minute, hexagonal, opake. Perich. bracts narrower, linear, 
longly acuminate ; caps, on a longish slender purple seta, erect, ovate, 

TORTULACE.E.] 246 [Mollia. 

elliptic or subcylindric, fuscous, lid conico-rostrate, teeth of per. pale 
yellow, short, unequal and variable, papillose. Male plant smaller, 
bracts ovato-acuminate, laxly areolate at base. 

HAB. Calcareous rocks, especially on the coast. Fr. 4 6. 

Ormeshead and Carrig Onnen and Tros-y-Marian, Anglesey (Wilson 1828) ! ! Gap of 
Dunloe (Wilson 1829) ! ! Near Bantry (Miss Hutchins 1809) ! Dunkerron, Kerry and 
Kenmare (Taylor 1833). Aber (Hunt 1865) ! ! Milnthorpe (Barnes 1868) ! ! Bangor 
(Wilson 1856) ! Leigh woods, Bristol (Wilson i86oj ! ! Cliffs at Newhaven (Hemmings 
1855) ! Gordale (Nowell 1854) ! ! Minehead, Somerset (Miss Gifford 1868) ! ! 
Elburton and Knighton, Plymouth (Holmes 1871) ! ! Loch Ness (Hunt) ! Dolgelly 
(Tetlow 1880) ! ! Ingleton (West 1882) ! ! Spanish head and Douglas, I. oi Man 
(Holt 1884) ! ! Dovedale (Wilson 1867) ! Penzance (Curnow) \ \ 

Var. ft. cophocarpa (Schimp.) 

Plants more slender, tall, bright green above, rufescent below ; leaves 
lanceolate below, longer, acutely acuminate ; caps, on a shorter pedicel, 
oval, brown, peristome very rudimentary. 

SYN. T. mutabile Var. S. cophocarpum SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 171. 

HAB. Chee-dale, Derby, c. fr. (WMtehead 1880) ! ! Miller's dale (West 
1881) ! ! Clydach Valley, near Abergavenny (Mitten 1883) ! ! 

This is indeed a variable moss, as one of its names implies, and no 
doubt the last species has often been confounded with it. The excurrent 
nerve varies in the length of the point, but there is always a certain tapering 
upward of the lamina, this, with the minute opake areolation and plane 
margins, best distinguish it. Mr. Mitten distributed specimens of the 
Var. (3. as Barbula paludosa SCHWAEGR. (i8n) = Tortula crocea BRID. (1806), but 
it does not belong to that species, for although having much external resem- 
blance to it, it may be noted that Barbula crocea has shorter, straighter and 
more erect leaves, suddenly pointed, the nerve only forming a short apiculus, 
the areolation of the upper part is also smaller and more indistinct, and the 
margin towards the apex has several irregular teeth. 


Dioicous ; resembling M. brachydontia, but with longer ligulate 
leaves, aristate with the terete excurrent nerve, the cells all pellucid 
and pulvinate. (T. XXXVIII, C.) 

SYN. Mollia lutescens LINDB. MSS. 

Dioicous ; in small lax incoherent tufts, yellowish green above, 
rufescent below. Leaves accrescent upward, erecto-patent when moist, 
crispate when dry, very long, narrow and ligulate, scarcely concave, 
suddenly pointed and aristate with the excurrent nerve ; basal cells 
narrowly rectangular, pellucid, upper all pellucid, very distinct and 
with chlorophyl, not papillose, but pulvinate in outline. 

TORTULACE^.] 247 [Mollia. 

HAB. Fissures of limestone rocks at Glena, Killarney, ? ster. (Lind- 
berg,]u\y, 1873)! ! 

Although so close to M. brachydontia, this appears to be a good species, 
being a coarser fragile plant with the cells in the upper part of leaf much 
better denned. 

Sect. 3. TORTELLA. C. Muell. Plants taller, robust, dense-leaved 
throughout. Leaves long, carinate, cirrhato crispate when dry, the 
sheathing base thin, white, and hyaline. Peristome sometimes twisted. 

1 8. MOLLIA TENTTIROSTRIS (Hook. Tayl.) Lindb. 

Dioicous ; in lax soft bright green tufts. Leaves long, cirrhate, 
flexuoso-patulous, linear-lanceolate, subundulate, nerve ending in the 
apex. Caps, narrow, cylindric, lid conico-rostrate, teeth linear-lanceo- 
late. (T. XXXVI, B.) 

Svv.Weissia tenuirostris HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 2 ed. 83, suppl. t. 3 (1827). HOOK. Br. 

fl. ii, 21 (1833). MACK. Fl. hibern. P. II, 14 (1836). 
Weissia cylindrica BRUCH MSS. BRID. Bry.univ. i, Suppl. 806 (1827). NEES HORNSCH. 

Bry. germ, ii, P. II, 58, t. 29, f. 13 (1831). DE NOT. Syllab. 232 (1838). 
Weissia cirrata y8. cylindrica HUEBEN, Muse. germ. 127 (1833). 

Didymodon tenuirostris WILS. in HOOK. Bot. J. iii, 378 (1841). HUSN. Muse. gall. 80, t. 
22 (1885). 

Didymodon cylindricus (non WAHLENB.) BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 2930. mon. 5, t. 3 
(1846). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 102 (1848). WILS Bry. brit. 108. t. 33 
(1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 132 (1860), 2 ed. 164. BERK. Handb. br. m. 265 (1863). DE 
NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 563 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 59 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord- 
ouest. 69 (1873). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 105 (1884). 

Trichostomum cylindricum (non HEDW.). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 586 (1849). MILDE Bry. 
siles. 100 (1869). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 104 (1882). 

Tortula cylindrica MITT. Journ. Linn. soc. i, suppl. 28 (1859). 

Trichostomum tenuirostre LINDB. De Tort. 225 (1864). 

Tortula tenuirostris MITT. Journ. Linn. soc. Bot. xii, 148 (1869). 

Mollia tenuirostris LINDB. Muse, scand. 21 (1879). 

Dioicous ; in flat, lax, soft tufts, yellow green or sometimes dark 
lurid green above, rufescent or fuscous at base. Stems 2 in. high, 
flexuose, bifid or trifid by innovation. Leaves rather lax below, 
becoming more crowded, longer and comant upward, very long from an 
erect base, flexuoso-patulous, when dry strongly twisting and cirrhate, 
linear-lanceolate, channelled, undulate, wings fragile, strongly verru- 
culose, margin minutely crenulate, occasionally with a few remote teeth 
at apex, cells at base lax pellucid, gradually and equally becoming 
oblong and oval, above roundish-quadrate, opake ; nerve terete, 
narrow, prolonged into the apex. Perich. bracts with a longer 
sheathing base ; caps, on a slender reddish-yellow seta, erect, lepto- 
dermous, narrowly cylindric, pale brown ; lid pale red, conico-rostrate, 

TORTULACE.E.] 248 [Mollia. 

half-length of caps, acute, annulus of two rows of narrow cells ; teeth 
pale red, narrowly lineal-lanceolate, cleft, or perforated, the legs closely 
cohering. Male plant more slender, repeatedly branched, bracts from 
an ovate concave base, narrowly lineal-lanceolate. 

HAB. Damp shady rocks and by waterfalls, sometimes on trunks of trees ; 
not uncommon, but rare in fruit. Fr. 10. 

Dolgelly, Dennant and Conway c. fr. (Wilson 1830) ! ! Lythebeck, Eskdale (Spruce 
1842) ! Crambeck and Howley Wood, Castle Howard (Spruce 1844) ! On trees, 
Stapleton, Bristol (Thwaites 1843) ! Povverscourt and Killarney (Taylor). Brandon 
Mountain (Moore). Glen Roy and foot of Ben Voirlich c. fr. Tore cascade, Eagle's 
nest and Cromaglown (Hunt 1867) ! ! Dunoon and Trossachs (Hunt 1866) ! Cwm 
Bychan and Tyn-y-Groes (Holt 1882) !! Pigeon rock Mtn., Mourne Mtns., Co. Down 
(Rev. H. Lett and C. Waddell 1885) ! ! Barmouth (Whitehead) ! ! 

Var. ft. Daldinii (De Not.) 

In wider tufts of a yellow-green colour ; leaves shorter, broader, gra- 
dually narrowed towards apex, or suddenly apiculate, very acute, two 
marginal series of cells pachydermous, yellow ; capsule small oblong. 

SYN. Didymodon cylindricus Var. ft. Daldinianus DE NOT. Epil. 1. c. SCHIMP. Synops. 
2 ed. 165. 

HAB. In more Alpine localities. 

Ben Voirlich (McKinlay 1862). Ben More and Ben Lawers (Hunt 1865) ! ! Trossachs 
(Hunt 1866) ! Borrowdale (Wilson 1864). Ben Arthur (Stir ton 1864). Twll Du, 
Caernarvon (Holmes 1876) ! ! Moy Laggan, Perth (Mrs. Farquharson 1879) ! ! 
Tyn-y-Groes, Wales (Holt 1885) ! ! 

Var. y. Holtii BraitJiw. 

Plants robust, densely matted and tomentose, with stout straight stems 
dark green above, black below ; leaves more dense, the upper often slightly 
secund, erecto-patent, firm, apex rather obtuse, the nerve lost at point, cells 
smaller, dense, nearly smooth. 

HAB. Dripping rocks and in the spray of waterfalls. 

Bamford wood, Lancashire (Holt 1883) ! ! Injebreck and Sulby glen, I. of Man (Holt 
1883) ! ! Clogwyn-du-Arrddu and Tyn-y-groes, Wales (Holt 1883) ! ! Cromaglown 
and O'Sullivan's cascade (Stewart and Holt 1885) ! ! 

Much resembling M. tortuosa, but more slender, and readily distinguished 
from it by the basal areolation, which in the latter is sharply defined from the 
chlorophyllose in a direction running obliquely upward and outward. It 
varies much in size, and when exposed to dripping water becomes dark 
green and often much elongated. 

Schimper's Var. robustus, from Troutbeck, is only M. tortuosa. 

19. MOLLIA HIBERNICA (Mitt.) Lindb. 

Dioicous ; tall and branching. Leaves from an ovate clasping 
base which is dilated upward, lanceolate-subulate, patent, entire, 
nerved to apex, basal cells elongate rectangular, abruptly passing to 
minute rounded chlorophyllose ones. (T. XXXVI, C.) 

TORTULACE^E.] 249 [Mollia. 

Svx.Anatctangium Hornschuchlaniim (non HOPPE HSCH.) WILS. Bry. brit. 3 i2 (1855). 

Tortilla hlbernica MITT, in SEEM. J. Bot. 1867, p. 329. BRAITHW. in Journ. Bot. 1871, 

p. 294, T. 120, f. 5. HOBK. Syn. br. m. 72 (1873). 
Didymodon controversus Wits. MSS. 
Barbula cirrifolia SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 219 (1876). 

Dioicous ; in lax tufts, yellow-green above, rufescent below, tall, 
2 4 in. high, branched, not radiculose. Leaves lax below, becoming 
longer and comose above, from an erect base, flexuoso-patulous when 
moist, cirrato-crispate when dry, at the base becoming wider upward, 
oval-oblong, concave and semi-amplexicaul, then longly lanceolate- 
subulate and concave, the margin slightly undulate at base, erect and 
entire above, very minutely verruculose ; nerve yellowish, continued to 
the apex, smooth at back, cells of the dilated base pellucid, rectangular, 
hyaline, suddenly joining the small quadrate chlorophyllose ones which 
form the rest of the leaf. Perich. bracts more longly sheathing, 
flexuose and curved in the upper part. Calyptra narrow, deeply cleft, 
convolute below ; caps, equal, cylindric. Male infl. in the stellate 
coma, bracts oblong and concave at base, shortly subulate ; antheridia 
very numerous. 

HAS. Wet rocks at Cromaglown, Killarney (Taylor) ! ! Brandon Mtn., 
Kerry (Meore 1862) ! ! 

This fine moss is very close to M . tenuirostris, but is readily distinguished 
by the dilated base of the leaf and very different areolation. The fruit was 
unknown until Schimper detected one or two old capsules, which had lost 
their peristomes, and fig. 5 and 6 are copied from his drawings. 


Dioicous ; soft, csespitose. Leaves from a sheathing oblong glossy 
white base, lineal, undulate, very concave, nerve excurrent in a short 
mucro. Caps, erect, oblongo-cylindric, lid conic rostrate, teeth long, 
filiform. (T. XXXVI, D.) 

SYN. Trichostomum flavovirens BRUCH in Flora, xii, P. II, 404, t. 2, fig. 7 (1829). DE NOT. 
Syllab. 193 (1838), Epil. bri. ital. 502 (1869). BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 1820, p. 6, t. 
2 (1843). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 113 (1848). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 585 
(1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 152 (1860), 2 ed. 174. MITT, in SEEM. J. Bot. 1868, p. 97, 
t. 77, f. i 4. MILDE Bry. siles. 105 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 61 (1873). HUSN. 
Mouss. nord-ouest 74 (1873), Muse. gall. 86, t, 24 (1885). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.- 
ung. 106 (1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 109 (1884). 

Didymodon tricolor BALS. DE NOT. in Mem. ace. Torin. xl, 333 (1838). 

Tortula fla-vomrtnz LINDB. de Tort 252 (1864). 

Mollia flavo-virens LINDB. Muse, scand. 21 (1879). 

Dioicous ; laxly caespitose, sparingly branched, in soft dull yellow- 
green tufts, \ i inch high, fuscous or pale at base and tomentose. 
Lower leaves very small, remote, suberect, upper longer, crowded in a 

TORTULACE^.] 250 [Mollia. 

patulous coma, from a longly sheathing oblong glossy whitish thin base, 
lineal-lanceolate, yellow-green or somewhat glaucous, when dry arcuato- 
incurved, the wings more or less undulated, very concave, nerve stout, 
terete, excurrent in a short mucro ; cells at base hyaline, small elongated 
rectangular, slanting upward from the nerve to the margin, suddenly 
joined by the oval chlorophyllose cells, which become rounded subquad- 
rate toward apex. Perich. bracts similar, but a little more elongated, 
caps, erect on a subflexuose seta which is yellowish above, purple at 
base, leptodermous, oblong and oblongo-cylindraceous, pale yellow- 
brown with a red mouth, lightly sulcate when dry ; lid conic-rostrate, 
not annulate, teeth long filiform, equal, purple, on a narrow basal mem- 
brane, erect or slightly twisted. Male plant simple or divided, bracts 
ovate, acuminate. 

HAB. Sandy ground near the coast ; S. of England, not common and always 
sterile. Fr. 5. 

Shoreham beach and Seaford (Borrer 1837) ' Ditten marsh (Wilson 1859). Howth, 
Portmarnock sands, Dublin and Arklow (Moore 1859) ! ! Malahide and Ross Bay 
(Carrington 1861) ! Below Staddon heights, Plymouth (Holmes 1867) ! ! Below Menai 
declivity (Hunt 1868) ! St. Minver, Cornwall (Tellam 1871) ! Hayle sands and Newlyn 
cliff (Curnow 1872) ! ! Dingle bay (Lindberg 1873) ! ! Wembury and Dartmouth 
(Holmes 1883) ! ! Mawgar Forth, Cornwall (Holmes 1884) ! ! Southport (Burgess and 
Holt 1885) ! ! Rabbit warren, St. Anne's on the sea (Cash 1884) ! ! Largo Links 
(Howie) ! ! 

Readily known by its soft texture and interruptedly comose leaves, with 
their obliquely ascending basal cells ; in habit it comes nearest M. humilis 
(HEDW.), and the leaf also resembles that of M. inclinata so closely that it is 
sometimes very difficult to decide between barren specimens. 


Dioicous ; compactly tufted. Leaves linear-lanceolate, acute, the 
apex generally broken off, circinato-incurved when dry, paler and 
shining on the back, mucronate with the excurrent nerve. Caps, cylin- 
dric, teeth small and imperfect. (T. XXXVII, A.) 

SYN. Tortula nitida LINDB. de Tort. 252 (1864), Hedwigia iv, 40 (1865), Journ. Linn. soc. 

Bot. xi, 464 (1871). BRAITHW. Journ. Bot. 1871, p. 294. HOBK. Syn. br. m. 73 (1873). 
Barbula Alcxandrina LOR. in Abhand. ak. wiss. Berl. 1867, pp. 3235, t. 67. 
Trichostomum diffractum MITT, in SEEM. Journ. Bot. 1868, p. 98, t. 77, f. 56. 
Trichostomum Barbula (non SCHWAEG.) LANGE in Bot. Tids. ii, 235 (1868). 
Barbula nitida GRAVET in Rev. bryol. 1874, p. 19. JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 121 

Trichostomum nitidum SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 179 (1876). PHILIB. in Rev. bryol. 1878, p. 

27. et 1883, p. 77. HUSNOT Muse. gall. 87, t. 24 (1885). 

Dioicous ; in small dense pulvinate tufts, olivaceous-green or 
yellowish-green above, rufo-fuscous or blackish at base, stems robust, 
dichotomous, dense-leaved, tomentose below. Leaves gradually 

TORTULACE.E.] 25! \_MollicL. 

accrescent upward, very fragile and breaking off in the upper part, from 
a short erect base, patent when moist, arcuato-incurved when dry, the 
wings inflexo-complicate, glossy and shining on the back, lineal-lanceo- 
late, at apex more or less longly acuminate, or suddenly almost apiculate, 
concave, the margin plane and subundulate, finely crenulate with 
projecting cells, base subvaginant, with lax elongated hyaline cells, 
which are small and run upward and outward to the margin, the other 
cells very minute, rounded quadrate, green, papillose on both sides ; 
nerve stout, pale green, finally brownish, prominent on the back, excurrent 
in a short rrmcro. Perich. bracts small, lanceolate-subulate, with excur- 
rent nerve, seta purple at base, passing to yellow above, caps, oblongo- 
cylindric, pale brown with a red mouth, faintly sulcate when old, 
annulus indistinct, lid ^ length of caps, obliquely rostrate, pale red, 
teeth of per. very short and irregular, truncate, yellow, papillose. Male 
infl. minute, gemmiform, in the axils of the upper leaves ; bracts 3 or 4, 
broad, oblong, with a narrow ligulate upper half, nerve vanishing. 

HAB. Calcareous rocks and walls. 

Carnelly and St. Michael's chapel, Torquay (Borrer). St. Vincent's rocks and Durdham 
downs (Thwaites 1843) ! ! Greenaleigh, Minehead (Miss Gifford 1868) ! ! Penzance 
(Curnow) ! ! I. of Purbeck, Plymouth and Corfe castle (Holmes 1865) ! ! Lynmouth, 
Durlestone head and Peveril point, Swanage (Holmes 1883) ! ! Dovedale at the opening 
of Halldale (Holmes 1875) ! ! Grange and Arnside (Boswell 1873) ! ! Cheddar (Eos-well 
1873) ! ! Mendip hills (Boswell 1880) ! ! Shaugh bridge, Devon (Holmes 1884). 
Colvend, Scotland (Cash and McAndrew 1883) ! ! Ruins at Innisfallen (Stewart and 
Holt 1885) ! ! O'Donoghue's Prison, Lough Leane g (Holt 1885) ! ! Mouse island, 
Killarney (Holt 1885). Whitbarrow, Westmoreland (Barnes 1871) ! ! 

Leaves longer and broader than in M. brachydontia, all circularly arcuato- 
incurved when dry, and glossy at the back. The fruit has only been found 
at Angouleme, in France, by M. Philibert in 1867, for some of whose speci- 
mens I am indebted to the kindness of M. Husnot. Some botanists have 
been disposed to refer this moss to Mollia tortuosa, but they are quite distinct, 
and the glossy stiff little cushions of M. nitida have an aspect so peculiar that 
it may always be identified by the naked eye alone. 

22. MOLLIA INCLINATA (Hedw. fit.) Lindb. 

Dioicous ; densely tufted. Leaves elongate, lineal, undulate, suddenly 
pointed, mucronate with the excurrent nerve. Caps, oval-oblong, cer- 
nuous ; peristome twisted. (T. XXXVII, B.) 

SYN. Barbula nervosa BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. I, 199 p.p. (1798), Mant. 95 p.p. t. 19 (1819). 

Tortula inclinata HEDW. FIL. in WEB. MOHR Beitr. i, 123, t. 5 (1805). HOOK. GREV. in 
BREWST. Edin. J. i, 298 (1824). DE NOT, in Mem. ace. Torin. xl, 322 (1838), Syllab. 
181 (1838), Muse. ital. I, 65, t. 33 (1862), Epil. bri. ital. 558 (1869). LINDB. De Tort. 


Tortula nervosa BRID. Sp. muse. I, 262 p.p. (1806). 
Tortula curvata SCHLEICH. Cat. pi. helv. 30 (1807). 

TORTULACEjE.] 252 [Mollia. 

Barbula inclinata SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 131, t. 33 (1811). ROEHL. Deutsch. fl. iii, 80 
(1813). SCHULTZ Recens. Barb, et Syntr. 218, t. 33, f. 27 (1823). BRID. Bry. univ. i, 
575 (1826). HUEBEN. muse. germ. 332 (1833). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 13 15, p. 
25, t. 12 (1842). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, s. 3, 107 (1848). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 600 
(1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 178 (1860), 2 ed. 217. MILDE Bry. siles. 123 (1869). HUSN. 
Mouss. nord-ouest 83 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 121 (1882). 

Mollia tortuosa Var. /3. inclinata LINDB. Muse, scand. 21 (1879). 

Dioicous ; in large broad tufts, flat, dense, dull yellowish green 
above, fuscous at base. Stems robust, | i inch high, dense-leaved, 
fragile. Leaves erect, acute, nearly straight, lineal-lanceolate, compli- 
cate and cirrato-crisped when dry, the wings somewhat undulate, the 
nerve whitish at back, excurrent in a very short mucro ; basal cells 
hyaline very narrow, running obliquely upward and outward, upper 
small, roundish-quadrate, papillose, opaque. Perich. bracts erect, 
longer, narrower, acuminate, more laxly areolate ; seta red, flexuose, 
caps, cernuous, oval-oblong, more or less incurved and gibbous at base, 
castaneous ; lid rufous, narrowly conic, rostrate, peristome fugacious, of 
two spirals. Male infl. terminal, gemmiform, bracts ovate, pointed, 

HAB. Sandy banks and heaths, especially by the sea ; sterile. 

Holton stone-pits, Oxford (Boswell 1872) ! ! Banks by the sea, Groomsport, Co. Down 
(Rev. C. H. Waddell, 1885) ! ! Dysart, Forfar (Ewing 1883) ! ! 

Resembling a small state of M. tortuosa, but differing by the shorter, 
broader, lineal-lanceolate leaves, more suddenly pointed, and with the 
margins at the point more or less incurved ; the capsule also is generally 
more gibbous than that of M . tortuosa. The leaf resembles that of M. flavo- 
virens very closely in areolation, but may be distinguished from it by being 
cirrato-crisped when dry. 

23. MOLLIA TORTUOSA (L.) Schrank. 

Dioicous; in large pulvinate tufts. Leaves dense, strongly curled, 
longly lineal-lanceolate, subulate, undulate, nerve excurrent. Caps, 
oblongo-cylindric, peristome contorted. (T. XXXVII, C.) 

SYN. Bryum trichoides longifolium, crassiusculis cauliculis, capitulis erectis aduncis acutis DILL. 

in RAY Synops. 3 ed. 98 (1724). 
Bryum cirratum, setis et capsulis longioribus DILL. Hist. muse. 377, t. 48, fig. 40 A D 

(1741) et Herbar. 
Bryum tortuosum L. Sp. plant, ii, 1119, (1753). HUDS. Fl. angl. 408 (1762). NECK. 

Meth. muse. 227 (1771). WITH. Bot. arr. br. veg. ii, 675 (1776). LIGHTF. Fl. scot, ii, 

727 (1777). EHRH. Hann. mag. 1780, p. 236. RELHAN Fl. cant, suppl. 18 (1786). Fl. 

danica t. 888. HULL Br. Fl. P. 2, 255 (1799). HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 46 (1795)- 
Hypnum tortuosum WEB. Spic. fl. goett. 90 (1778). 
Mnium tortuosum SWARTZ Meth. Muse. 27 (1781). 
Mollia tortuosa SCHRANK Baiers. fl. ii, 458 (1789). Pr. fl. salisb. n. 833 (1792). LINDB. 

Muse, scand. 21 (1879). 

TORTULACE^E.] 253 [Mollta. 

Tortula tortuosa EHRH. Beitr. vii. 101 (1792). SCHRAD. Spic. fl. germ. 64 (1794). BRID. 

Muse. rec. II, P. I, 189 (1798), Sp. muse. I, 264 (1806). SWARTZ Muse. suec. 39 

(1798). ROEHL. Moosg. deutsch. 391 (1800). ROTH Fl. germ, iii, P. I, 202 (1800). 

HEDW. Sp. muse. 124 (1801). RICH. Fl. amer. bor. ii, 295 (1803). SMITH Fl. brit. iii, 

1258 (1806) ; Eng. bot. t. 1708. TURN. Muse. hib. 52 (1804). HEDW. FIL. in WEB. 

MOHR Beytr. i, 121, t. 6 (1805). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 93 (1805). WAHLEN. Fl. lapp. 317 

(1812) ; Fl. carpat. 358 (1814). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 32, t. 12 (1818). GRAY Nat. 

arr. br. pi. i, 724 (1821). HOOK. Br. fl. ii, 46 (1833). DE NOT. in Mem. ace. Torin. xl, 

322 (1838), Syllab. 182 (1838), Muse. ital. I, 66, t. 39 (1862), Epil. bri. ital. 556 (1869). 

WILS. Bry. brit. 125, t. 12 (1855). BERK. Handb. br. m. 255 (1863). LINDB. de Tort. 

253 (1864). HOBK. Syn. Br. m. 72 (1873). 
Barbula tortuosa WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 205 (1807). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 129, t. 

33 (1811). VOIT Muse. herb. 53 (1812). ROEHL. Deutsch. fl. iii, 80 (1813). MART. Fl. 

cr. erl. 8 (1817). BRID. Mant. muse. 95 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 574 (1826). FUNCK Moost. 

23, t. 15 (1821). SCHULTZ Recens. Barb, et Syntr. 219, t. 34, f. 28 (1823). HUEBEN. 

Muse. germ. 333 (1833). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 13 15, p. 26, t. 13 (1842). 

RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 107 (1848). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 601 (1849). SCHIMP. 

Synops. 179 (1860), 2 ed. 218. MILDE Bry. siles. 123 (1869). HUSN, Mouss. nord- 

ouest 84 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr-ung. 122 (1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. 

Amer. 129 (1884). 

Dioicous ; in large soft swollen pulvinate tufts, fine yellow-green 
above, fuscous below. Stems tall i 4 in. high, dichotomous fastigiate, 
tomentoso-radiculose at base. Leaves densely crowded, flexuoso-patent 
when moist, circinato-crispate when dry, from a thin pale ovate base, 
longly lineal-lanceolate subulate, undulate, nerve strong, excurrent in a 
short subdenticulate point ; upper cells minute, obscure, basal hyaline 
narrow and elongated, running obliquely upward and outward to the 
margin. Perich. bracts erect, semivaginant, narrowly acuminate, 
whitish ; caps, on an elongated red seta, erect, from ovate oblongo- 
cylindric, subregular or more or less arcuate, leptodermous, at first 
greenish-yellow, afterwards pale brown, when old dark brown ; lid 
elongato-conic, subulate, as long as caps, or shorter, not annulate, 
peristome red, very slender, scabrous, several times convolute. Male 
plant smaller, with shorter lanceolate leaves, infl. terminal, bracts 
ovate, concave, suddenly lanceolate, nerved. 

HAB. Rocks, especially calcareous, but also on sandstone and on banks and 
walls. Fr. 7. 

Var. /?. dicranoidea Ferg. MSS. 

Stems tall, compactly tufted 3 6 in. high, densely radiculose nearly to 
the apex ; leaves subsecund, firm, rigid, the terminal collected into a cuspidate 
HAB. M. Uam, Glen Shee, &c. (Fergmson 1879) ! ! 

Var. y. angustifolia (Jurat z.) 

Plants shorter, more slender, glaucescent ; leaves from a longish base, 
very narrowly lanceolate-subulate, the hyaline cells extending far up the 
basal margin. 

SYN. Barbula tortuosa Var. (3. angustifolia JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 123. 

HAB. Winnatts, Derby (T. Rogers 1881) ! ! Wall west of Bryanford, Co. 
Down (Rev. H. W. Lett 1885) t ! 

TORTULACE.E.] 254 [Mollia. 

Var. 3. fragilifolia (Juratz.} 

Plants short, in. high, yellow-green, with few radicles; leaves short, 
incurved, fragile, and breaking off near the summit, so that the apical only 
are entire, points short, not acuminate, mucronate with the excurrent 
rufescent nerve, which is pale and glossy at the back. 

SYK.Barbula tortuosa Var. y fragilifolia JURATZ. 1. c. 
Tortula thrausta STIRTON MSS. 

HAB. On a wall near Killin (Stirton 1868). 

This fine moss varies considerably in size and colour, and is very shy of 
fruiting, but may be always recognised by its long narrow curled leaves, 
with thin hyaline cells at the base. The var. . has much resemblance to 
M. nitida in the fragile leaves, but their soft texture and yellow-green colour 
sufficiently distinguish it. 

24. MOLLIA FRAGILIS (Drumm.) Lindb. 

Dioicous ; in dense tufts. Leaves dense, straight, erecto-patent, 
lanceolate-subulate, breaking off at the points, margin plane, nerve 
excurrent. Caps, erect subcylindric, peristome convolute. (T. 

SYN. Didymodon fragilis DRUMM. Musci Amer. bor. i, n. 127 (1828). HARTM. in Nya hot. not. 

1855, p. 48. 
Tortula fragilis WILS. in HOOK. Journ. Bot. iii, 437 (1841). C. HARTM. Skand. fl. 7 ed. 

377 (1858). DE NOT. Muse. ital. I, 68, t. 35 (1862) ; Epil. bri. ital. 557 (1869). LINDB. 

de Tort. 253 (1864). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 73 (1873). 
Trichostomum fragile C. MUELL. Synops. i, 586 (1849). 
Barbula fragilis BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 6264, Suppl. t. 4 (1855), Coroll. 141 (1855). 

SCHIMP. Synops. 181 (1860), 2 ed. 219. LINDB. in Oefv. vet. ak. foerh. xx, 387 (1863). 

JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 123 (1822). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 129 (1884). 
Campylopus Hartmani SCHIMP. MSS. HARTM. in Nya bot. not. 1855, p. 49. 
Tortula Drummondii MITT. Journ. Lin. soc. i, Suppl. 27 (1859). LINDB. in HARTM. Skand. 

fl. 8 ed. 392 (1861). 

Barbula Drummondii MILDE Bry. siles. 124 (1869). 
Mollia fragilis LINDB. muse, scand. 21 (1879). 

Dioicous ; in wide dense tufts, yellow-green above, fuscous below. 
Stems erect, straight, rigid, simple or dichotomous, densely matted 
with brown tomentum. Leaves very crowded, erecto-patent, lanceolate- 
subulate, very fragile in the upper part, the margin plane, crenulate, 
the comal from an elongated base, capillaceo-subulate ; nerve when dry 
very glossy and whitish on the back, excurrent in a triquetro-semiterete 
subula ; basal cells very thin and hyaline, prolonged far up the margin 
in a narrowing band, apical minute, highly chlorophyllose, obscure 
from the dense covering on both sides of truncate papillae, descending 
into the hyaline base with an acute angle. Caps, erect, short-necked, 
from ovate, oblong and subcylindric, regular or lightly curved, lid two- 

TORTULACE^.J 255 [Leptodontium. 

thirds length of caps, from a conic base, obliquely rostrate ; teeth 
very scabrous, slender, 2 3 times convolute, falling away with the 

Male infl. terminal, subdiscoid, with numerous antheridia, bracts 
HAB. Wet mountain rocks, always sterile. 

Ben Lawers (McKinlay 1865) ! ! Clova (Fergusson) ! ! Ben Laoigh, Perth (Ewing 1885). 
Roundstone, Connemara (Moore 1853) ! ! 

Very like M. tortuosa, but distinguished by its straight leaves with longly 
excurrent triangular nerve. 


Linnaea xx, 70 (1847). 

Leaves squarroso-reflexed, complicato-concave, flexuose, the margin 
serrulate or eroso-crenulate. Caps, leptodermous, narrow, erect, lid 
conic, peristome of 32 filiform, straight, erect, smooth teeth, unequal, 
separate or anastomosing here and there in pairs, or connascent ; 
calyptra cucullate. Der. AETTTOS slender and oSous a tooth. 

A small but natural genus, of which the types are the Kast Indian 
L. squarrosum (HooK.) HAMPE and L. aggyegatum C. MUELL. and principally 
distinguished by the squarrose serrate leaves. 

Another European species is the rare Trichostomum subalpinum DE NOT. 


Stems short, slender ; leaves without a paler border. 

Leaves broad at point, nerve vanishing. flexifolium 
acuminate at point, nerve excurrent, gemmiferous. gemmascens 

Stems tall, robust ; leaves with a pale border. recurvifolium 


Dioicous ; short, nearly simple. Leaves reflexed, oblong-ligulate, 
apiculate, coarsely serrate at apex, nerve lost at or below the point. 
Caps, small, narrowly cylindric, lid conic with a short obtuse point. 
(T. XXXVII, E.) 

SYN. Bryum flexifolium DICKS, pi. crypt. Ill, 5, t. 7, f. 9 (1793). WITH. Bot. arr. br. veg. 

3 ed. iii, 815 (1796). HULL Br. fl. P. 2, 258 (1799). BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. Ill, 

55 (1803). 
Trichostomum flexifolium SM. Fl. brit. 1246 (1804), Eng. bot. t. 2493. BRID. Sp. muse. I, 

242 (1806), Mant. 86 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 499 (1826). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 577 (1849). 

MILDE Bry. siles. 106 (1869). 
Didymodon flexifolium HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 66, t. 20 (1818). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. 

i, 742 (1821). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. II, 135 (1821) ; Br. fl. ii, 28 (1833). SCHWAEG. Suppl. 

II, P. 2, t. 184 (1826). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 2930, Mon. 6, t. 4 (1846). 

RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 103 (1848). WILS. Bry. brit. 109, t. 20 (1855). 

SCHIMP. Synops. 133 (1860), 2 ed. 163. BERK. Handb. br. m. 265 (1863). HOBK. Syn. 

br. m. 60 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 69 (1873). 
Leptodontium flexifolium HAMPE Linnaea xx, 70 (1847). LINDB. rj e Tort. 227 (1864). 

TORTULACE^E.] 256 [Leptodontium. 

Dioicous; gregariously caespitose, nearly simple, i 2 in. high, 
fragile, yellowish, succulent. Leaves reflexed, squarroso-patulous, 
flexuose when moist, curled when dry, from an erect base, oblong- 
ligulate, apiculate, coarsely and unequally serrate at apex, carinate, 
margin plane above, recurved below, nerve vanishing just below the 
apex ; cells at base elongated, pellucid, smooth, above small, 
hexagonal rounded, finely papillose, perich. bracts broader, vaginant. 
Caps, on a long slender yellowish seta, erect, narrowly cylindric, lepto- 
dermous, fuscous, when dry sulcate, slightly contracted below the 
mouth ; lid conic with a short obtuse point ; annulus narrow, frag- 
mentary ; teeth slender, fugacious, nearly entire, bifid or cohering, 
pale, smooth, arising below the orifice of caps. Male plant more 
slender, infl. terminal, bracts ovato-lanc., concave, erecto-patent serrate. 

HAB. Bare gravelly and turfy places, not common. Fr. 2 4. 

Croydon (Dickson). Ben Ledi and Callander (Walker- Arnott). Buxton (Greville). 
Congleton Cloud and Alderley Edge, Cheshire, c. fr. (Wilson) ! ! Wrexham c. fr. 
(Bowman 1835) ! Manchester c. fr. (Hobson) ! Todmorden c. fr. (Nowell 1848) ! 
Forley, Derby, c. fr. (Hunt) ! Blackdown, Sussex (Mitten). Glenprosen, Clova. c. fr. 
(Fcrgusson) ! ! Powder hill and Bagley wood, Oxon., c. fr. (Boswell 1863) ! ! 
Penzance (Curnow) \ 

This moss appears to be more frequent in Britain than on the Continent, 
and is not found in S. Europe. Did. styriacus JURATZ. appears to be only a 
variety with the leaves erecto-patent and more distantly serrated. 


Short, laxly tufted, nearly simple. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, 
erecto-patent, the nerve excurrent and bearing obovate gemmae at point, 
margin serrulate at apex. (T. XXXVIII, A.) 

SYN. Dldymodon gemmascens MITT. MSS. 

Didymodon ftexifolius Var. (3. gemmiferus SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 164 (1876). 
Streptopogon gemmascens MITT. Phil. Trans, v. 168, p. 33 (1879). 

Stems short, fragile, $ 2 in. high, laxly tufted, scarcely branched, 
bright green above, fuscous at base. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, 
acuminate, erecto-patent, the lower shorter, somewhat recurved, margin 
erect, minutely spinuloso-serrate at apex ; nerve in the lower leaves 
reaching point, in the upper excurrent and bearing at tip a globular mass 
of obovate green gemmae, often having fine radicles intermixed ; cells at 
base elongated and pellucid, above rounded, papillose on both sides. 
Fruit unknown. 

HAB. Old thatched roofs in Sussex. 

Hurstpierpoint and Amberley (Mitten 1845) ! I Near Liff, Dundee (Fergusson). 

TORTULACE^.] 257 [Barbula. 

Although Mr. Mitten has referred this moss to another genus, in the 
absence of fruit I prefer retaining it near Leptodontium flexifolium, to which in 
areolation it is certainly allied, though quite distinct as a species ; the leaves 
are not squarrose, but divergent, and the gemmae have 2 3 transverse 

Although it disappears with the removal of the thatch, when this has 
been renewed and is passing into decay, L. gemmascens is certain to reappear. 


Dioicous ; tall, loosely caespitose. Leaves squarrose, elliptic- 
oblong, pale-bordered, coarsely serrate, nerve excurrent in an apiculus. 

SYN. Bryum recurvifolium TAYL. MSS. 

Didymodon recurvifolius WILS. Bry. br. no, t. 41 (1855). BERK. Handb. br. m. 266 
(1863). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 60 (1873). SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 165 (1876). 

Leptodontium recurvifolium LINDB. De Tort. 227 in obs. (1864). 

Dioicous ; in lax irregular tufts, deep green above, fuscous or black 
below. Stem I 4 in. high, geniculate, erect, free from radicles. Leaves 
from an erect base, squarrose, patulous and somewhat recurved from 
the middle, crispate and undulate when dry, from an ovate or oblong 
base, broadly lanceolate, or elliptic oblong, obtuse, somewhat coriaceous; 
nerve thin semiterete, broader below, excurrent in a short apiculus ; 
margin plane, serrate in the upper half; basal cells minute, pellucid, 
rectangular, upper rounded, minutely papillose, opake with chlorophyl, 
except the 3 5 marginal rows which are empty, smooth, and form a 
pale border. Fruit unknown. 

HAB. Wet rocky places in mountains, very rare. 

Knockavohila, Killarney (Taylor 1842) ! Ben Voirlich by Loch Lomond (McKinlay 
1863) ! Glyder Vaur (Griffith 1878) ! ! Tyn-y.groes (Holt 1885) ! ! 

This fine moss appears to be extinct both in the Irish and Scotch 
localities, so that its discovery in Wales is an interesting event. The Ben 
Voirlich plant has the leaves more coarsely areolate, with a stronger nerve, 
the apex more obtuse and larger serratures. 


Fund. muse. II, 92 (1782). 

Plants caespitose, branched, slender, usually tinged with rufous- or 
rusty-brown. Leaves small, from an oval base, gradually lanceolate, 
not accrescent upward ; nerve terete, vanishing or rarely excurrent ; 

TORTULACE.E.] 258 [Barbula. 

basal cells small, rectangular, slightly hyaline, upper small, incrassate, 
rotundate, or quadrate. Caps, oval or cylindraceous, peristome of 
16 teeth on a very short membrane, cleft to base into two slender legs, 
papillose, short or imperfect, or longer and spirally twisted, sometimes 
wanting. Der. barba, a beard. 

Although Barbula and Tortula have generally been combined, and must be 
if we limit our views by the peristome alone, the habit and general aspect of 
the species are so distinctive, that it is far more convenient to keep them 
separate. These in Barbula are the rusty tinge which more or less pervades 
the plants, and the lanceolate leaves gradually tapering to an acute point, 
appressed when dry, with recurved margins, the cells of the upper part being 
rounded or quadrate and well defined. We have also in Europe B. bicolor 
BR. Sen. B. Lamyi (SCHIMP.) B.cordata QURATZ.) B. rufa (LORENTZ) 
B. flavipes BR. Sen. B. gigantea FUNCK B. crocea BRID. B. icmadophila 
BR. Sen. and B. obtusula LINDB. Schimper's B. Woodii is nothing but 
A mphoridium Mougeotii. 


Gymnostomous. curvirostris. 


Leaves without thickened limb. 
Peristome short, erect. 

Infl. paroicous, lower leaves red. rubella. 

Infl. dioicous. 

Leaves acute, nerved to apex. 

L. ovato-lanc., basal cells rounded, per. short, pale, lurida. 
L. lanc.-acuminate, basal cells rectang. per. longer, 

red. rigidula. 

Leaves obtuse, nerve vanishing below apex. 

L. short, ovato-lanc., caps, oblong. brevifolia. 

L. long, lanc.-acuminate, caps, cylindric. spadicea. 

Peristome elongated, contorted. 

Leaves squarroso-recurved. 

L. dense, gradually acuminate, acute. fallax 

L. distant, strongly recurved, short pointed. reflexa. 

Leaves erecto-patent. 

L. points acuminate, very acute. 
Nerve excurrent. 

L. ovate acuminate, aristate with the thin 

nerve. acuta. 

L. ovato-lanc. cuspidate with the thick nerve. Hornschuchii. 
Nerve vanishing just below apex. 

Margin of leaf entire. cylindrica. 

Margin sinuous in upper part, serrate at apex, sinuosa. 
L. points short, obtuse. 

Perich. bracts large, convolute. couvoluta. 

Perich. bracts not conspicuous. 

L. short, linear, revolute at margin revoluta. 

L. oblong-lane., margin revolute in lower 

half. unguiculata. 

Leaves surrounded with a thickened limb. mucronata. 

Sect. i. HYMENOSTYLIUM (End.) Tall, densely caespitose, much 
branched. Capsule ovate or oval, truncate, gymnostomous ; lid with a long 

TORTULACE.E.] 259 [Barbula. 


Dioicous; tall, densely caespitose. L. linear-lane., acute, with 
recurved margins, nerve vanishing at apex. Caps, ovate, gymnostomous ; 
lid obliquely rostrate, systylious. (T. XXXVIII, D.) 

SYN. Pottia ciirvirostris EHRH. Beitr. i, 188 (1787). 

Gymnostomum curvirostre HEDW. Stirp. cr. ii, 68, t. 24 (1789), Sp. muse. 33 (1801). 

HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 28 (1795). BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. I, 45 (1798), Sp. muse. I, 39 

(1806), Mant. 18 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 84 (1826). ROTH Fl. germ, iii, P. I, 125 (1800). 

ROEHL. Moosg. deutsch. 82 (1800). SMITH Fl. brit. 1164 (1804), Eng. hot. t. 2214. 

P. BEAUV. Prodr. 59 (1805). WEB. MOHR Bot. Taseh. 83 (1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. 

kr. gew. P. II, 22, t. 10 (1810). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 32 (1811). WAHLENB. 

Fl. lapp. 302 (1812). MART. Fl. crypt, erl. 122 (1817). HOOK TAYL. Muse. brit. ii, 

t. 6 (1818). HARTM. Skand. fl. 382 (1820). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 714 (1821). 

HOOK. Fl. scot. P. II, 122 (1821), Br. fl. ii, 7 (1833). NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ. 170, 

t. ii, f. 34 (1823). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 55 (1833). MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 9 (1836). 

DE NOT. Syllab. 289 (1838). Epil. bri, ital. 602 (1869). BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc.33 36, 

p. 8, t. 7 (1846). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 122 (1848). WILS. Bry. brit. 42, 

t. 6 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops 43 (1860), 2 ed. 43. BERK. Handb. br. m. 294 (1863). 

HOBK. Syn. br. M. 32 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 15 (1882). LESQ. JAMES 

Mosses N. Amer. 54 (1884). 

Bryum stelligerum DICKS. Crypt, fasc. II, 3, t. 4, f. 4 (1790). 
Gymnostomum stelligerum BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. I, 46 (1798), Sp. muse. I, 39 (1806), 

Mant. 18 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 89, p.p. SCHRAD. Journ. bot. ii, P. I, 55 (1799). SMITH 

Fl. brit. 1164; Eng. bot. t. 2202. 

Gymnostomum ariiginosum (non SMITH). NEES HORNSCH. op. c. 160, t. 10, f. 19. 
Weissia ciirvirostris C. MUELL. Synops. i, 658 (1849). 
Hymenostylium curvirostre MITT. Journ. Linn. soc. i, Suppl. 32 (1859). LINDB. De 

Tort. 230 (1864). MILDE Bry. siles. 48 (1869). 
Barbula ciirvirostris LINDB. Muse, scand. 22 (1879). 

Dioicous ; in soft tumid tufts, yellow-green above with a fuscous 
tinge, ferruginous below. Stems i 4 in. high, fragile, much branched, 
fastigiate, radiculose. Leaves erecto-patent, scarcely incurved when 
dry, lane, acute, carinate, minutely papillose, margin recurved, often 
subserrated above the base, nerve semi-terete, prominent at back, 
vanishing below apex ; cells at base pellucid, elongated, above quadrate 
and oval, papillose. Seta straw-colored, reddish at base. Caps, ovate, or 
subspherical, pachydermous, gymnostomous, rufous, glossy, when old 
turbinate ; lid from a conic base, with a long subulate oblique beak, 
systylious and long persistent ; calyptra reaching middle of caps, long- 
beaked. Male plants similar to the female, infl. terminal, bracts ovate, 
HAB. Alpine calcareous rocks. Fr. 9. 

Var. ft. commutata (Mitt.) Lindb. 

Plants taller, more rigid, tinged with brown ; leaves long, narrow, erect, 
more obtuse, the cells all more or less rectangular, pellucid, smooth. 

SYN. Hymenostylium commutatum MITT. Journ. Linn. Soc. i, Suppl. 32 (1859). 
Barbula ciirvirostris var. commutata LINDB. Muse. Scand. 22 (1879). 

TORTULACE^.] 260 [Barbula. 

HAB. In similar localities, but less frequent. 

Nant-y-Fydd, Wrexham (Bowman) ! ! Trefriew, N. Wales (Dr. Wood 1861) ! Pont-y- 
Prid (Holmes 1878) ! ! Ptarmigan Mtn., Perth (Holt 1880) ! ! Cautley Spout, Yorks. 
(West 1881) ! ! Glen Meay, I. of Man (Holt 1880) ! ! Ravensdale, Derby (Holt 1883) ! ! 
Ben Laoigh, Perth (Ewing 1884) ! ! Gainford, Durham (R. Barnes 1887) !! 

Frequently met with on mountain rocks and often encrusted with lime. 
It varies greatly in height and density, and also in the form of capsule and 
length of leaves, and after much study we have come to the conclusion that 
H. commutatum cannot be maintained as a species, for the two forms of 
areolation run into each other, even on the same plant. 

B. curvirostris much resembles Mollia aruginosa, but may be known by its 
broader leaves with recurved margins and narrower nerve, the cells lax and 
hyaline at base, quadrate and well defined above, the pachydermous rufous 
capsule, and subulate systylious lid. 

Lindberg distinguishes three forms of the species, a. scabra with shorter 
leaves, and scabrous, quadrate cells. (3. Iceviusciila with long narrow leaves, 
and scarcely scabrous quadrate cells, y. commutata, with long narrow leaves, 
and smooth rectangular cells. 

Sect. 2. ERYTHROPHYLLUM Lindb. Leaves lanceolate, acuminate, 
the lower rusty red. Capsule subcylindric, teeth 16, lanceolate, tender, with 
scarcely any basal membrane. 

2. BARBULA KUBELLA (Hoffm.) Mitt. 

Paroicous. Leaves recurved, lineal-lanceolate, nerved to apex, 
lower red, margin recurved. Caps, cylindric, lid short-beaked, teeth pale 
red. (T. XXXIX, A.) 

SYN. Bryum rubellum HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii,33 (1795). 
Grimmia rubella ROTH Fl. germ, iii, P. I, 149 (1800). 
Weissia rubella ROEHL. Moosg. deutsch. 142 (1800). 
Grimmia recurvirostris SM. Fl. brit. 1190, excl. syn. (1804) ; Eng. bot. t. 1438. TURN. 

Muse. hib. 19 (1804). 
Grimmia curvirostris WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 135 (1807). VOIT in STURM Deutsch. fl. 

ii, heft 14 (1813) ; Muse, herbip. 29 (1812). 
Weissia curvirostra HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 46 excl. syn. t. 14 (1818). HOOK. Fl. scot. 

P. II, 130 (1821), Br. fl. ii, 22 (1833). 
Anacalypta recurvirostris FUERN. in Flora xii, P II, Erg. 25 (1829). NEES HORNSCH. Bry. 

germ, ii, P. II, 151 excl. syn. t. 37, f. 6 (1831). 
Anacalypta rubella HUEBEN. muse. germ. 119 (1833). 
Didymodon rubellus BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 29-30, p. 3 excl. syn. t. i (1846). WILS. Bry. 

br. 106, t. 14 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 130 (1860), 2 ed. 160. BERK. Handb. br. m. 

264 (1863). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 58 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 68 (1873), Muse. 

gall. 82, t. 23 (1885). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 98 (1833). LESQ. JAMES Mosses 

N. Amer. 104 (1884). 
Trickostomiim rubellum RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. Ill, 115 excl. syn. (1848). C. 

MUELL. Synops. i, 581 excl. syn. (1849). HARTM. Sk. fl. 7 ed. 381 (1858). LINUB. De 

Tort. 226 (1864). MILDE Bry. siles. 101 (1869). 
Barbula rubella MITT. Journ. Linn. soc. xii, 162 (1869). LINDB. Muse, scand. 22 (1879). 

Paroicous and synoicous ; caespitose, deep green above, ferruginous 
red below, i 2in. high, slender, branched. Leaves curled when dry, 

TORTULACE^.I 261 [Barbula. 

patent and recurved when moist, the lower lanceolate, upper suddenly 
larger, from an erect concave base, lineal-lanceolate, acuminate, carinate, 
minutely papillose on. both sides, the margin recurved, nerve terete, 
vanishing below or in the apex ; cells at base pellucid rectangular, above 
small quadrate and chlorophyllose. Perich. bracts longly sheathing, 
thin ; caps, erect, on a long reddish seta, cylindraceous, rarely oblong 
or oval, leptodermous, pale brownish-green, finally reddish ; annulus of 
two rows of large cells, very fragile, lid conic, with a short straight or 
slightly oblique beak; per. on a short basal membrane, pale red, soft, 
of 16 flat linear teeth, rarely cleft or perforated, the articulations nodose 
and papillose. Antheridia usually naked in the axils of the perich. bracts. 

HAB. Walls, rocks and stony ground, principally in subalpine districts. 
Fr. 89. 

Var. /? dentata (Schimp.) 

Plants dingy green, the leaves longer, with the margin recurved only to 
the middle and toothed toward apex. 

SYN. Didymodon rubellus ft dentatus SCHIMP. Synops. 131. 
Didymodon dentatus JURATZ. MSS. 
Trichostomum alpigenum VENT. MSS. 
Didymodon alpigenus JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 98. 

HAB. Wet stony places on mountains. 

Clayton downs, Sussex (Mitten) \ Schiehallion (Braithwaite 1884) ! ! Coneysthorpe, 
Yorks. (Spruce 1878). Miller's dale (Holt 1879) ! ! Ingleborough (Cash 1880) ! ! 

VAR. y. ruberrima (Fergusson). 

Plants more slender, slightly branched, ^ 2in. high ; leaves short, more 
distant, all vinous red, entire, from an oblong base, suddenly narrowed near 
the middle and incurved at margin, acutely acuminate. 

HAB. Mountain rocks. 

Head of Glen Lochay (Arnott and Borrer) ! Glen Tilt (West 1880) ! ! Ben Lawers 
(Braithwaite 1865) ! ! Clova (Fergusson) ! ! 

Barbula rubella varies considerably in size and density, but is very uniform 
in the fruit, and always more or less red in the lower leaves. In Var. /3. the 
denticulation varies much, but in no case have I seen it so spinulose as in 
continental specimens. The Var. y. differs widely from the type, and has 
quite the aspect of a distinct species, indeed it was recorded as Didymodon 
rufus LORENTZ, but Barbula vufa has a broader leaf, gradually narrowing 
upward, the base of different shape with smaller and more numerous cells, 
and the areolation of upper part not opaque and indistinct. 

Sect. 3. EUBARBULA Lindb. Plants slender or robust, young leaves 
green, becoming more or less of a rusty brown colour, lanceolate with 
recurved margins ; caps, narrow, teeth short or rudimentary, or long and 

ToRTULACEjE.] 262 [Barbula. 

3. BARBULA LURIDA (Hornsch.} Lindb. 

Dioicous; csespitose. Leaves straight, fuscescent, ovato-lanc., 
nerved to apex, the margin recurved. Caps, oblongo-cylindric, teeth 
pale yellow, short, cleft. (T. XXXIX, B.) 

Syx.Didymodon luridus HORNSCH. in L. Syst. veg. 16 ed. iv, P. I, 173 (1827). BR. SCH. Bry. 

eur. fasc. 29-30, p. 4, t. 2 (1846). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 102 (1848). WILS. 

Bry. br. 107, t. 41 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 131 p.p. (1860), 2 ed. 161. BERK. Handb. br. 

m. 265 (1863). DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 566 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 59 (1873). HUSN. 

Mouss. nord-ouest 68 (1873), Muse. gall. 83, t. 23 (1885). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 

99 (1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 104 (1884). 
Barbula deusta BRID. Bry. univ. i, 553 (1826). 

Cynodon luridus HORNSCH. MSS. BRID. Bry. un. i, Suppl. 818 (1827). 
Didymodon trifarius HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 288 (1833). 
Trichostomnm luridum SPRUCE in Ann. mag. n. h. 2 ser. iii, 379 (1849). LINDB. in Oefv. 

vet. ak. forh. xvi, 210 (1859), De Tort. 226~(i864). HARTM. Skand. fl. 8 ed. 397 (1861). 

MILDE Bry. siles. 102 (1863). 

Trichostomum trifarium (non SM.) C. MUELL. Synops. i, 574, excl. syn. (1849). 
Barbula trifaria MITT. Journ. Lin. soc. i, Suppl. 36 (1859). 
Barbula lurida LINDB. Muse, scand. 22 (1879). 

Dioicous ; in small bright green tufts, with a lurid brownish tint 
when old and dry; stems simple or branched. Leaves patulous when 
moist, straight and subimbricated when dry, lower broadly ovato-lanc., 
upper oblongo-lanc., shortly acuminate, sometimes muticous, very con- 
cave, nearly smooth, margin reflexed but flat below the point, nerve 
rufescent, stout, vanishing at or below apex ; areolation very distinct, 
minutely hexagono-rectangular, a little laxer at base. Perich. bracts 
erect, oblongo-elongate, subvaginant, rather laxer ; caps, oval, oblong or 
subcylindric, equal or a little curved, ferruginous, leptodermous, annulus 
very narrow, persistent, lid narrow conic, straight or slightly curved ; 
teeth very slender, irregular or rudimentary, simple or bipartite, pale 
yellow, nearly smooth, without basal membrane. Male plant more 
slender, infl. terminal, gemmiform, bracts ovato-lanceolate. 

HAB. Limestone walls or crumbling sandstone. Fr. n 12. 

Near Cork (Wilson 1829)! Trebarth (Wilson 1864). Kent and Sussex (Mitten). Wei 
burn, Yorks. (Spruce 1847) ' Mutley, Lipson and Laira, Plymouth (Holmes 1867) ! 
Troup head (Rev. J. Fergusson iSfg) ! ! Headington, Oxford (Boswell 1880) ! ! Uff- 

burn, Yorks. (Spruce 1847) ' Mutley, Lipson and Laira, Plymouth (Holmes 1867) ! ! 
Troup head (Rev. J. Fergusson iSfg) ! ! Headington, Oxford (Boswell 1880) ! ! Uff- 
moor wood (Bagnall 1872)!! Tralee (Moore). Woolsonbury hill (Mitten). Coneys- 

thorpe, Yorks. (Slater 1880) ! ! Wetherby, Yorks. (Wesley 1875) ! ! Banks of the 
Hodder, Clitheroe (Burgess & Holt 1886) ! ! 

This moss varies much in size and density, sometimes reaching a height 
of 2 inches ; the teeth of peristome will always distinguish it from B. brevifolia 
and rigidula, but the older synonyms of all three species are sadly confused. 

4. BARBULA BREVIFOLIA (Dicks.} Lindb. 

Dioicous ; caespitose. Leaves straight, fuscescent, ovato-lanc. nerved 
to apex, the margins recurved. Caps, oblongo-cylindric, teeth pale red, 
cleft to base, on a basal membrane. (T. XXXIX, C.) 

TORTULACE^S.] 263 [Barbula, 

Svn. Bryum trichodes, erectis capitulis fusco-nigris DILL, in RAY Synops. 3 ed. 96(1724). 

Bryum palustre brevifolium, capsulis nigricantibus DILL. Hist. muse. 377, t. 47, f. 39 

(1741) et Herb. 

Weissia recurvirostris HEDW. Stirp. i, 19, t. 7 (1787) ? 
Bryum brevifolium DICK'S. PL crypt, fasc. II, 4 (1790). 
Trichostomum lineare SM. Fl. br. 1246, excl. syn. (1804), Eng. bot. t. 1598. DAVIES Welsh 

bot. 108 (1813). DE NOT. Syllab. 186 (1838). 
Tr. linoides SM. op. c. 1247 exc ^- s y n - Eng. bot. t. 2295. 
Tr. trifarium SM. op. c. 1235 exc '- s y n - Eng. bot. t. 1707. 

Didymodon trifarius (non SWARTZ) HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 67, t. 20 (1818). HOOK. Fl. 
Scot. 136 (1821) ; Br. Fl. ii, 30 (1833*. WAHLENB. Fl. suec. ii, 1074 (1826). AHNFELT 
in FR. Fl. scan. 239 (1835). 

Trichostomum tophaceum BRID. Mant. 84 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 495 (1826). DE NOT. Syll. 
187 (1838), Epil. bri. ital. 506 (1869). BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 18-20, p. 9, t. 6 (1843). 
RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. Ill, 114 (1848). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 573 (1849). 
WILS. Bry. br. 113, t. 20 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 149 (1860), 2 ed. 169. BERK. 
Handb. Br. m. 260 (1863). LINDB. De Tort. 227 (1864). MILDE Bry. siles. 103 (1869). 
HOBK. Syn. br. m. 60 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 73 (1873), Muse. gall. 85, 
t. 24 (1885). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 109 (1884). 
Anacalypta tophacea BRUCH in NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ, ii, P. II, 148, t. 37, f. 5 (1831). 

HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 120 (1833). 

Barbula tophacea MITT. Journ. Linn. soc. i, Suppl. 35 (1859). 
Barbula brevifolia LINDB. muse, scand. 22 (1879). 
Didymodon tophaceus JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 100 (1882). 

Dioicous ; in dense tufts, olive green above, reddish below, often 
coated with calcareous deposit. Leaves from an erect base, patulous, 
very minutely verruculose, from ovate, lineal-lane., obtuse, carinate, 
concave, nerve vanishing below apex, margin revolute, cells minute, 
rounded, incrassate, at base laxer, shortly rectang., hyaline. Perich. 
bracts larger, erect, more obtuse. Caps, on a thickish red seta, erect, 
ovate or oblong, rufo-fuscous ; annulus not defined ; lid with an oblique 
beak ; per. tubular at base, the teeth imperfect or unequal, pale or red, 
legs partly free, partly connate. Male plant more slender ; infl. gem- 
miform, bracts ovate, acuminate, nerved. 

HAS. Calcareous rocks and walls. Fr. 10 2. 

Glasgow. Clapham springs (Abbott). Teesdale (Backhouse). Winwick stone quarry 
(Wilson 1843) ! ! Sussex (Mitten). Crambeck, Castle Howard, and near York 
(Spruce 1847) ! Ramsden Clough and Todmorden (Nozvell 1841) ! ! Marple, Bowdon, 
and Southport (Hunt 1865) ! ! Killiney (Sim 1867) ! ! Menai declivity (Hunt 1868) ! ! 
Ulverston (Miss Hodgson) ! ! Gordale and Otley (Hobkirk). Erdington and Barnt 
Green, Birmingham (Bagnall) ! ! Clifton, Manchester (Wild 1874;. Plymouth 
(Holmes). Wetherby (Wesley 1878)! ! Wembury, Devon, a very dwarf dense form 
(Holmes) ! ! Berwick coast (Hardy). Balcaskie, Fife (Howie 1863) ! Springs in the 
cliff at Eastbourne, forma luxurians (Roper 1887) ! ! and at Hastings (Jenner) ! 

Var. ft. acutifolia Schimp. 

Less robust, leaves longer, narrower, acutely acuminate, when moist 

SYN. SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 170. 

HAB. Sandstone rocks near Warrington (Wilson). Wet clay soil near Man- 
chester (Dr. Wood). Headington Hill, Oxford (Boswell 1881) ! ! 

TORTULACE^.] 264 [Barbula. 

Very variable in size and colour according to the locality, but distinguished 
from the last species by its obtuse leaves, shorter nerve and more highly 
developed peristome. Dickson's Bryum brevifolium is certainly identical with 
the typical form of the plant. 


Dioicous ; slender, fuscescent. Leaves lax, twisted when dry, squar- 
rosely recurved when wet, ovate-lanceolate, margin recurved, nerve 
vanishing at point. Caps, narrowly ovate-oblong, peristome convolute. 
(T. XXXIX, D.) 

SYN. Muscus capillarls parvus, cauliculis tenuibus longiusculis,foliolisbrevibus angustis acutis 

rarioribus clnctis. RAY Synops. 2 ed. 31, n. 18 (1696). 
Bryum perangustis foliis et cauliculis, foliis rarioribus cinctis, capitulis erectis e surculis 

annotinis egredientibus DILL. Cat. giss. 225 (1719), in RAY Synops. 3 ed. 99 (1724). 
Bryum tenue barbatum, foliis angustioribus et rarioribus DILL. Hist. muse. 385, t. 48, 

f. 49 (1741). 
Barbula fallax HEDW. Stirp. cr. i, 62, t. 24 (1787). Sp. muse. 120 (1801). BRID. muse. rec. 

II, P. I, 201 (1798), Mant. 92 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 556 (1826). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 

211 (1807). ROEHL. Moosg. deutsch. 436 (1800), Deutsch. fl. Hi, 45 (1813). SCHWAEG. 

Suppl. I, P. I, 127 (1811). WAHLENB. Fl. lapp. 318 (1812). MART. Fl. cr. erl. 89 

(1817). SCHULTZ Recens. Barb, et Syntr. 211, t. 33, f. 21 (1823). HUEBEN. Muse. 

term. 326 (1833). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 13-15, p. 23, t. 9 (1842). SCHIMP. 
ynops. 169 (1860), 2 ed. 205. RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 106 (1848). C. 

MUELL. Synops. i, 616 (1849). MILDE Bry. siles. 119 (1869). HUSN. Mouss. nord- 

ouest 81 (1873), Muse. gall. 105, t. 29 (1886). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 112 

(1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 121 (1884). 
Mollia fallax SCHRANK Bayer, fl. ii, 458 (1789). 

Bryum fallax DICKS. PI. crypt. F. Ill, 5 (1793). HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 44 (1795). 
Tortula fallax SCHRAD. Syst. samml. kr. gew. I, n. 53, et in UST. Neu. ann. xiv, 109 

(1796). SWARTZ Muse. suec. 40 (1799). ROTH Fl. germ, iii, P. I, 212 (1800). SM. 

Fl. brit. 1252 (1804), Eng. Bot. t. 2179. TURN. Muse. hib. 47 (1804). P. 

BEAUV. Prodr. 92 (1805). BRID. Sp. muse. I, 255 (1806). SCHULTZ Fl. starg. 305 

(1806). WAHLEN. Fl. carp. 337 (1814). HOOKTAYL. Muse. br. 32, t. 12 (1818). HOOK. 

Fl. Scot. P. 2, 127 (1821), Br. fl. ii, 46 (1833). GRAY Nat. an-, br. pi. i, 724 (1821). 

MACK. Fl. hib. P. II, 26 (1836). DE NOT. Syllab. 238 (1838), Muse. ital. I, 58, t. 29 

(1862), Epil. bri. ital. 554 (1869). WILS. Bry. br. 123, t. 12 (1855). BERK. Handb. br. 

m. 257 (1863). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 69 (1873). 
Tortula Stokesii TURN. Muse. hib. 48. 
Barbula nervosa SCHULTZ Fl. starg. 305 excl. syn. Brid. 
Tortula imberbis SM. Fl. brit. 1261 (1804). LINDB. De Tort. 250 (1864). 

Dioicous ; in lax wide tufts, fuscous-green above, rufescent below, 
stems i 3 in. high, fastigiate branched, rooting at base. Leaves 
rather lax, quickly squarroso-recurved when wet, erecto-patent and 
twisting when dry, from a broad base narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, 
carinate, the margin revolute in the lower half, and longitudinally plicate 
near the base, nerve strong, rufescent, reaching apex or slightly 
excurrent ; cells minute, yellowish, a very few rectangular at base, 
papillose rounded and incrassate above ; perich. bracts longer, semi- 
vaginant to the middle, thence narrowly lanceolate and patent. Caps, 
erect, on a flexuose purple pedicel, narrowly ovate-oblong or cylindra- 

TORTULACE^E.] 265 [Barbula. 

ceous, very slightly curved, leptodermous, glossy brown ; calyptra 
subulate, prolonged below the lid, annulus indistinct ; lid purple, subu- 
late, nearly as long as caps., peristome bright red, long, fragile, on a 
very narrow basal membrane, many times twisted ; spores minute, 

Male plant more branched, infl. terminal, bracts from a broad 
concave base, narrowly lane., very faintly nerved. 
HAD. Wet clay and sandy banks and walls ; common. Fr. 10 i. 
Var. /3. brevicaulis (Schwaeg.) 

Stem short simple ; leaves crowded, patent, subundulate at margin ; 
caps, shorter as also the lid and peristome. 

SYN. Barbula brevicaulis SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 126, t. 32. BRID. Mant. 92 ; Bry. univ. i, 

551. SCHULTZ. Recens. 210, t. 33, f. 20. 
B. fallax var. brevicaulis SCHIMP. C. MUELL. WILSON, &c. 

HAB. Wet places. Hastings (Bovnv) \ 
Var. y. brevifolia (Sm.) Schultz. 

More densely tufted, slender, fastigiate branched ; leaves shorter, ovato- 
lanc., patulous from the middle, subrecurved ; caps, small, peristome shorter. 

SYN. Tortula brevifolia SM. Fl. brit. 1259. BRID. Sp. Muse. I, 254. 
Barbula brevifolia BRID. Mant. 92 ; Bry. univ. i, 555. 

B. fallax var. brevifolia SCHULTZ Recens. 212, t. 33, f. 21, B. SCHIMP. C. MUELL. 
WILSON, &c. 

HAB. Cheddar, Somerset (Boswell, 1873) ! Bearley, Warwick (Bagnall) \ \ 
Buxton and Miller's dale (Holt, 1883) ! ! 

This common moss varies from % to 2 inches in height, and is always of 
a brown or rusty tint ; a tuft of it in fruit has a very pretty appearance from 
the neat capsules with long acutely pointed lids. 


Dioicous ; leaves rufescent, ovato-lanceolate, incumbent when dry, 
strongly recurved when wet, acutely carinate, margin reflexed below, 
nerve vanishing. Caps, cylindric. (T. XXXIX, E.) 

SYN. Tortula reflexa BRID. Sp. muse. I, 255 (1806). BRAITHW. in SEEM. Journ. Bot. 1871, p. 

293, t. 120, f. 2. 

Barbula reflexa BRID. Mant. muse. 93 (1819). 
B. fallax var. y. reflexa BRID. Bry. univ. i, 558 (1826). 

Schistidium ? recurvifolium WILS. MSS. SPRUCE in Ann. Mag. n. h. 2 ser. iii, 491 (1849). 
Grimmia recurvifolia WILS. MSS. 

Tortula fallax var. 8. recurvifolia WILS. Bry. brit. 124 (1855). 
Barbula recurvifolia SCHIMP. Coroll. Bry. eur. 141 (1855), Synops 170 (1860), 2 ed. 206. 

MITT. Journ. Linn. soc. i, Suppl. 34 p.p. (1859). MILDE Bry. siles. 121 (1869). 

JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 112 (1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 122 (1884). 
Tortula recurvifolia BERK. Handb. br. m. 258 (1863). LINDB. De Tort. 250 (1864). 

DE NOT. Epil.bri. ital. 555 (1869). 

TORTULACE^.] 266 [Barbula. 

Dioicous ; plants tall, slender, crowded into lax rufo-fuscous tufts. 
Leaves when dry laxly incumbent and slightly twisted, when wet 
suddenly falcato-recurved, subtrifarious, from an oblong base, lanceolate, 
shorter and broader than those of B. fallax, more solid, acutely carinate, 
with stronger longitudinal folds at base, strongly papillose on both 
sides, nerve fuscous, of equal width, vanishing in the apex, margin erect, 
plane above, resupinato-reflexed towards base, one wing reflexed almost 
from the middle ; cells as in last, lowest basal rather larger, quadrate 
and rectangular, pachydermous, upper rounded. Calyptra very narrow, 
prolonged to of capsule, subulate; caps, erect, elongate, cylindraceous, 
regular, rufo-fuscous ; lid with a subulate beak ; ann. none ; peristome 
of B.fallax. Male plant more slender. 
HAB. Among earth on limestone rocks and walls ; not common. 

Above Airlie Castle, Forfar (Drummond) ! Buxton and Middleton, Derby (Wilson) \ \ 
Ingleboro' and Giggleswick Scar. (Baker 1855) ! ! Mucross, Killarney (Schimper and 
Wilson 1865). Barrowfield and Whitbarrow (Barnes 1867). Litton and Malham 
(Hunt 1867) ! ! Ben Lawers (Hunt). Hayle sands (Curnow 1871) ! ! Via Gellia, 
Matlock (Holmes 1875). Miller's dale, Castleton and Buxton (Holt 1883) ! ! 

Var. ft. robusta Braithw. 

Stems tall, 3-5 in. high, in lax incoherent tufts ; leaves more dense, 
broader and thicker. 

HAB. Limestone rocks at Ben Bulben, Sligo (Moore) ! ! 

The slender form of B. veflexa and the carinate strongly recurved leaves, 
suddenly pointed and never acuminate, at once separates it from B. fallax. 
The fruit is extremely rare, and the drawing of it is copied from Schimper's 
figures ; Mr. Holt finds not unfrequently in the Matlock districts a slender 
fruiting form of B. fallax growing intermixed with B. veflexa, for which it 
may be readily mistaken. 

The Var. /3. was at first referred by Mr. Mitten to B. gigantea (Geheebia 
catavvactavum SCHIMP.) but that species has much longer leaves with very 
different areolation. In his Synopsis, 2 ed. Schimper records the latter from 
Scotland, but no British specimen exists in his herbarium, and it is therefore 
probably only an erroneous repetition of the Irish record. 


Dioicous ; lurid green, laxly tufted. Leaves patent from the base, 
elongate-lanceolate, nerved to the apex, margin recurved below, cells 
incrassate and rounded from the base. Caps, cylindric, lid shortly 
rostrate. (T. XL, A.) 

Svx.Didymodon rigidulus BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. I, 116 (1798), Sp. muse. I, 160 (1806), 
Mant. zoo (1819), Bry. univ. i, 514 (1826). SWARTZ Muse. suec. 38 (1799). ROTH Fl. 
germ, iii, P. I, 198 (1800). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 59 (1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. kr. 
gew. P. II, 68, t. 30 (1810). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 116 (1811). HUEBEN. Muse, 
germ. 286 (1833). 

Bryum rigidulum DICKS. PI. crypt, fasc. iv, 12 (1801). 

TORTULACE^.] 267 [Barbula. 

Trichostomum rigidulum (non HEDW.) SM. Fl. brit. 1238 (1804), En g- Bot- t. 2178. TURN. 

Muse. hib. 34 (1804). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 18-20, p. 10, t. 7 (1843). C. MUELL. 

Synops. i, 570 (1849). WILS. Bry. brit. 114, t. 20 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 148 (1860). 

HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 73 (1873), Muse. gall. 85, t. 24 (1885). 
Barbula spadicea MITT, in SEEM. Journ. Bot. 1867, p. 326. 
Barbula insidiosa JUR. MILDE Hedwigia 1869, p. 97. MILDE Bry. siles. 120 (1869). 

JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. in (1882). 
Barbula rigidula SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 206 (1876). 

Tortula spadicea BRAITHW. in SEEM. Journ. Bot. 1871, p. 293, t. 119, f. 6. HOBK. Syn. 
br. m. 69 (1873). 

Dioicous ; resembling B.fallax, but more robust, in looser thicker 
tufts, dull brownish-green above, fuscous below. Stems i 2 in. high, 
simple or branched ; leaves when dry incurved and imbricated, when 
wet patent from the base, spreading and recurved, from a broadly ovate 
base, elongato-lanceoiate, channelled, margin recurved in the lower 
half, the folds more distinct, nerve strong, distinct to the apex ; cells 
incrassate and rounded-quadrate from the base, only the lowest elongate- 
oval, obscure above, papillose. Perich. bracts lanceolate, recurved, 
from a longish lax-celled base, seta red, caps, erect, cylindric, slightly 
curved, castaneous with a red mouth, annulus of 3 5 rows of small 
cells, lid shortly rostrate, nearly half length of caps., peristome short, 
teeth red on a very short orange basal membrane, scarcely twisted. Male 
plant more slender, infl. terminal, bracts broad, suddenly acuminate. 

HAB. Damp walls, earth covered rocks and sandy banks of rivers ; not 
uncommon. Fr. 9 n. 

Forfar (Croall 1852)!! Sheddon Clough, Burnley (Nowell) \ ! Buxton (Wilson 1863)!! 
Bolton Abbey (Hunt 1868) ! ! Haselden gill (Nowell 1866). Dent (Barnes 1872) ! ! 
Dovedale (Holmes 1875)!! Castleton (Holt 1885)!! Glen Prosen (Fergusson 1868)! ! 
Crathie (Sim 1872) ! Belfast (Stewart 1877). Newcastle, Co. Down, Fairhead, Antrim 
(Rev. H. W. Lett 1884) ' ' Eskdale, Yorks. (Boswell 1878). Bearley, Warwick 
(B agnail). 

Readily known from B. rigidula by the broader-pointed leaves, with thick 
nerve vanishing just below apex, and very different basal areolation, and 
from B. fallax by the longer leaves with opake rather obtuse points and short 
non-spiral peristome. 

8. BAKBULA RIGIDULA (Hedw.) Mitt. 

Dioicous ; densely tufted, dingy green. Leaves subrecurved, longly 
lanceolate from an erect base, nerve ending in the thick obscure point, 
margin revolute below, basal cells narrowly rectangular. Caps, oval- 
oblong, lid obliquely beaked. (T. XL, B.) 

SYN. Muscus trichodes parvus, foliis musci vulgaris, capitulis longis acutis DOODY. RAY 

Synops. st. br. 243 (1690). 
Muscus Adiantum aureum dictus assurgens, foliolis tenuissimis, capitulis parvis erectis in 

oblongis pedicellis RAY Syn. 2 ed. 31 (1696). 
Bryum perangustis foliis et cauliculis, foliis crebrioribus et circa extremitates magis 

conge stis, capitulis erectis, ad summitatem magis egredientibus DILL. Cat. Giss. 225 (1719). 

RAY Syn. 3 ed. 99 (1724). 

ToRTULACEjE.] 268 [Barbula. 

Bryum tenue imberbe et pallidum, foliis crebrioribus. DILL. Hist. muse. 382, t. 48, f. 46 

(1741) et Herb. 
Didymodon rigidulus HEDW. Muse. fr. iii, 8, t. 4 (1792). Sp. muse. 104. HOOK. TAYL. 

Muse. brit. 67, t. 20 (1818). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. II, 135 (1821). 
Desmatodon rupestris FUNCK in BRID. Bry. univ. i, 822, p.p. (1827). 
Trichostomum rigidulum var. (3. densutn BRUCH SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 18-20, p. 10, t. 7 

(1843). WILS. Bry. brit. 114 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 149 (1860). 
Trichostomum rigidulum C. MUELL. Synops. i, 570 (1849). 
Trichostomum neglecium WILS. MSS. 
Tortula rigidula LINDB. de Tort. 249 (1864). BRAITHW. in SEEM. Journ. Bot. 1871, p. 

293, t. 119, f. 5. HOBK. Syn. br. m. 69 (1873). 

Barbula rigidula MITT, in SEEM. Journ. Bot. 1867, p. 326. MILDE Bry. siles. 118 (1869). 
SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 206 p.p. (1876). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. no (1882). 
LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 123 (1884). 

Dioicous ; densely tufted, subpulvinate, fuscescent or dirty green. 
Leaves from an erect base, appressed to stem, patent and subrecurved, 
rigid, when dry somewhat incurved and contorted, longly lanceolate, 
carinate, recurved in upper margin, revolute below, nearly smooth, 
basal areolation pellucid, narrowly rectangular, upper distinct, minutely 
quadrate, nerve brownish, continued with lamina into a thick round, 
rather obtuse, obscure point. Perich. bracts resembling the upper 
leaves but more acuminate ; caps, on a red seta, oval-oblong, erect, 
straight or a little curved, brown, glossy ; annulus narrow of 3 rows of 
small cells, lid obliquely beaked, half length of capsule, teeth on a 
narrow basal membrane, the legs free or partly conjoined, obliquate or 
subcontorted. Male plant more slender. 
HAB. Damp rocks and shady walls ; not uncommon. Fr. 7 9. 

Castle Howard (Spruce 1884) ! Blackdown and Hurstpierpoint (Mitten 1847) ! Cliviger 
(Novell) ! ! Buxton and Borrowdale (Wilson 1864)!! Castleton (Holt 1883)!! 
Plymouth and Taunton (Holmes 1868) ! Whitbarrow and Syergh Fell (Barnes 1867) ! ! 
Callander and Arrochar (Hunt 1868) ! ! Scalby Mills (Spruce 1843) ! Banchory and 
Crathie (Sim 1872) ! Park Lane, Broughton (Wild 1879). Wychewood, Oxon 
(Boswcll 1879) ! ! Loch Maree (Boswell 1875) ! ! Brandon Mtns. (Moore). Sleive 
Gallion, Derry (Stewart 1876) ! ! Wetherby and Boston Spa, Yorks. (Wesley 1879) ! ! 

More compact than the last species, and growing in small tufts, never in 
wide-spreading sheets. On dry walls it is very short and compact, and may 
be taken for B. fallax, but the basal areolation will always distinguish it. 
The older synonymy of this species and the last is so confused that it is not 
possible to separate them. 


Dioicous ; caespitose. Leaves erecto-patent, ovate, lanceolato-acu- 
minate, margins recurved, nerve excurrent, perich. long, flexuously 
acuminate. Caps, erect, oblong, exannulate, lid subulate. (T. XL, C.) 

SYN. Tortula acuta BRID. Sp. muse. I, 265 (1806). 

Barbula acuta BRID. Mant. muse. 96 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 554 (1826). 
Barbula gracilis SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 125, t. 34 (1811). SCHULTZ Recens. Barb. 198, 
1.32, f. 3 (1823). BRID. Bry. univ. i, 536 (1826). BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 13-15, p. 22,] 269 [Barbula. 

t. 8 (1842). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 329 (1833). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 106 
(1848). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 609 (1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 171 (1860), 2 ed. 210. 
MILDE Bry. siles. 117 (1869). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 82 (1873), Muse. gall. 106, t. 
29 (1886). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 114 (1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 
127 (1884). 

Tortula gracilis SCHLEICH. PL cr. Helv. (1807). HOOK. GREV. in BREWST. Ed. Journ. i, 
300 (1824). DE NOT. Syll. 179 (1838), Muse. ital. I, 57, t. 28 (1862), Epil. bri. ital. 552 
(1869). WILS. Bry. brit. 123, t. 32 (1855). LINDB. de Tort. 249 (1864). 

Dioicous ; in rather dense, low tufts, olivaceous green or fuscescent. 
Stem simple or slightly branched, rather rigid. Leaves straight, erecto- 
patent, when dry laxly imbricated, smooth, concave, from an ovate base, 
lanceolate, cuspidate with the stout fuscous excurrent nerve, margin 
revolute below, areolation minute, rectang. at base, roundish above. 
Perich. bracts broader, the nerve prolonged into a long flexuose arista. 
Caps, on a rigid red seta, erect or subincurved, brown, small, ovate- 
oblong, with alongish attenuated lid ; ann. none, peristome short, orange- 
red, slightly contorted. Male infl. gemmiform, bracts ovate, acuminate. 
HAB. Limestone walls and sandy ground, rare. 

Durdham Downs, Bristol, ster. (Thwaites 1843) ! St. Helier, Jersey (Cardot 1885) ! ! 

Known at once by its short, aristate leaves, and perhaps overlooked 
from its small size and sterile condition ; it is quite probable it will be found 
in Cornwall. Mr. Thwaites's specimen is very dwarf, but it corresponds in 
leaf-structure with the true plant. 

10. BARBULA CYLINDRICA (Tayl.) Schimp. 

Dioicous ; laxly tufted. Leaves lanceolate-subulate, patent, nerved 
to apex, margin recurved below, plane above, cells quadrate at base, 
obscure above. Caps, erect, elliptico-cylindric, lid conic attenuated. 
(T. XL, D.) 

Svv.Zygotrichia cylindrica TAYL. in MACK. FL hib. P. 2, 26 (1836). 

Tortula insulana DeNoT. in Mem. ace. lorin. xl,32o (1838), Syllab. 180 (1838). BRAITHW. 

in Journ. Bot. 1871, p. 328. HOBK. Syn. br. m. 68 (1873). 
Barbula vinealis Var. flaccida BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 13-15, p. *4 (1842). SCHIMP. 

Synops. 171 (1860). JURATZ. Laubtn. oesterr.-ung. 114 (1882). 
Tortula vinealis WILS. Bry. br. 124, t. 42 (1855). 
Tortula cylindrica LINDB. Bot. Not. 1865, p. 76. 
Barbula cylindrica SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 208 (1876). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 

125 (1884). HUSN. Muse. Gall. 106, t. 29 (1886). 
Barbula vinealis Var. luxuriant JURATZ. in litt. 
Barbula insulana HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 81 (1873). 

Dioicous; in lax fuscescent tufts, plants erect and decumbent, 
more or less flexuose, slender I i in. high. Lower leaves more lax, longly 
lanceolate, upper densely crowded, from a longish ovate erect base, 
narrowly lanceolate-subulate, carinate, all patent and patulous when 
moist, subrecurved and arching upward, subcirrate when dry, at base 

TORTULACE^E.] 270 [Barbula. 

very concave and narrowly recurved at margin, thence with the margin 
erect or with one wing recurved, verruculose to the base, nerve of equal 
thickness, vanishing in the apex ; cells at base minutely quadrate and 
rectangular, above very small and indistinct. Perich. bracts similar, 
but with longer concave base and thinner cells. Caps, on a long slender 
purple seta, elliptico-cylindric, pachydermous, rufous-brown, when dry 
and empty, exactly cylindric, slightly arcuate ; lid conic, short beaked, 
a little incurved, concolorous with capsule, annulus of three rows of 
cells, peristome contorted, pale red, finally white, on a shortly papillose 
narrow basal membrane. 
HAB. On walls, especially in limestone districts. Fr. 4 5. 

Sussex, Lancashire and Cheshire. Deepdale and Studley, Yorks. (Baker 1856) ! Bolton 
Abbey (Hunt 1867) ! ! Wyndcliff, Aldrington beach and Cuckfield (Davies 1866) ! ! 
Levens (Barnes 1868). Den of Airlie and Auchinblae (Hunt 1869) ! ! Mucruss 
(Schimper 1865). Kilroot, Antrim (Stewart 1874). Plymouth (Holmes 1868) ! ! 

Much resembling B. fallax in areolation, but known at once by the much 
longer and less recurved leaves, with smaller less incrassate cells ; it must 
stand as the type of the species, being more highly developed in all its parts 
than B. vinealis. 

VAR. ft. vinealis (Brid.) 

Plants shorter, rufo-ferruginous ; leaves shorter. Caps, ovate-oblong 
with a shorter lid. 

SYN. Barbula vinealis BRID. Bry. univ. i, 830 (1827). Bry. eur. fasc. 13-15, p. 24, t. 10. 
RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 107. C. MUELL. Synops. i, 617. MITT. Journ. Linn, 
soc. i, Suppl. 33. SCHIMP. Synops. 170, 2 ed. 209. HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 81, Muse, 
gall. 105, t. 29. MILDE Bry. siles. 118. JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 113. LESQ. 
JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 124. 

Barbula fallax c. vinealis HUEB. Muse, germ, 327. 

Tortula fallax y. vinealis DE NOT. Syllab. 180. Mem. ace. Torin. xl, 319. 

Tortula vinealis SPRUCE in Lond. J. bot. iv, 194, et Ann. mag. n. h. 2 ser. iii, 378. DE 

NOT. Muse. ital. I, 60, t. 30. Epil. bri. ital. 554. BERK. Handb. Br. m. 257. LINDB. 

de Tort. 249 ; Bot. Not. 1865, p. 77. HOBK. Syn. br. m. 68. 

HAB. On walls ; not uncommon. 

Headington and Botley, Oxon (Boswell 1863) ! ! Patcham, Sussex (Davies 1868). 
Shere (Capron 1869). Saltash and Plymouth (Holmes 1867) ! ! Dunton Green (Holmes). 

Resembling B. fallax, but the obscure small upper cells distinguish it ; 
these in fallax being pellucid, rounded and much incrassate. 


Dioicous; densely caespitose. Leaves lineal-lane., cirrate, nerved 
to apex, margin sinuous in the upper part, toothed at apex, basal cells 
rectangular. (T. XL, E.) 

SYN. Dicranella sinuosa WILS. MSS. 
Trichostomum sinuosum Lindb. 

TORTULACE.E.J 271 [Barbula. 

Tortula sinuosa MITT. Journ. Bot. 1867, p. 327. BRAITHW. in SEEM. Journ. Bot. 1871, 

p. 294, t. 120, f. 6. HOBK. Syn. br. m. 73 (1873). 
Didymodon sinuosus SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 166 (1876). 
Barbula cylindrica var. y. sinuosa Lindb. Muse, scand. 22 (1879). 

Dioicous ; in small dense lurid green tufts, fuscous and radiculose 
below. Leaves dense, nearly straight, long lineal-lane., from an oval 
concave base, acute, carinate above, fragile, cirrhate and twisted when 
dry, strongly verrucoso-papillose, nerved to apex, margin crenulate, 
more or less sinuose in upper half, flat or lightly recurved, inciso-dentate 
at apex; cells at base rectangular, pellucid, upper rounded quadrate, 
obscure. Perigynial bracts narrower, paler. 

HAS. On old walls, wet stones, and about tree roots, in calcareous districts. 

Bangor (Wilson 1863) ! ! Woolsonbury hill (Mitten) \ \ Arundel and Wiston (Davics 
1865) ! ! Plymouth and Laira Bridge (Holmes 1868) ! ! Cheedale (Holmes 1875). 
Phoenix Park, Dublin (Hutton 1865). Witney and Banbury (Boswell 1878)! ! Monk's 
dale, Miller's dale and Monsal dale (Holt 1883) !! Buckingham (Holmes'). Helmsley 
(Wesley 1877) ! ! Dunton Green, Kent (Holmes). 

I have retained this as a species, although Juratzka, Lindberg, and 
others, regard it as only a variety of the last. The points of difference are 
the narrower longer fragile leaves, with the margin sinuous above, denticulate 
at apex, and recurved towards base. 


Dioicous ; laxly caespitose, slender. Leaves broadly lane., very 
acute, nearly smooth, nerve stout, excurrent, margin revolute. Caps, 
elongate ovate, lid rostrate. (T. XLI, A.) 

SYN. Barbula revoluta (non BRID.) WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 210 (1807). SCHULTZ Fl. 
starg. Suppl. 69 (1819). 

Tortula revoluta (non SCHRAD.) HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 33, t. 12 (1818). 

Barbula Hornschuchiana SCHULTZ Recens. Barb, et Syntr. 217, t. 33, f. 25 (1823). BR. 

SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 13-15, p. 28, t. 10 (1842), RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 

108 (1848). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 608 (1849). BERTOL. Fl. ital. cr. 208 (1858). 

SCHIMP. Synops. 173 (1860), 2 ed. 212. MILDE Bry. siles. 116 (1869). JURATZ. Laubm. 

oesterr.-ung. 116 (1882). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 82 (1873), Muse. gall. 107, t. 30 


B. revoluta var. ft. Hornschuchiana BRID. Bry. univ. i, 572 (1826). 
T. revoluti var. (3. Hornschuchiana DE NOT. in Mem. ace. Torin. xl, 315 (1838). 
Tortula Hornschuchiana DE NOT. Syllab. 179 (1838), Muse. ital. I, 55, t. 27 (1862), Epil. 

bri. ital. 552 (1869). WILS. Bry. brit. 127, t. 43 (1885). HARTM. Skand. fl. 8 ed. 393 

(1861). BERK. Handb. br. m. 256 (1863). LINDB. de Tort. 248 (1864). HOBK. Syn. 

br. m. 68 (1873). 

Dioicous ; slender, in. high, in lax dull green patches on the 
ground, stems dichotomous, fastigiate branched. Leaves erecto-patent, 
when dry incurved and often spirally imbricated, lanceolate, concavo- 
carinate, almost all the margin subrevolute, obsoletely papillose, 
mucronate with the excurrent nerve ; cells at base rectangular, in the 

TORTULACE^.J 272 [Barbula. 

middle roundish-quadrate, at apex elongated. Perich. bracts elongate- 
oblong, longly cuspidate, erect, sheathing, with plane margins, the 
nerve longly excurrent ; seta red below, yellow above, caps, erect, from 
ovate narrowly oblong, subincurved, brown ; lid red, long-beaked, ann. 
narrow, teeth purple, on a very narrow membrane, 23 times twisted. 
Male plant smaller, infl. gemmiform, bracts ovato-lanc., the nerve 
HAB. On the ground and walls. Fr. 4 5. 

Beaumaris and Aberffraw (Wilson 1830) ! ! Newton Viaduct (Wilson 1848) ! Aldrington 
beach, Clayton and Balcombe (Mitten) ! Henfield and Tunbridge wells (Borrer 1826) ! 
Levens (Barnes 1868) ! Coneysthorpe and Welburn, Yorks. (Spruce 1839) ! Winwick 
quarry (Hunt). Noke, Oxford (Boswell 1860) ! ! Burnley (Duerden 1867) ! ! Cromford, 
Derby (Hunt 1863) ! ! Guildford and Shere (Capron 1868) ! ! Staddon heights (Holmes 
1868) ! Kirriemuir (Fergussnn). Shirley, Warwick (Bagnall). Carrickfergus (Moore). 
Inchiquin (Carroll). Miller's dale (Holt 1886) ! ! Hincksey, Bucks. (Boswell). 

13. BARBULA REVOLUTA (Schrad.) End. 

Dioicous ; compactly tufted. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, 
mucronate with the thick excurrent nerve, margin strongly revolute. 
Caps, oval-oblong, lid subulate. (T. XLI, B.) 

SYN. Bryum stellare nitidum pallidnm, capsulis tenuissimis DILL. Hist. muse. 381, t. 48, f. 44, 
(1741) et Herb. 
Tortula revolnta SCHRAD. Syst. samml. kr. gew. i, n. 54 (1796), et in UST, neu ann. xiv. 

109 (1796). BRID. Sp. muse. I, 262 (1806). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 724 (1821), 

HOOK. Fl. scot. 127 (1821). HOOK. GREV. in BREWST. Edin. J. i, 290 p.p. (1824). 

MACK. Fl. hibern. P. 2, 25 (1836). DE NOT. in Mem. ace. Torin. xl, 314 (1838), 

Syllab. 178; Muse. ital. I, 54, t. 26 (1862), Epil. bri. ital. 550 (1869). SPRUCE Ann. 

mag. n. hist. 2 ser. iii, 377 (1849). WILS. Bry. br. 126, t. 12 (1855). BERK. Handb. 

br. m. 256 (1863). LINDB. De Tort. 248 (1864). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 67 (1873). 
Barbula revoluta BRID. in SCHRAD. Journ. iii, P. II, 299 (1801), Mant. 95 (1819), Bry. 

univ. i, 571 (1826). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 210 (1807). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 

127, t. 32 (1811). ROEHL. Deutsch. fl. iii, 79 (1813). SCHULTZ Recens. Barb, et Synt. 

2I 5' * 33' f- 2 3 ( J 823). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 13-15, p. 27, t. 14 (1842). C. 

MUELL. Synops. i, 621 (1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 175 (1860), 2 ed. 213. MILDE Bry. 

siles. 114 (1869). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 82 (1873), Muse. gall. 108, 1.30(1886). 

JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 116 (1882). 

Dioicous; in compact subpulvinate tufts, pale yellow-green or 
fuscescent. Leaves erecto-patent, when dry imbricated and contorted, 
small linear-ligulate, rather obtuse, the wings revolute, nerve thick, 
excurrent in a short mucro ; cells at base rectangular, above roundish- 
quadrate, incrassate, papillose. Perich. bracts elongated, sheathing ; 
seta red below, straw-coloured above, caps elliptic, regular, rufo- 
ferruginous, calyptra rather large, reaching middle of caps., annulus 
simple, lid conico-subulate, teeth from a broader basal membrane, very 
slender, purple, twice twisted. Male as in B. Hornschuchii. 

HAB. Limestone walls and the plaster of brick walls ; not uncommon. 
Fr. 4. Lindberg states that this species is not found in Scandinavia, but 
another closely allied occurs in Sweden, which he names B. obtusula, more 
robust, the leaves broader, with a thicker nerve and shorter apiculus. 

TORTULACE^E.] 273 [Barbula. 

Sect. 4. LEPTOPOGON (Mitt.). Plants dwarf. Leaves yellowish 
green, short, rather obtuse ; perich. bracts diverse, exserted, convolute. 
Caps, on a long seta ; peristome very long, contorted. 


Dioicous ; csespitose, very slender. Leaves small, erecto-patent, 
ovato-lanceolate, the margin a little reflexed below. Perich. bracts 
convolute, sheathing. Caps, on a long yellow seta, narrowly oblong, 
lid rostrate. (T. XLI, C.) 

SYN. Musctts minimus pallidus, foliis angustissimis acutis, corniculis tenuissimis RAY Synops. 
2 ed. 30, n. 9 (1696), p.p. 

Bryum setaceum HUDS. Fl. angl. 409 (1762). NECK. Meth. 212 (1771). LIGHTF. Fl. 

scot, ii, 729 (1777). VILL. PI. Dauph. iii, 880 (1786). 
Mnium setaceum (non L.) POLLICH PI. palat. iii, 54 (1777). EHRH. Hann. mag. 1780, 

P- 235- 

Barbula sctacea HEDW. Fund. II, 92 (1782), Stirp. cr. i, t. 32 (1787). 
Barbula convoluta HEDW. Stirp. cr. i, 86, t. 32 (1787), Sp. muse. 120 (1801). TIMM Fl. 

meg. 240 (1788). BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. I, 205 (1798), Mant. 94 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 

569 (1826). ROEHL. Moosg. deutsch. 433 (1800), Deutsch. fl. iii, 80 (1813). SCHULTZ 

Fl. Starg. 305 (1806), Rec. Barb. et. Syntr. 213, t. 33, f. 22 (1823). WEB. MOHR Bot. 

Tasch. 212 (1807). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 127 (1811). VOIT Muse. herb. 96(1812). 

WAHLENB. Fl. lapp. 318 (1812). MART. Fl. cr. erl. 90 (1817). FUNCK Moost. 22, t. 15 

(1821). BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 13-15, p. 29, t. 16 (1842). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. 

ii, S. 3, 109 (1848). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 614 (1849). BERTOL. Fl. ital. cr. 208 (1858). 

SCHIMP. Synops. 175 (1860), 2 ed. 214. MILDE Bry. siles. 115 (1869). HUSN. Mouss. 

nord-ouest 83 (1873), Muse. gall. 108, t. 30. (1886). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 118 

(1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 127 (1884). 
Bryum convolutum DICKS. PI. cr. fasc. II, 6 (1790). RELH. Fl. cant. Suppl. 9 (1793). 

WITH. Bot. arr. Br. Veg. 3 ed. iii, 816 (1796). ABBOT Fl. bedf. 37 (1798). HULL Br. fl. 

P. II, 254 (1799). 

Tortula convoluta SCHRAD. Spic. fl. germ. 66 (1794). SIBTH. Fl. Oxon. 285 (1794). 

SWARTZ Muse. suec. 41 (1799). ROTH Fl. germ, iii, P. I, 208 (1800). SMITH Fl. brit. 

iii, 1253 (1804), Eng. Bot. t. 2382. TURN. Muse. hib. 49 (1804). BRID. Sp. muse. I, 261 

(1806). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 33, t. 12 (1818). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 725 (1821). 

HOOK Fl. scot. 128 (1821), Br. Fl. ii, 44 (1833). DE NOT. in Mem. ace. Torin, xl, 314 

(1838), Syllab. 178, Muse. ital. I, 53, t. 25 (1862), Epil. bri. ital. 551 (1869). WILS. Bry. 

br. 127, t. 12 (1855). LINDB. De Tort. 248 (1864). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 67 (1873). 

BERK. Handb. br. m. 255 (1863). 
Streblotrichum convolutum P. BEAUV. Prodr. 89 (1805), et in Mem. Soc. Linn. Par. i, t. 

5, f. 6 (1822). 

Dioicous ; flat, densely caespitose, pale yellow green above, fuscous 
below. Leaves erecto-patent, somewhat recurved, crisped when dry, 
lower ovato-lanc., upper narrowly ligulato-lanc., rather obtuse or some- 
times pointed, margin plane, subrecurved towards base, nerve vanishing 
at or below the point ; cells at base pellucid, elongate rectangular, 
above small quadrate and obscure with chlorophyl, finely papillose. 
Perich. bracts closely sheathing, exserted, inner convolute, obtuse or 
shortly apiculate, yellowish, nerveless ; caps, on a long slender yellow 
seta, narrowly oblong, incurved, rufous bay coloured ; annulus rolling 
back, lid conico-subulate ; per. long, purple, closely twisted in many 

274 [Barbula. 

convolutions. Male plant more slender, infl. gemmiform, bracts ovato- 

HAB. Bare places among short grass and on limestone walls ; not 
uncommon. Fr. 4 5. 

Var. ft. Sardoa BY. Sch. 

Tufts very dense, taller ; leaves longer, somewhat recurved, dull green, 
more pointed ; caps, elongated. 

SYN. Barbula convoluta ft- Sardoa BR. SCH. Bry. eur. 1. c. C. MUELL. Synops. 615. 
Tortula convoluta ft Sardoa WILS. Bry. brit. 128. 
Barbula convoluta var. densa MILDE Bry. siles. 116. 
Barbula commutata JURATZ. Verb. k. k. zool.-bot. Ges. in Wien 1874, p. 377. LAUBM. 

oesterr.-ung. 119(1882). 
Trichostomum undatum SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 180. 

HAB. Banks in limestone districts. 

Luttrelstown, Dublin (Taylor). Glendalough (Palgrave 1866) ! ! Beddgelert (Wilson 
1854)!! Bangor (Wilson 1863)!! Lennox Castle (Me. Kinlay)\ Seven Churches, 
Wicklow (Lindberg 1873) ! ! Old walls at Wytham, Oxford (Boswell, 1881) ! ! 

Sect. 5. HELICOPOGON (Mitt.) Leaves obtuse, deep green, the 
perichaetial bracts but little different ; caps, erect ; peristome elongated, 


Dioicous ; laxly caespitose. Leaves erecto-patent, ovato-lanceolate, 
rather obtuse, mucronate with the excurrent nerve, margin revolute 
below, upper cells opake. Caps, oblongo-cylindric. (T. XLI, D.) 

SYN. Muscus trichoides minor vulgaris facie, foliis capillaceis MERR. Pinax n. 88 (1667). RAY 

Synops. 2 ed. App. 324 (1696). 

Bryum angustis viridibus foliis, capitulis erectis brevibus, pediculis insidentibus, calyptra 
falcata vel avium nnguiculas referente DILL. Cat. Giss. 225 (1719), in RAY Syn. 3 ed. 
96 (1724). 

Bryum unguiculatum et barbatum, surculis in summitate crassioribus DILL. Hist. muse. 

383, t. 48, f. 47 (1741) et Herb. 

Bryum unguiculatum et barbutum, tenuius et stellatum DILL. op. c. 384, t. 48, f. 48, et Herb. 
Bryum unguiculatum HUDS. Fl. angl. 410 (1762). L. Mant. ii, 309 (1771). SCHREB. 

Spic. fl. lips. 78 (1771). WITH. Bot. arr. brit. veg. ii, 262 (1776). EHRH. Hann. Mag. 

1780, p. 236. RELH. Fl. cant. Suppl. 10 (1793). ABBOT Fl. bedf. 242 (1798). 

SWARTZ Meth. 29 (1781). 
Barbula unguiculata HEDW. Fund. II, 92 (1782), Stirp. i, 59, t. 23 (1787), Sp. muse. 118 

(1801). BRID. Muse. rec. ii, P. I, 118 (1798), Mant. 94 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 563 (1826). 

ROEHL. Moosg. deutsch. 415 (1800), Deutsch. fl. iii, 79 (1813). SCHULTZ Fl. starg. 

304 (1806), Rec. Barb, et Syntr. 204, t. 32, f. 12 (1823). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 208 

(1807). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 123 (1811). VOIT Muse. herb. 54 (1812). MART. 

Fl. cr. erl. 89 (1817). FUNCK Moost. 22, t. 15 (1821). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 323 

(1833). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 13-15, p. 19, t. 5 & 6 (1842). RABENH. Deutsch. 

kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 105 (1848). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 612 (1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 167 

(1860), 2 ed. 203. MILDE Bry. siles. 121 (1869). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 80 (1873), 

Muse. gall. 104, t. 29 (1886). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung, 109 (1882). LESQ. JAMES 

Mosses N. Amer. 120 (1884). 
Mollia unguiculata SCHRANK Bayers fl. ii, 457 (1789). 

TORTULACE^E.] 275 (Barbula. 

Bryum mucronulatum DICKS. PI. crypt. Fasc. Ill, 3 (1793). HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 44 

Bryum linoides DICKS, op. c. 8, t. 8, f. 3. 

Tortula mucronulata SWARTZ Muse. suec. 40 (1799). SM. Fl. brit. iii, 1250 (1804), Eng. 

Bot. t. 1299. TURN. Muse. hib. 47 (1804). 
Tortula unguiculata ROTH Fl. germ, iii, P. I, 206 (1800). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 93 (1805), 

in Mem. soc. Linn. t. 6, f. i (1822). BRID. Sp. muse. I, 258 (1806). HOOK. TAYL. 

Muse. brit. 33, t. 12 (1818). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. 2, 128 (1821). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 

724 (1821). HOOK. GREV. in BREWST. Ed. J. i, 294 (1824). ARN. in Mem. soc. d'hist. 

nat. Paris ii, 286 (1825). MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 26 (1836). DE NOT. Syllab. 177 (1838), 



m. 67 (1873). 

Muse. ital. I, 49, t. 23 (1862), Epil. bri. ital. 548 (1869). WILS. Bry. brit. 21, t. 12 
(1855). BERK. Handb. br. m. 258 (1863). LINDB. De Tort. 241 (1864). HOBK. Syn. br. 
m. 67 (1873). 
Tortula humills (non HOOK. GREV.) TURN. Muse. hib. 45 (1804), Eng. bot. t. 1663. 

Dioicous ; in broad lax tufts, dull yellow green above, fuscescent 
below, with few radicles. Leaves erecto-patent, when dry appressed 
and somewhat twisted, narrowly ovato- and oblongo-lanceolate, more 
or less obtuse, mucronate with the thick yellowish excurrent nerve, 
margin revolute in the lower half, carinate at apex ; cells at base small 
rectangular pellucid, above quadrate, opake, densely papillose. Perich. 
bracts elongate, subvaginant, inner narrower, hyaline to apex, nerve 
excurrent ; caps, on a purple seta, rufo-fuscous, leptodermous, 
elongate-elliptic or subcylindric, regular or slightly incurved, lid conico- 
subulate, ann. none, peristome deep red, 2 3 twisted. Male plant 
more slender, infl. terminal gemmaceous, bracts broadly ovato- 

HAB. Banks and hedge-rows in clay soil ; common. Fr. 12-2. 
Var. /3. cuspidata (Schultz). 

Stem short, leaves linear-oblong, narrower, cuspidate with the excurrent 
nerve, nearly straight. 

SYN. Barbula cuspidata SCHULTZ Suppl. fl. starg. 68. Rec. Barb. t. 32, f. 14 a. 
Barbula lanceolata HEDW. Sp. muse. t. 26. 
Bryum ericetorum DICKS. PI. crypt. Fasc. II, 5 ? 
Tortula ericetorum SM. Eng. Bot. t. 2495 ? 

HAB. Gravelly banks. 

Var. y. apiculata (Hedw.). 

Leaves recurvo-patulous, the apex obtuse, tipped with the excurrent 

SYN. Barbula apiculata HEDW. Sp. muse. 117, t. 26, f. 1-4. SCHULTZ Rec. t. 33, f. 17. 

BRID. Mant. 94. Bry. univ. i, 560. 

Tortula apiculata TURN. Muse. hib. 46. Eng. Bot. t. 2494. 
Tortula aristata SM. Fl. brit. 1261. Eng. Bot. t. 2393. 
Bryum aristatum DICKS. Fasc. IV, 12, t. ii, f. 7. 
Barbula aristata BRID. Mant. 92. 
Tortula barbata SM. Eng. Bot. t. 2391. Fl. brit. 1260. 

TORTULACE^.J 276 [Barbula. 

HAB. Walls at Croydon (Dickson). Dublin (Stokes). Plymouth (Holmes) ! ! 
Dromore, Down (Rev. C. H. Waddell) \ ! Otford, Kent (Holmes). 

Var. 8. microcarpa (Schultz). 

More slender ; leaves more crowded, shorter, patenti-recurved, caps, 
small, oval, lid conico-subulate. 

SYN. Barbula microcarpa SCHULTZ Rec. t. 33, f. 18. BRID. Bry. univ. i, 561. 
HAB. Baugh Fell, Yorks. (West, 1879) ! ! 

Var. e. obtusifolia (Schultz). 

More robust ; leaves crowded, shorter, broader, obtuse, very shortly 
mucronate or muticous ; caps, narrowed, oblongo-cylindric. 
SYN. Barbula obtusifolia BRID. Mant. go. SCHULTZ Rec. t. 32, f. 13. 
HAB. Roadside banks. Miller's dale (Holt, 1882) ! ! 

Var. $. fastigiata (Schultz). 

Taller, repeatedly fastigiate branched ; leaves broader, softer, subundu- 
late at margin. 

SYN. Barbula fastigiata SCHULTZ Rec. t. 33, f. 15. BRID. Bry. univ. i, 554. 
HAB. Shore of L. Neagh, Ardmore, Armagh (Rev. H. W. Lett 1885) ! ! 

A plant of wide distribution, and as usual with such, subject to consider- 
able variation ; it may however be generally recognized by the obtuse apicu- 
late leaves with recurved margins, and thin-walled oblong capsule without 
any annulus. In its very slender fragile peristome it resembles B. fallax. 


This was misplaced under Tovtulaai p. 218, its most natural position is 
here next to B. unguiculata, and indeed it clearly forms a connecting link 
between that species and Cindidottis. 


Autoicous ; stems short, nearly simple. Leaves papillose, ovato- 
lanceolate, the margin revolute, nerve excurrent in a subula. Caps, 
cylindraceous, oblique, lid conico-rostellate ; peristome on a short basal 
membrane. (T. XLI, E.) 

Svti.Tortula suberecta DRUMM. Muse. amer. n. 145 (1828). 

Desmatodon obliquus BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 18-20, p. 10, t. 7 (1843). SCHIMP. 
Synops. 161 (1860), 2 ed. 187. DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 575 (1869). JURATZ. Laubm. 
oesterr.-ung. 132 (1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 115 (1884). HUSN. Muse. 
gall. 94, t. 26 (1885). 

Trichostomum obliquum C. MUELL. Synops. i, 594 (1849). 

TORTULACE.E.] 277 [Cinclidotus. 

Autoicous; caespitose, lurid green, stem short, almost simple. 
Leaves flaccid, erecto-patent, lower ovate-oblong, upper broadly ovato- 
lanceolate, the margin revolute, except at the faintly toothed apex, nerve 
excurrent in a piliform arista ; cells at base rectangular, hyaline, above 
hexagonal, chlorophyllose, densely papillose, the marginal more trans- 
parent and forming a yellowish border. Caps, on a slender purple seta, 
cylindraceous, inclined and usually curved, fuscescent, finally reddish 
brown ; annulus simple, lid conico-rostellate ; peristome a short pale 
basal tube, the teeth red, fragile, scabrous, obliquate. Male infl. at base 
of female, bracts i 3, thin, aristate. 
HAB. Wet crevices of alpine rocks. Fr. 7 8. 

The Rev. J. Fergusson informs me that this species certainly occurs in 
Scotland, but as he has not favoured me with specimens, I have made the 
drawing from a Norwegian one. 

It deviates from our other species of this section by the shortness of the 
tubular base of peristome, but stands next to another Norwegian species, 
T. Lauren (SCHULTZ), and also comes near to T. (Desmatodon) latifolia (HEDW.) 
and T. systylia (BR. SCH.). 

Subf. 2. CINCLIDOTE^E. Tall aquatic mosses, forming black-green 
mats, fasciculate-branched. Leaves solid, strong-nerved. Caps, immersed, 
at end of primary shoots. Per. a cancellated basal membrane, with filiform 
processes cohering at base by trabeculae. 


Prodr. p. 28 (1805). 

Cladocarpous, fixed to stones and floating in water. Leaves solid, 
strong-nerved, bordered. Fruit terminating the primary branches, 
immersed ; calyptra conico-cucullate ; peristome on a cancellated 
membrane, of 16 teeth, each divided into 23 slender filiform legs. Der. 
/cty/cXtSwTos latticed. 

I have preferred this name to the older one, Sekra of Adanson, as apart 
from its barbarous sound, the character assigned to it would not be suffi- 
cient to identify it ; the Linnean specific name also is in relation to Fontinalis 
antipyretica, with which the present has no affinity. 


Dioicous; in olive green fasciculate floating tufts. Leaves elon- 
gate-lanceolate, patulous. Caps, immersed, ovate-oblong ; peristome 
filiform, twisting to the right. (T. XLI, F.) 

SYN. Fontinalis minor, foliis triangularibus minus complicatis, capitulis in summis ramulis 
sessilibus DILL, in RAY Synops. 3 ed. 79 (1724). 

TORTULACE.E.] 278 [Cinclidotus. 

Fontinalis triangularis minor carinata, e cymis capsulifera DILL. Hist. muse. 257, t. 33, f. 2 

(1741), et Herbar. 
Fontinalis minor L. Sp. pi. 1107 (1753). HUDS. Fl. angl. 398 (1762). WITH. Bot. arr. br. 

veg. ii, 692 (1776). LIGHTF. Fl. scot, ii, 695 (1777)- WEBER Sp. fl. goett. 35 (1778). 

HEDW. Fund. II, 96 (1781). ROTH Fl. germ. i, 47 8 (1788). ABBOT Fl. bedf. 231 (1798). 

HULL Br. fl. P. 2, 275 (1799). SM. Eng. Bot. t. 557. 
Fontinalis alpina DICKS. PI. crypt, fasc. II, 2, t. 4, f. i (1790). 
Hypnum fontinaloides LAMARCK Enc. meth. iii, 164 (1789). 
Trichostomum fontinaloides HEDW. Stirp. cr. iii, 36, t. 14 (1792), Sp. muse. 114. BRID. 

Muse. rec. II, P. I, 133 (1798), Sp. Muse. I, 243 (1806). SWARTZ Muse. suec. 30 (1799). 

ROEHL. Moosg. deutsch. 277 (1800). SM. Fl. brit. 1248 (1804). TURN. Muse. hib. 41 

(1804). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 121 (1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. kr. gew. P. II, 75, t. 

34 (1810). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 160 (1811). 
Cinclidotus fontinaloides P. BEAUV. Prodr. 52 (1805). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 29, t. n 

(1818). FUNCK Moost. 24, t. 16 (1821). BRID. Bry. univ. i, 229 (1827). HARTM. 

Skand. fl. GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 722 (1821). HOOK. Fl. Scot. P. 2, 127 (1821), Br. fl. 

ii, 47 (1833). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 216 (1833). MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 27 (1836). DE 

NOT. Syll. 259 (1838), Epil. bri. ital. 492 (1869). BR. SCH. Bry. eur. fasc. 16, Mon. 9, 

t. 2 (1842). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, 8.3, 242 (1848). WILS. Bry. brit. 139, t. n 

(1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 195 (1860), 2 ed. 236. BERK. Handb. br. m. 249, t. 22, 

f. 2 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 140 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. ra. 74 (1873). HUSN. 

Mouss. nord-ouest 88 (1873), Muse. gall. 120, t. 34(1886). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.- 

ung. 147 (1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 134 (1884). 
Trematodon fontinaloides ROEHL. Deutsch. fl. 2 ed. iii, 65 (1813). 
Rhacomitrium fontinaloides BRID. Mant. 80 (1819). 
Guembelia fontinaloides C. MUELL. Synops. ii, 652 (1851). 
Cinclidotus minor LINDB. De Tort. 255 (1864). 
Sekra minor (L.) LINDB. Muse, scand. 23 (1879). 

Dioicous ; stems 3 8 in. long, crowded in soft olive-green fasciculate 
tufts, rooting on stones and floating, the lower part setulose with the 
persistent nerves of abraded leaves. Leaves elongato-lanc., decurrent, 
obtuse or very shortly apiculate, unequal, subflexuose, patulous or 
slightly secund, twisted when dry, subcarinate, slightly toothed at apex, 
border thick rounded subterete, nerve thick, plane above, prominent at 
back, excurrentinamucro ; basal cells small rectangular, upper hexagonal 
opake. Fertile branches short, suberect, often secund, fruit immersed, 
lower perich. bracts oblong-ovate, upper oblong, attenuate, subacute, the 
nerve vanishing. Calyptra conico-cucullate, chartaceous ; caps, ovate- 
oblong, leptodermous, sulcate when dry, fuscous ; lid conic, slightly 
curved, half length of capsule; peristome purple, twisting to the right, 
teeth from a narrow cancellated basal membrane, 16, each separating 
into 2 3 filiform legs, anastomosing at base and adhering to the exserted 
apex of columella. Male plants more slender, the infl. gemmiform, 
collected into small clusters, bracts broadly ovate, concave, shortly 

HAB. Attached to stones or wood in streams, especially in limestone 
districts ; not uncommon. Fr. 4 5. 

This genus stands between Tortulaceae and Grimmiaceae, and is usually 
associated with the latter, but both in peristome and leaf-structure, its 
affinity is clearly strongest with the former. 

TORTULACE^.] 279 [Leersia. 

In Mr. Hunt's herbarium is a specimen of C. aquations, with the label 
" Mourne mountains, Co. Down, Ireland, with C. fontinaloides," but as no 
recent collectors have met with it, I have not figured it, although it is a 
species quite likely to occur ; it may be readily distinguished by the leaves, 
which are narrowly linear-lanceolate and falcato-secund. 

Subf. 3. LEERSIE^E. Plants growing in small tufts on the ground or 
on rocks. Leaves spathulate, basal cells fragile, hyaline, foraminate, upper 
with verruciform papillae. Calyptra large, cylindric, rostrate. Capsule 
cylindric ; peristome none, single or double. 


Fund. muse. II, 88 (1782). 

Plants caespitulose, dichotomous. Leaves lingulate or spathulate, 
the basal cells rectang. fragile, hyaline, foraminate, the upper chloro- 
phyllose, papillose. Calyptra enclosing the whole caps., cylindric with 
a styliform beak ; caps, cylindraceous, erect on a tall seta ; per. none, 
simple of 16 teeth or double. Inhabiting the ground and rocks. 
Named in honour of John Daniel Leers of Herborn in Nassau. 

The fine mosses which constitute this genus are readily known by their 
large tubular calyptra, which is very persistent, and in falling takes the lid 
with it. The large opake leaves are not unlike those of Tortula subulata, &c., 
but are generally rufous at base, and their upper cells are protuberant and 
provided with large papillae, cleft at top into several heads. The vaginula is 
oblong and generally crowned with an ochrea or saucer-shaped membrane 
originating in the base of the calyptra, which in the young state is inflexed, 
and when older and torn off, is entire, or lacerate, or fringed with ramentaceous 
processes. The peristome when present consists of red, slender teeth 
composed of 14 series of cells, and the endostome of pairs of cilia, concrete 
above, joined at base to a thin punctulate membrane adherent at the 
lower part to the teeth of the peristome. 

Schreber in 1791 superseded Hedwig's name by that of Encalypta and 
Leersia was again used in 1788 by Swartz adopting a MSS. name of 
Solander's for a genus of grasses which had already in 1776 been named 
Homalocenchrus by Mieg in Pollich*'s Hist. Plant, in Palatinatu ; it is clear 
therefore that the original name Leersia must be retained for the genus of 
mosses. About 25 species are described. 


Capsule smooth or faintly striolate. 

Calyptra not fringed at mouth, peristome none. 

Calyptra smooth at apex. alpina. 

scabrous at apex. exstinctoria. 

Calyptra fringed at mouth, peristome present. laciniata. 

Capsule sulcato-striate. 

Plants short ; strias vertical. rhabdocarpa. 

tall ; striae twisted spirally. contorta. 

Sect. i. PSILOTHECA C. Muell. Capsule smooth or faintly striolate. 

TORTULACE^E.] 280 \Leersia. 

i. LEERSIA ALPINA. (Smith] Lindb. 

Autoicous ; dichotomously branched. Leaves erecto-patent, sub- 
squarrose, ovato-lanceolate, acuminate, nerve excurrent in a long point. 
Caps, gymnostomous ; beak of calyptra glabrous. (T. XLII, A.) 

Sy^. Encalypta intermedia FROELICH MSS. in herb. Wulfen. 

Encalypta alpina SMITH Eng. Bot. t. 1419 (1805). WAHLEN. Fl. lapp. 312 (1812), Fl. 
carpat. 335 (1814), Fl. suec. 2 ed. ii, 790 (1833) excl. syn. LINDB. in Act. soc. sc. 
fenn. x, 269 (1872). 

Encalypta affinis (non HEDW.) SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 58, t. 16 (1811). ROEHL. 
Deutsch. fl. iii, 53 (1813). FUNCK Moost. 12, t. 7 (1821). BRID. Bry. univ. i, 143 

Encalypta ciliata ft- alpina HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 35 (1818). HOOK. Fl. scot. 128 

Encalypta ciliata (3. pilifera HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 2 ed. 63 (1827). Br. flora ii, 18 

Encalypta commutata NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ, ii, P. I, 46, t. 15, f. 4 (1827). HUEBEN. 

Muse. germ. 100 (1833). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 4, p. 8, t. i (1839). RABENH. 

Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 170 (1848). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 513 (1849). WILS. Bry. brit. 

141, t. 44 (1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 285 (1860), 2 ed. 340. BERK. Handb. br. m. 246 

(1863). DE NOT. Epil. bri. ital. 325 (1869). MILDE Bry. siles. 181 (1869). HOBK. 

Syn. br. m. 74 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 213 (1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses 

N. Amer. 180 (1884). 

Encalypta lacera DE NOT. Syllab. 268 (1838). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 514 (1849). 

E. caifcasica RUPR. in Bull. soc. imp. de nat. Mosc. 1846, p. 521. C. MUELL. Synops. i, 

Lecrsia alpina LINDB. Muse, scand. 20 (1879). 

Autoicous ; in dull yellow-green tufts, i in. high, dichotomously 
branched, radiculose. Lower leaves ovato-lanc., upper from an erect 
sheathing base, erecto-patent and subsquarrose, elongated, acuminate, 
cuspidate with the excurrent nerve, subundulate above the base, flat at 
margin; cells at base lax rufous, the marginal narrow and linear, forming a 
yellowish limb, above small, opake, but little incrassate, papillose. 
Perich. bracts shorter, ovate ; seta longish, twisted to the right above, 
purple^ vaginula thick, ovoid ; cal. reaching below capsule, glossy, fus- 
cescent, with a smooth spadiceous point, irregularly torn at the paler 
base ; caps, ovato-cylindraceous, straight or curving, fuscous, smooth, 
glossy, faintly striolate, stornata at base numerous, annulus narrow, the 
narrow mouth girt by a thin horizontal membrane, peristome none, lid 
conic, longly rostrate. Male infl. gemmiform, terminal on short lateral 
branches, bracts ovato-lanc. apiculate, nerved. 
HAB. Crevices of mountain rocks ; rare. Fr. 7 8. 

Ben Lawers (Hooker and Gremlle) \ \ Craigailleach (Wilson) ! Ingleborough (Hooker). 
Ben Ledi (Holmes 1880) ! 

Var. (3. imberbis Lindb. 

Plants tall, densely tufted ; leaves with the apex subcucullate from the 
incurved margins, and the nerve vanishing at the rather obtuse point. 
(T. XLII, B, 8.) 

TORTULACE.E.] 281 [Leersia. 

HAB. Ben Laoigh, Perthshire (Holt, July, 1880) ! ! 

This species is best distinguished by the smaller dense cells in the upper 
part of the leaf, which is also more acuminate than in any of our other 


Autoicous ; short, radiculose. Leaves oblong-lane., obtuse or 
apiculate with the excurren. nerve. Caps, cylindric, smooth ; calyptra 
pale, entire at base, scabrous at apex ; per. none or pale and very 
fugacious. (T. XLII, B.) 

SYN. Muscus trichoides minor pileis magnis acutis MERR. Pinax 89 (1667). RAY Synops. 
2 ed. 324 (1696). 

Adiantum aureum perpusillum foliis congestis acutis, pileolo extinctorii figura RAY Synops. 

2 ed. 32, n. 24. 
Bryum erectis capitulis, calyptra laxa conica, foliis serpylli pellucidi angustioribus DILL. 

Cat. Giss. 223 (1719), in RAY Synops. 3 ed. 92 (1724). 

Bryum calyptra exstinctorii figura, minus DILL. Hist. muse. 349* t. 45, f. 8 (1741) et 

Bryum exstinctorium L. 1116 (1753); Syst. nat. ii, 701. HUDS. Fl. angl. 405 
(1762). WEISS Cr. goett. 185 (1770). NECK. Meth. muse. 207 (1771). WITH. Bot. 
arr. br. veg. ii, 672 (1776). LIGHTF. Fl. scot, ii, 718 (1777). WEB. Spic. fl. goett. 98 
(1778). RELH. Fl. cant. 402 (1785). SM. Eng. bot. t. 558. Fl. dan. t. IQOI. ABBOT 
Fl. bedf. 239 (1798). HULL Br. fl. P. 2, 258 (1799). 

Leersia vulgaris HEDW. Fund. II, 88 (1782), Muse, frond, i, 46, t. 18 (1787). ROTH 
Fl. germ, i, 455 (1788). TIMM Fl. meg. n. 730 (1788). SCHRANK Baiers fl. ii, 443 
(1789). BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. I, 51 (1798). 

Leersia exstinctoria LEYSSER Fl. hal. n. 1053 (1783). BROCKM. Beitr. kr. fl. Mekl. 23 

Mnium exstinctorium SWARTZ Meth. muse. 365 (1787). 

Encalypta exstinctoria SWARTZ Muse. suec. 24 (1799). HARTM. Skand fl. WAHLENB. 
Fl. upsal. 385 (1820). BROCKM. Laubm. Mekl. 90 (1869). 

Encalypta vulgaris HEDW. Sp. muse. t. 60 (1801). SM. Fl. brit. iii, 1180 (1804). TURN. 
muse. hib. 17 (1804). ROEHL. Moosg. deutsch. 89 (1800), Deutsch. fl. iii, 52 (1813), 
Ann. Wett. ges. iii, 115. P. BEAUV. Prodr. 56 (1805). SCHULTZ Fl. starg. 281 (1806). 
WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 106 (1807). BRID. Sp. muse. I, 88 (1806), Mant. 28 (1819), 
Bry. univ. i, 139 (1826). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 56 (1811). VOIT Muse. herb. 20 
(1812). WAHLEN. Fl. lapp. 311 (1812), Fl. carp. 335 (1814). MART. Fl. cr. erl. 115 
(1817). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 35, t. 13 (1818). GRAY Nat. arr. i, 725 (1821). 
HOOK. Fl. scot. P. 2, 128 (1821), Br. fl. ii, 18 (1833). FUNCK Moost. n, t. 7 (1821). 
NEES HORNSCH. Bry germ, ii, P, I, 32, t. 14, f. r (1827). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 98 
(1833). MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 13 (1836). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 4, p. 9, t. 2 (1839). 
DE NOT. Syll. 269 (1838), Epil. bri. ital. 324 (1869). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 
169 (1848). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 516 (1849). WILS. Bry. br. 142, t. 13 (1855). 
SCHIMP. Synops. 286 (1860), 2 ed. 341. BERK. Handb. br. m. 246, t. 22, f. i (1863). 
MILDE Bry. siles 181 (1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 75 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 
in (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 214 (1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 
181 (1884). 

Encalypta Orsinii DE NOT. Syllab. 267 (1838). 

Encalypta leptodon Var. exstinctoria LINDB. in Act. soc. sc. fenn. X, 268 (1872). 

Autoicous; densely tufted, radiculose at base, dark green, with 
short thick branches. Leaves erecto-patent, when dry incurved and 
subcomplicate, lingulate, apiculate or obtuse, subundulate, nerve strong, 
reddish, vanishing at or below apex or excurrent ; cells at mid-base 
more laxly rectangular, very thin, at margin narrow and yellowish. 

TORTULACE^E.J 282 [Lecrsia. 

Perich. bracts ovato-lanceolate ; vaginula somewhat contracted at 
middle. Calyptra reaching neck of caps., thin, pale yellow-green, equal 
or lacerate at base, scabrous at apex ; caps, on a red seta, ovato-cylindric, 
leptodermous, when dry and empty cylindric and faintly striate, pale 
yellowish brown, orange at neck and mouth ; ann. simple, red, lid 
straight with a subulate beak ; per. none or with pale truncate very 
fugacious teeth ; spores large, papillose. Male infl. gemmaceous, 
axillar, bracts ovate, convolute, acuminate, the nerve obsolete. 
HAB. Walls covered with earth, banks and rocks ; not uncommon. Fr. 3 5. 
VAR. ft. pilifera (Funck). 

Plants shorter, leaves narrower with the nerve excurrent in a pale 
yellowish hair. 

SYN. EncalyptapiliferaFuncK Crypt, gew. fasc. 26, n. 527, Flora i, 255, Moostasch. 12, t. 7. 
BRID. Bry. univ. i, 141. STURM Deutsch. fl. cr. 2, 17. . 
Enc. vulgaris var. pilfera HUEB. Muse. germ. 99. 

HAB. Youlgreave and Buxton (Wilson). 

Var. y. obtusifolia (Funck.) 

Stem erect, branched ; leaves dilated at base, obtuse, the nerve vanishing. 
SYN. Encalypta obtusifolia FUNCK. BRID. Bry. univ. i, 766. 

Enc. vulgaris var. obtusa NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ, ii, P. I, 35. HUEB. Muse. germ. 98. 

Enc. vulgaris var. mutica BRID. Bry. univ. i, 141. 

HAB. Youlgreave and Rhuddlan Castle, N. Wales (Wilson) \ 

The peristome in this moss is very thin and fragile and is thus probably 
destroyed by adhesion to the lid, for its presence is extremely rare. The 
dull paper-like calyptras are the first objects to direct attention to this 
species, which is more or less generally distributed, but never occurs in great 


Autoicous ; branched ; leaves oblong-ligulate, patulous, shortly 
acuminate, margin revolute below middle, nerve excurrent. Caps, 
subcylindric, smooth ; calyptra with the base contracted and bordered 
with cuneate lacinise, nearly smooth at apex. (T. XLII, C.) 

SYN. Bryum erectis longis et obtusis capitulis, calyptra laxa conica, foliis serpylli pellucidi 
latioribus DILL. Cat. Giss. 223 (1719). 

Bryum calyptra extinctorii figura, majus et ramosum DILL. Hist. muse. 350, t. 45, f. 9 
(1741) et Herbar. 

Bryum exstinctorium var. ft. L. Sp. pi. 1116(1753). HUDS. Fl. angl. 405 (1762). WEISS 
Cr. goett. 187 (1770). NECK. Meth. muse. 207 1771). WITH. Bot. arr. br. veg. ii, 
672 (1776). LIUHTF. Fl. scot, ii, 719 (1777). WEB. Spic. fl. goett. 99 (1778). HULL 
Br. fl. 258 (1799). 

Leersia laciniata HEDW. Fund. II, 103 (1782). 

TORTULACE.E.] 283 [Leersia. 

Leersia ciliata HEDW. Muse, frond, i, 49, t. 19 (1787). EHRH. PI. crypt, n. 123. SCHRANK 
Bayers, fl. ii, 443 (1789). 

Leersia fimbriata BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. I, 53 (1798). 

Encalypta ciliata HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 27 (1795). SWARTZ Muse. suec. 25 (1799). ROTH 
Fl. germ, iii, P. I, 153 (1800). ROEHL. Moosg. deutsch. 104 (1800), Deutsch. fl. iii, 
53 (1813). Ann. Wett. ges. ii, 115. HEDW. Sp. muse. 61 (1801). SM. fl. brit. iii, 1181 
(1804), Eng. Bot. t. 1418. TURN. Muse. hib. 18 (1804). Fl. dan. t. 1416. WEB. MOHR 
Bot. Tasch. 107 (1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. kr. gew. P. 2, 45, t. 19 (1810). SCHWAEG. 
Suppl. I, P. I, 59 (1811). VOIT Muse. herb. 19 (1812). WAHLENB. Fl. lapp. 311 (1812), 
Fl. carpat. 335 (1814), Fl. Upsal. 386 (1820). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. brit. 35, t. 13 (1818). 
FUNCK Moost. 12, t. 7 (1821). HOOK. Fl. scot. P. 2, 128 (1821), Br. fl. ii, 18 (1833). 
GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi. i, 726 (1821). NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ, ii, P. I, 59, t. 15, f. 8 
(1827). HARTM. Skand. fl. HUEBN. Muse. germ. 106 (1833). DE NOT. Syllab. 266 
(1838), Epil. bri. ital. 322 (1869). BRUCH SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 4, p. 10, t. 3 (1839). 
RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 170 (1848). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 517 (1849). WILS. 
Bry. br. 143, t. 13 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 288 (1860), 2 ed. 343. BERK. Handb. br. 
m. 247 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 183 (1869). HOBK. syn. br. m. 75 (1873). HUSN. 
Mouss. nord-ouest in (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 217 (1882). LESQ. JAMES 
Mosses N. Amer. 182 (1884). 

Bryum ciliare GMEL. Syst. nat. ii, 1332 (1791). DICKS. Cr. Fasc. IV, 15 (1801). 

Encalypta fimbriata BRID. Sp. muse. I, 89 (1806), Mant. 30 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 145 
(1826). ROEHL. Deutsch. fl. iii, 53. 

Encalypta clausa WALLR. Fl. cr. germ, i, 125 (1831). 
Encalypta laciniata LINDB. in Act. soc. sc. fenn. X, 269 (1872). 

Autoicous ; in small lax pale green tufts, with short dichotomous 
innovations. Leaves soft, erecto-patent, when dry complicate and 
circinato-incurved, broadly oblong-ligulate, carinate-concave, subundu- 
late at margin and revolute at middle, strongly verruculose ; nerve 
strong, pale yellow, excurrent in a soft mucro or vanishing below the 
pale apiculus, cells above coarse, rounded, at base lax, pellucid, rufous, 
scarcely limbate. Inner perich. bracts thin, broadly ovate, nerved, about 
as long as the oblong vaginula with its tubular ochrea. Calyptra pale 
straw-coloured, prolonged below the caps., the base contracted and 
encircled by short cuneate laciniae, connivent when dry, patent when 
moist, the apex smooth or slightly papillose. Caps, on a yellow or red 
seta, oblongo-cylindraceous, at first yellow, finally rufo-fuscous, smooth, 
when dry slightly contracted below mouth, annulus indistinct, lid 
conico-subulate, shorter than caps., peristome arising below orifice, 
small, of 16 narrowly lanceolate red punctate teeth, sometimes irregular, 
when dry horizontally closing the capsule, patent when moist ; spores 
large, smooth. Male infl. gemmiform, in the axils of the comal leaves, 
bracts thin, ovate, apiculate. 

HAB. On rocks in subalpine districts, not common. Fr. 6 7. 

Ben Lawers and Craig Ailleach (Hooker) \ \ Teesdale (Spruce) \ ! Ingleboro and 
Malham Tarn (Nowell 1854) ! Snowdon (Wilson). Loughrigg Fell, Rydal (Wood 
1864) ! Rannoch (B. White 1867) ! Mardale (Barnes 1869) ! Langdon beck 
(Stabler 1868) ! Canlochan (Hunt 1868) ! ! Whernside (Lees and West 1878) ! Ben 
Aught, Clova (Howse) ! ! 

Sect. 2. RHABDOTHECA. C. Muell. Capsule strongly sulcato-striate. 

TORTULACE^E.] 284 'Leersia. 

4. LEERSIA RHABDOCARPA (Schwaegr.} Lindb. 

Autoicous ; densely csespitose. Leaves oblongo-lanc., rather acute 
nerve vanishing or excurrent. Caps, sub-cylindric, with 8 16 erect 
striae; cal. scabrous at apex, per. of 16 lanceolate teeth. (T. XLII, D.) 

SYN. Leersia vulgaris ft. alpina BRID. muse. rec. II, P. I, 53 (1798). 

Encalypta rhaptocarpa SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 56, t. 16 (1811). ROEHL. Deutsch. 
fl. iii, 53 (1813). FUNCK Moost. 12, t. 7 (1821). GREV. Scott, cr. fl. t. 163 (1825). BRID. 
Mant. 29 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 142 (1826). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 2 ed. 64, T. Suppl. 2, 
(1827). NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ, ii, P. I, 38, t. 14, f. 2 (1827). HUEBEN. Muse, 
germ. 102 (1833). MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 13 (1836). DE NOT. Syll. 265 (1838), Epil. 
bri. ital. 323 (1869). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 4, p. 13,1. 6 (1839). RABENH. Deutsch. 
kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 171 (1848). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 520 (1849). WILS. Bry. br. 144, 
t. 32 (1855). SCHIMP. Synops. 287 (1860), 2 ed. 342. BERK. Handb. br. m. 247 (1863). 
MILDE Bry. siles. 182 (1869). LINDB. in Act. soc. sc. fenn. 268 (1872). HOBK. Syn. 
br. m. 75 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 215 (1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. 
Amer. 181 (1884). 

Encalypta ciliata y. rhaptocarpa HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 36 (1818). GRAY Nat. arr. br. 
pi. i, 726 (1821). 

Leersia rhabdocarpa LINDB. muse, scand. 20 (1879). 

Autoicous ; densely tufted and radiculose, resembling L.exstinctoria. 
Leaves when wet erecto-patent, when dry somewhat twisting, ovato 
and oblongo-lanceolate or ligulate, concave at base, flattish, nerve 
rufescent, vanishing at apex or excurrent in a mucro or yellowish hair, 
upper margin crenulate with papillose cells, basal lax, hyaline or 
rufescent, very narrow at margin. Inner perich. bracts shorter, oblong, 
aristate ; vaginula short, expanded at apex like a plate ; calyptra straw- 
coloured, sublacerate at base, scabrous at apex ; caps, narrowly ovate 
or sub-cylindric, pale fuscous with 8 16 rufous erect striae, when dry 
deeply sulcate, with a hemispherical hypophysis ; annulus simple, lid 
convex, subulate, shorter than caps. ; teeth lanceolate, remotely articu- 
late, entire or perforated ; spores green, verruculose. Male infl. lateral, 
bracts ovate, shortly acuminate. 

HAB. On the ground and crevices of rocks in alpine districts. Fr. 7 8. 

Ben Bulben, Sligo (Mackay). Ben Lawers and Craigailleach (Gremlle). Ingleboro 
(Nowell 1857) ' Largo Links (Howie 1864) ! ! Ptarmigan m. (Rogers 1876). 

At first sight much resembling L. exstinctoria, but easily separated by 
the longitudinally striate capsule, and presence of a peristome. 

5. LEERSIA CONTORTA (Wulf.) Lindb. 

Dioicous ; tall, densely tufted. Leaves lingulate, obtuse, nerve 
scabrous at back, vanishing at apex, cells strongly papillose. Caps, 
cylindric, deeply spirally 8-sulcate ; cal. scabrous at apex; per. 
double, outer of 16 subulate teeth, inner of shorter cilia. (T. XLII, E.) 

ToRTULACEjE.] 285 \Leersia. 

SYN. Hypnum saxatile arcctiim, ramnlis teretibus, foliis subrottindis saturate viridibus DILL. 
Cat. Giss. 220 (1719), Hist. muse. 335, t. 43, f. 71 (1741) et Herbar. 

Bryum contortum WULF. in JACQ. Coll. ii, 236, excl. syn. Dill. (1788). 
Encalypta grandis SWARTZ in SCHRAD. Journ. ii, 172 (1799). 

Encalypta streptocarpa HEDW. Sp. muse. 62, t. 10, f. 10 18 (1801). SM. Fl. brit. iii, 
1182 (1804), Eng. Bot. t. 2163. BRID. Sp. muse. I, 89 (1806), Mant. 30 (1819), Bry. 
univ. i, 144 (1826). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 107 (1807). SCHKUHR Deutsch. kr. gew. 
P. II, 45, t. 29 (1810). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 59 (1811). VOIT Muse. Herb. 18 
(1812). WAHLENB. Fl. carp. 335 (1814). ROEHL. Deutsch. fl.iii, 53 (1813), Ann. Wett. 
ges. iii, 116. MART. Fl. cr. erl. 115 (1817). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. br. 34, t. 13 (1818). 
SCHULTZ Suppl. fl. starg. 66 (1819). FUNCK Moostasch. 12, t. 8 (1821). HOOK. Fl. 
scot. P. II, 128 (1821), Br. fl. ii, 18 (1833). HARTM. Skand. fl. 386. GRAY Nat. arr. 
br. pi. i, 725 (1821). WALK. ARM. Disp. meth. 23 (1825). NEES HORNSCH. Bry. 
germ, ii, P. I, 55, t. 15, f. 7 (1827). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 107 (1833). MACK. Fl.hib. 
P. 2, 13 (1836). DE NOT. Syll. 264 (1838), Epil. bri. ital. 321 (1869). BR. SCHIMP. 
Bry. eur. fasc. 4, 15, t. 7 (1839). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii. S. 3, 172 (1848). 
C. MUELL. Synops. i, 521 (1849). WILS. Bry. br. 145, t. 13 (1855). SCHIMP. 
Synops. 292 (1860), 2 ed. 347. BERK. Handb. br.m. 247 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 183 
(1869). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 76 (1873). HUSN. Mouss nord-ouest 112 (1873). 
LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 183 (1884). 

Encalypta contorta HOPPE Bot. Taschenb. BROCKM. Laubm. Mekl. 91 (1869). LINDB. 
in Act. soc. sc. fenn. X, 268 (1872). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 219 (1882). 

Leersia streptocarpa BROCKMULLER Beitr. kr. fl. Mekl. 23 (1863). 
Leersia contorta LINDB. Muse, scand. 19 (1879). 

Dioicous ; in large coarse tufts, deep green above, fuscous and 
densely radiculose below, the young shoots light green. Leaves 
patulous, when dry laxly incumbent and incurved, from a clasping 
diaphanous base, limbatewith narrow cells, oblongo-lingulate, muticous, 
the wings sometimes incurved at apex and subcucullate, the cells 
coarsely rotundate and strongly papillose ; nerve rufous, prolonged to 
apex, scabrous at back. Perich. bracts from an oblong concave base, 
suddenly acuminate, convolute, erect. Calyptra very long, narrow, 
cylindraceous, fuscescent, fimbriato-lacerate at mouth, very rough at 
apex ; caps, on a tall red seta, long, from ovate cylindraceous, 
obliquely or sub-spirally orange-striate, when dry, cylindric, spirally 
8 sulcate ; lid clavellate, orange, half length of caps.; annulus broad, 
double, rolling back ; teeth of per. half length of caps., purple, filiform, 
erect, remotely nodulose, minutely papillose ; endostome one half 
shorter than peristome, of 32 yellowish filiform cilia in pairs, united to 
the middle to a punctulate membrane closely applied to the teeth ; 
spores very small, green, smooth. Male plant less robust, infl. terminal 
gemmiform, bracts broadly ovate, subacuminate. 

HAB. Rocks, walls and gravelly banks, especially on limestone. Fr. 8. 

Not uncommon but very rarely fertile ; c. fr. Youlgreave, Derby (Bowman). Matlock 
(Wilson). Bolton Bridge (Nowell) ! ! Wall of a bridge at Blair Atholl. Bridge by 
Ossian's hall, Dunkeld (Hooker 1815) ! ! Near Lough Bray (Mackay). Jackdaw crag 
quarry, Tadcaster (Wesley 1878) ! ! 

TORTULACE^E.] 286 [Leersia. 

The largest of our species and easily recognized by its coarse rigid 
leaves, opake with" stout papillae. It is extremely abundant at Pitlochry, but 
is seldom seen in fruit in this country. 

TAB. XXVII. A. Ephemerum serratum (Sydenham, George). B. Eph. mimitissimum (Hurst, 
Mitten). C. Eph. intermedium (Hurst, Mitten). D. Eph. coharens (Ireland, Moore). 
E. Eph. stenophyllun and ft. var. brevifolium (Mere, Wilson). F. Eph. recurvifolium 
Sussex, Davies). G. Acaulon triquetrum (Sussex, Davies). H. Ac. muticum and 
ft. var. minus (Sussex, Davies). I, Phascum acaulon (Croydon, Braithwaite), ft. var. 
piliferum ; y. var. elatum ; $. var curvisetum. K. Phase. Floerkei and ft. var. badium 
(Sussex, Davies). 

TAB. XXVIII. A. Phascum curvicolle (Plymouth, Holmes'). B. Pottia recta (Levens, Barnes) 
C. P. bryoidcs (Levens, Barnes), and ft. var. Thornhillii. D. P. Heimii (Shoreham, 
Braithwaite). E. P. truncatula (Chiselhurst, Braithwaite). F. P. intermedia (Ches- 
hire, Wilson). G. P. litoralis (Sussex, Mitten). 

TAB. XXIX. A. Pottia lanceolata (Gravesend, Braithwaite). B. P. caspitosa (Arundel, 
Davies). C. P. Starkei (Sussex, Davies), ft. var. affinis, y. var. Davallii. D. P. 
asperula (Penzance, Curnow). E. P. viridi folia (Plymouth, Holmes). F. P. Wilson. 
(Penzance, Cur now). 

TAB. XXX. A. Pottia crinita (Aberdeen, Dickie). B. P. latifolia (Clova, Fergusson). C. 
Tortula pusilla (Cheshire, Wilson). D. T. lamellata (Oxford, Boswell). E. T. brcvi- 
rostris (Ashwood Dale, George). F. T. stellata (Oxford, Boswell). G. T. ericcefolia 
(Oxford, Boswell). 

TAB. XXXI. A. Tortula aloides (Oxford, Boswell). B. T. atrovirens (Barmouth, Holt). C. 
T. cuneifolia (Plymouth, Holmes). D. T. Vahlii (Sussex, Davies). E. T. marginata 
(Shere, Capron). F. T. canescens (Sussex, Jenner). G. T. muralis (Croydon, Braith- 
waite), ft. var. rupcstris, y. var. tzstiva. 

TAB. XXXII. A. Barbula mucronata (Surrey, Braithwaite). B. Tort, subulata (Whitby, 
Braithwaite). C. T. angustata (York, Spruce). D. T. mutica (Sussex, Davies). E. 
T. papillosa (Sussex, Davies). F. T. Icevipila (Epsom, George). 

TAB. XXXIII. A. Tortula montana (Conway, Wilson). B. T. ruralis (Kent, Holmes). C. 
T. princeps (Kirriemuir, Fergusson). D. Pleurochcete squarrosa (Plymouth, Holmes). 
E. Mollia crispa (Betchworth, Braithwaite). F. M. rmilticapsularis (Appleton, Wil- 
son). G. M. Mittenii (Hurst, Mitten). 

TAB. XXXIV. A. Mollia rostellata (Sussex, Davies). B. M. microstoma (Gravesend, Braith- 
waite), ft. var. obliqua. C. M. squarrosa (Cheshire, Wilson). D. M. condensa (Ply- 
mouth, Holmes). E. M. viridula (Kent, Braithwaite), ft. var. amblyodon. F. M. 
rutilans (Sussex, Davies). G. M. tennis (Ashley, Hunt). 

TAB. XXXV. A. Mollia calcarea (Monsal-dale, Holt), ft. var. Viridula. B. M. ceruginosa 
(Ben Lawers, Braithwaite). C. M. verticillata (Bangor, Wilson). D. M. crispula 
(Ormeshead, Wilson), ft. var. viridula, y- var. elata, 5. var. nigro.viride. E. M. 
litoralis (Penzance, Curnow). 

TAB. XXXVI. A. Mollia brahcydontia (Bristol, Wilson), ft. var. cophocarpa. B. M. tenuirostris 
(Dolgelly, Wilson), ft. var. Daldinii, v. var. Holtii. C. M. hibernica (Killarney, Holt). 
D. M. flavovirens (Penzance, Curnow). 

TAB. XXXVII. A. Mollia nitida (Plymouth, Holmes). B. M. inclinata (Oxford, Boswell). 
C. M. tortuosa (Killarney, Holt), ft. var. dicranoidea, y- var. angustifolia, 8. var. 
fragilifolia. D. M.fragilis (Ben Laoigh, Ewing). E. Leptodont, flexifolium (Witney, 

TAB. XXXVIII. A. Leptod. gemmascens (Hurst, Mitten). B. L. recurvifolium (Wales, 

C. Mollia lutescens (Glena, Lindberg). D. Barbula curvirostris (Wales, W^'foow), and 
var. commutata. 

TAB. XXXIX. A. Barbula rubella (Schiehallion, Braithwaite), ft- var. dentata, y. var. 
ruberrima. B. B. lurida (Wetherby, WVs/fj). C. S. brevifolia (Southport, Hunt). 

D. B.fallax (Eskdale, Braithwaite), ft. var. brevifolia. E. . w^a (Malham, P^^s^) 
j8. var. robusta. 


TAB. XL. A. Barbula spadicea (Bolton bridge, Hunt}. B. B. rigidula (Cliviger, Now ell). 
C. B. acuta (Durdham Downs, Thwaites). D. B. cylindrica (Bolton, Hunt), ft. var. 
vinealis. E. B. sinuosa (Bangor, Wilson). 

TAB. XLI. A. Barbula Hornschuchii (Oxford, Boswell). B. B. revoluta (Tring, Braith. 
watte). C. B. convoluta (Shirley, Braithwaite), (3. var. sardoa. D. B. unguiculata 
(Abbey wood, Braithwaite). E. Tortula suberecta (Norway, Kiaer). F. Cinclidotus 
fontinaloldes (Malham, Braithwaite). 

TAB. XLII. A. Leersia alpina (Ben Lawers, Wilson). B. Leersia exstinctoria (Addington, 
Braithwaite), /3. var. pilifera, S. Leersia alpina var. imberbis C. L. laciniata (Ben 
Lawers, Braithwaite). D. L. rhabdocarpa (Largo, Howie). E. L. contorta (Blair 
Atholl, Wilson). 




Ephetn. recur -n folram. 

PhascuTTi acaulon. 

Ephem. intermednjm 

Ephem. cohasrens. 

Acaulon nmtic\im . 


Phase. Floerkei. 

RJlraitkwaite, iM.. <u.i itjaL .E Carter sr 

Mijitern Hi;.-, iiu/i 



Phase, curvicolle. 

Pottra "bry cades. 

Pottia Heimn 

]. _, a, 

Pottia tniTicaitula,. 

Pottia intermedia. 

I I: it J 

RBwi.tlrwaxle clel iai naj Carter sc 

B r Moss -Fl. 




Pottia lanceoiata. 

Pottia csespitossL 

Pottaa- aisperula. 

Pottia Starkei. 

PctUa vindifolia. 


Pottia Wiisoni. 


Hfiratihwtnte not. E . Carter St. 

Moss -FL 



P ottaa crini ta . 

PotUa latifolia. 

Tortula.. lamella-ta. 

T crt. brevirostns 

Tortula sbellata.. 

Tort, encaefolia. 

It liniithvfodt del, ad not. E Carter sc . 



RBraithwite ml nut ,itl E Carter 

XnternSros imp 

- HTMoss-Fl 






Tort, montana. 

Tort, rural is. 

Tort, pnnceps. 

PI euro cliaete sg uarr o s a. 

Molli a en sp a, 

M. Mittemi. 

Jbfintern Bros unp 

- -BTMoss.-Fl. 



Moll rostellata.. 

Moll, micro stoma 

Mollia tortilis 

Mollia vindxila 

mnt,- .if/ uni.tlfl E (\trter : 

B T Moss-Tl 


cac are a . 

Moll, seruginosa. 


"Moll, verticillata. 


,ul nut. M Carter sc 

.B r Moss-Fl 



"MoTHa "brachvlontia. 

vc -virems. 

Moll : a, ten ui re tin s . 

/,' ,ul li.ii ,tt-l . /:'(', ll-fcr^ 

T O R T U 1A.CEJE . 

T. XXXVff 

~ '^ ! \ 

TvTollia tortuosa 

R Bnnll,mnt4- ,i,1 n,il. t itl, E Carter 

Nmtern Bros imp 

BrUbss -El 





1 Tfr 

RJlrtvtJiwaiie a,l , M I del 1 K Carle 

.\finti-rri Brcs 'Jlf 



T. XL. 

Bar-tula spadicea 



Ba:rb-ula acaita 


Bartxila smuosa 

R Bratfhwnitf ad mil ifl'. E <;<;(.-/ 

SrMoss. Fl. 



ad not del E Carter so 



Webera sessilis (SCHMID.) LINDB. 



Plants very short, gregarious, growing on turfy soil. Leaves 
lingulate or lanceolate, nerved, flexuose, crisped when dry, fragile, with 
rounded opaque cells in 2 3 strata. Perich. bracts larger, ciliate or 
serrate, aristate with the excurrent nerve, membranous; Caps, 
immersed or exserted, subsessile, ovoid, oblique, gibbous ; calyptra 
conico-mitriform, entire, scarce covering the conical acuminate lid ; 
peristome none, endostome a pale i6-plicate, conical membrane ; 
spores minute. 

This small family of 5 or 6 species has generally been united to 
Buxbaumiaceae, but the only relationship to Buxbaiimia lies in the similarity 
of the capsule and endostome, for in leaf structure it comes very close to 
Tortulacea?, especially to the section Tortella of Mollia. The epicarpic 
membrane is thick at the mouth of the capsule, but all the rest is thin and 
flaccid, and the capsule wall stands away from the spore sac, being connected 
with it by short filaments. 

Ehrhart's name must certainly be retained for the genus and not 
superseded by that of Mohr. Three years later Hedwig applied the name 
Webera to another genus, comprising Bartramia pomiformis, B. Halleri and 
Meesea trichodes Fund. muse. II, 95 (1782) and, apparently forgetful of this, 
he a third time used it as a genus of mosses for Brytim nutans and pyrifoyme 
in his Muse, frond, i, (1787) ; repeating this in the Sp. muscorum (1801). 
But in these two latter works he also founded a genus Pohlia for Bryum 
elongatum, a congener of B. nutans, and Lindberg has very cleverly settled 
the difficulty by maintaining the original genus Webeva of Ehrhart, and 
transferring the third genus of that name to Pohlia of Hedwig. 


(Hann. mag. 1779, p. 257.) 

The only genus and therefore the character is the same as that of 
the family. Der. After G. H. Weber, author of Spicil. Fl. Goettingens. 

WEBEEA SESSILIS (Schmid.) Lindb. 

Dioicous ; dwarfish, gregarious. Leaves lingulate, entire, with the 
nerve vanishing ; perich. bracts ovato-lanceolate, laciniato-ciliate, nerve 
longly aristate. (T. XLIII.) 

WEBERACE^.] 292 [Weber a. 

SYN. Sphagnum acaulon maximum, foliis in centra ciliaribus HALL. It. helv. 1739, p. 83, 
c. icone (1740), Enum. stirp. helv. i, 97 (1742). DILL. Hist. muse. 253, t. 32, f. 13 
(1741), et. Herbar. 

Buxbaumia scssilis SCHMID. Diss. de Buxb. 26, t. 2 (1758). HEDW. Fund, ii, 96 (1782). 
HOFFM. Deutsch. fl. ii, 21 (1795). 

Phascum subulatum Var. (3. HUDS. Fl. angl. 397 (1762). 

Phascum subulatum OEDER Fl. dan. t. 249, p.p. (1766). 

Phascum Halleri F. MUELL. Fl. fridrichs. 196 (1767). POLL. PI. palat. iii, n. 974 (1777). 

Bryum Halleri NECK. Meth. muse. 233 (1771). 

Phascum maximum LIGHTF. Fl. scot, ii, 693 (1777). 

Phascum montanum HUDS. Fl. angl. 2 ed. 466 (1778). 

Buxbaumia foliosa WEBER Spic. fl. gott. 128 (1778). SWARTZ Meth. muse. 33, t. 4, f. 2 

(1781), Muse. suec. 74, t. 4, f. 4 (1799). L. Syst. veg. 14 ed. 925 (1784). ROTH Tent. 

fl. germ, i, 478 (1788). WITH. Bot. arr. br. veg. 3 ed. iii, 7go'(i796). HULL Br. fl. 

P. 2, 276 (1799). BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. Ill, 150 (1803). SM. Eng. Bot. t. 329. 

Fl. brit. iii, 1148 (1804). TURN. Muse. hib. 104 (1804). SCHULTZ Fl. starg, n. 355 

(1806). ROEHL. Deutsch. fl. iii, 120 (1813). WAHLENB. Fl. carp. 363 (1814). SCHWAEG. 

Suppl. I, P. II, 65 (1816). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 540 (1833). 

Webera Diphyscium EHRH. Hann. mag. 1779, p. 257. Beitr. i, 189 (1787). 
Bryum phascoides JACQ. Collect, ii, 220 (1788.) 

Diphyscium foliosum MOHR Obs. bot. 34 (1803). WEB. MOHR Bot. Tasch. 377,1. n, 
f. i (1807). VOIT Muse. herb. 112 (1812). BRID. Sp. muse. Ill, 112 (1817), Mant. 123 
(1819), Bry. univ. i, 326 (1826). MART. Fl. cr. erl. 85 (1817). HOOK. TAYL. Muse. bi. 
16, t. 8 (1818). FUNCK Moost. 37, t. 24 (1821). GRAY Nat. arr. br. pi- i, 717 (1821). 
HOOK. Fl. scot. P. II, 124 (1821), Br. fl. ii, 13 (1833), Fl. Lond. HARTM. Skand. fl. 
MACK. Fl. hib. P. 2, 12 (1836). BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. i, t. 2, et fasc. 64, Suppl. 
(1837). DE NoT - Syll. 145 (1838), Epil. bri. ital. 349 (1869). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. 
ii, S. 3, 240 (1848). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 812 (1849). WILS. Bry. brit. 201, t. 8 
( l8 55)- J EN s. Bry. dan. t. 8, f. 40 (1856). SCHIMP. Synops. 451 (1860), 2 ed. 547. 
BERK. Handb. br. m. 214, t. 19, f. 5 (1863). MILDE Bry. siles. 254 (1869). HOBK. 
Syn. br. m. 99 (1873). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest 138 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.- 
un g- 35 1 (1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 267 (1844). 

Hymenopogon heterophyllum P. BEAUV. Prodr. 60 (1805). 
Diphyscium sessile LINDB. in Oefv. Vet. Ak. foerh. xx, 303 (1863). 

Webera sessilis LINDB. in Op. c. 394, in obs. (1863) et xxi, 576, in nota (1864) ; in Not. 
saells. pro Fauna et fl. fenn. foerh. ix, 157 (1867). 

Dioicous; brown or blackish green, in expanded tufts. Stems very 
short, radiculose ; leaves lingulate, curled when dry, chlorophyllose, 
thick, of three strata of minute rounded hexagonal cells above, narrowly 
rectangular at base ; apex concave, obtuse, the margin crenulate with 
projecting cells, nerve vanishing below apex. Perich. bracts very large, 
rufescent at base, ovato-lanc., thin and membranous without chloro- 
phyl, deeply serrate or lacerate and ciliate at apex, the nerve excurrent 
in a long roughish piliform arista, cells quadrate and rectangular, 
hyaline, with incrassate transverse wails. Caps, immersed in the 
perichaetium, pale yellowish-brown, leptodermous, ventricosely ovato- 
conic, oblique ; mouth small with an annulus of a single series of cells ; 
lid conic, acuminate, peristome none or represented by irregular pro- 
jecting fragments of tissue ; endbstome a white membrane twisted in a 
cone, i6-carinato-plicate, the ridges thickened and papillose ; spores 
minute, smooth, green. 

WEBERACE^;.] 293 [Webera. 

Male plants short, scattered, the infl. gemmiform, terminal, inner 
bracts ovate, concave, nerve excurrent. 

HAB, Turfy banks and moist rocks in mountain districts ; not uncommon. 
Fr. 8. 

Var. /3. acutifolia Lindb. 

Plants taller, denser and more branched ; leaves longer, acuminate, 
acute, arista of perich. bracts smooth. 

HAB. With the type, but more frequently in Ireland, though usually 
sterile. Connemara c. fr. (Moore 1853) ! I Luggielaw (Lindberg 1873) ! ! 


Webera sessilis (Ben Lawers, Braithwaite). (3. Var. acutifolia (Ireland, 

a. Fertile, b. male plant, a*. Fertile pi. mag. i. Leaf, i a. apex, i ab. areolation 
of base, i x. transv. section. 2. Perich. bract. 3. Male infl. 4. bract and anthe- 
ridia. 5. Capsule. 6. Spore sac. 7. Calyptra. 8. Operculum. 9. Endostome. 


T.XT.TTT. (d- na.1 del . E.Carter 

.Vrntfin tins m,/i. 



Var. (3 Huntii (Limpr.) 

Plants taller. Leaves longer with a narrower nerve ; perich. bracts 
shorter, obovate, obtuse or apiculate. 
SYN. A. commutata (non C. MUELL.) LIMPR. in 61 Jahresb. der Schles. Ges. 221 (1883). 

A. Huntii LIMPR. in RABENH. kr. fl. 2 ed. band, iv, 145, f. 55 (1886). 

HAB. Loch Kandor (Hunt 1871) ! ! Buttermere and Borrowdale (Hunt 

1871) ! Styehead Pass and Scawfell (Baker 1879) ! ! 

Although from the longer slender stems with laxer leaves, this has a 
distinct appearance, we do not think it has characters sufficient to separate 
it from A . crassinervis ; the lamina of the leaf narrows upward and vanishes 
more gradually than in that species, of which we prefer to regard it as a 
variety, but the specimens were referred by Schimper to A . falcata, A third 
closely allied plant from Steiermark, is named by Lindberg A. angustata. 


Catharinea Dixoni BRAITHW. MSS. DIXON in Journ. Bot., 1885, 
p. 169. 

This species must be erased from the list, as it proves to be only a form 
of Polytrichum gracile with fewer lamellae than usual. 


Dioicous ; resembling L. glaucum, but much smaller. Leaves very 
dense, narrower, erect. Caps, oblong, sub-erect, nearly regular, not 
strumose. (T. XLV, B.) 

SYN. Bryum albidum et glaucum fragile minus, foliis erectis, setis oblongis DILL. Hist. 

muse. 546, t. 83, f. 8 (1741) et Herbar. 
Dicranum albidum BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. I, 167 (1798), Sp. muse. I, 205 (1806), Mant. 

muse. 67 (1819). 
Dicranum glaucum ft. albidum WEB. MOHR. BRID. Bry. univ. i, 409 (1826). 


Lencobryum minus HAMPE MSS. SULLIV. Mosses Un. St. 24 (1856). LESQ. JAMES 
Mosses N. Amer. gi (1884). 

Leucobryum vulgare ft, minus HAMPE in Linnaa xiii, 42 (1839). C. MUELL. Synops. i, 75 


Leucobryum glaucum ft, minus C. MUELL. Linnaa 1844, p. 687. 
Leucobryum albidum LINDB. in Oefv. Vet. ak. foerh. 1863. 

Dioicous ; in dense whitish tufts, f in. high. Leaves very dense, 
thin, narrow, more acuminate, erect. Caps, obliquely inclined, nearly 
regular, not strumose. 

HAB. On sandy hillocks under beech trees in the New Forest, at Boldre 
Bridge and Holmsley Station, Lyndhurst. (Pi/ard, April, 1882) ! ! 

This moss was distinguished as a species by Dillenius, and seems entitled 
to rank as such by its more delicate texture, and different capsule. Hitherto 
it has been regarded as exclusively American, and I have seen no other 
record of its occurrence in Europe. 


Subf. 2. TREMATODONTE&. Plants small, casspitose ; leaves lanc.- 
subulate, without enlarged basal angular cells. Caps, with a long swollen 
neck, longer than the capsule ; per. of 16 lanceolate teeth, perforated in the 
middle or cleft ; sometimes cleistocarpous. 


RICH. Fl. bor.-Amer. ii, 289 (1803). 

Plants short, csespitant. Leaves lane. -subulate, nerved, the cells 
hexagono-rectangular, perich. bracts distinct. Calyptra inflato-cucul- 
late, rostrate; caps, on a tall seta, elliptic or oblong, subcernuous, 
defluent into a long swollen neck, once or twice as long as caps., which 
is oblong and gently curved, per. of 16 lanceolate teeth, subentire, 
perforated or cleft into two unequal legs. Der. rprj^a a foramen, oSovs 
a tooth. 

i. TREMATODON AMBIGUUS (Hedw.) Hornsch. 

Autoicous ; in small dense tufts. Leaves from an ovate-oblong 
base, suddenly lane. -subulate, nerve excurrent. Caps, subclavate, 
subcernuous, the neck of equal length, teeth perforated vertically or cleft 
into two unequal legs. (T. XLV, C.) 

SYN. Dicranum ambiguum HEDW. Muse, frond, iii, 87, t. 36 (1792), Sp. muse. 150 (1801). 
BRID. Muse. rec. II, P. I, 180 (1798), Sp. muse. I, 222 (1806). SWARTZ Muse. suec. 36 
(1799). ROTH Fl. germ, iii, P. I, 169 (1800). P. BEAUV. Prodr. 53 (1805). WEB. MOHR 
Bot. Tasch. 195 (1807). STURM Deutsch. fl. II, 8. SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, P. I, 194 
1811). ROEHL. Deutsch. fl. iii, 75 (1813). MART. Fl. cr. erl. 106 (1817). 


Trematodon ambiguus HORNSCH. Flora 1819, p. 88 ; Bry. germ, ii, P. II, 206, t. 43, f. 2 
(1831). BRID. Mant. 52 (1819). FUNCK Moostach. 20, t. 19 (1821). SCHWAEG. 
Suppl. II, P. I, 69 (1823). HUEBEN. Muse. germ. 149 (1833). DE NOT. Syllab. 223 
(1838), Epil. bri. ital. 663 (1869). HARTM. Skand. fl. BR. SCHIMP. Bry. eur. fasc. 
2930, p. 5, t. 2 (1846). RABENH. Deutch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 135 (1848). C. MUELL. 
Synops. i, 457 (1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 67 (1860), 2 ed. 68. MILDE Bry. siles. 56 
(1869). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 29 (1882). HOBK. Syn. br. m. 2 ed. 65 (1884). 
LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 63 (1884). 

Trematodon vulgaris BRID. Bry. univ. i, 386 (1826). 

Autoicous ; in small dense tufts, pale green or fuscescent ; stems 
short, branched, radiculose at base. Leaves erecto-patent. flexuose, from 
a concave ovate-oblong base, suddenly lanceolate-subulate, canaliculate, 
entire ; nerve semiterete, excurrent in the subula, cells at base narrow 
rectangular, above rhombic or hexagonal ; perich. bracts much larger, 
elongate-oblong, gradually acuminate, laxly areolate at base. Caps, on 
a long flexuose straw-coloured seta, oblong, straw-coloured or orange- 
brown, the neck cylindric, long as capsule, subarcuate, tumidly stru- 
mose, the base abrupt at the inner side ; annulus broad, lid conic, 
subulate rostrate ; teeth confluent at base on an exserted membrane, 
cleft into two unequal legs, or perforated in the middle line, red, 
incurved when dry. Male infl. terminal on a basal branch, bracts 
small, ovate convolute, acuminate, nearly nerveless. 

HAD. Bare wet turfy places in subalpine districts ; very rare. Fr. 7 8. 

In a path at base of Schiehallion, near Tummel bridge, Perthshire (Braithwaite and 
Crombie, 1883) ! ! 

The species of this beautiful genus are remarkable for the long neck to 
the capsule which gives the fruit a peculiar club-shaped appearance. Only 
a single tuft was found, and that was growing in the centre of a patch of the 
rosy red form of Byy um pattens. The genus Bruchia also belongs to this sub- 

3. BLINDIA TRICHODES (Wils.) Lindb. 

Dioicous ; in small, bright green tufts. Leaves more or less secund, 
from an oval concave base, longly subulate. Caps, hemispherical, with 
short truncate teeth. (T. XLV, D.) . 

Svx.Dicranum trichodes WILS. MSS. 

Blindia acuta Var. trichodes BRAITHW. in Journ. Bot. 1870, p. 228. 
Blindia trichodes LINDB. PHILIB. in Rev. bryol. 1884, p. 90. 

Dioicous ; small, in bright green or yellowish green tufts, fuscescent 
at base. Leaves more or less secund, lower short, upper much longer, 
from a shortly oval concave base, longly subulate, the subula formed 
entirely of the nerve, canaliculate, denticulate at apex, three times the 


length of limb. Seta short and pale, caps, hemispherical, greenish 
straw-colour, when old turbinate, lid pale, long subulate, per. bright red, 
the teeth short truncate, of only 3 4 rectangular articulations, smooth, 
sometimes foraminate. Male plants in separate tufts, much smaller 
than female, bracts ovato-lanceolate. 
HAB. Wet shaly rocks ; sterile. 

Entwistle, near Bolton (Scholcfteld, 1863)!! Egerton, Cheshire (Whitehead, 1865)! 
Astley chapel, near Bury (Dr. Wood, 1864) ! Green's clough, Todmorden (Nowell, 
1867) ! ! Marsden, near Burnley (Whitehead, 1865) ! ! Bamford Wood (Holt, 1878) ! ! 
Ramsden clough and Gorple clough, Todmorden (Holt, 1880) ! ! 

Very close to B. acuta and resembling it in areolation, but in the latter 
the lamina narrows more gradually and runs up to the middle of leaf ; 
the nerve is rounder and more rigid, and the tufts are generally black at 
base. It has also been found in Madeira and the Caucasus, and with 
fruit in the Riesengebirge, and in Corsica by Philibert, but these are only 
i the height of British specimens. 


Var. y. epilosus Braithw. 

Plants more slender, with softer narrower more patent leaves, the attenu- 
ated subula without any hyaline point. 

HAB. Dingdong moor, Penzance (Marquand 1883) ! ! Isle of Man (Holt 1881). Tyn-y- 
groes (Holt 1882). 

Another moss of this genus from Jersey, is referred by Mr. Boswell with a 
? to Campylopus adustus DE NOT. of which we have no specimens for com- 
parison. We have little doubt however that the Jersey plant is a form of 
C. introflexus, with the hair-points very short or altogether wanting. 

Var. /?. elongatus Bosw. 

In wide dense pale yellowish-green tufts. Stems tall, slender I 2 in. long, 
radiculose at base. Leaves more distant, of thinner texture, with a more 
elongated subula. 

SYN. Campylopus brevifolius Var. elongatus Bosw. in Naturalist 1883, p. 28. 
HAB. Banks of the Wye near Builth (Boswell 1883). 

The aspect of this moss is very different from the ordinary state, and this 
may be greatly due to the locality in which it was found, for the stems show 
3 years growth and are full of fine sandy deposit from the river ; it is probable, 
therefore, the elongation of the stem is due to an effort of the plant to escape 



This has turned up in several localities, and in such varied forms that it is 
clear it must be reduced to a variety of C. fle.vuosus. 


Dioicous ; robust, densely tomentose. Leaves from a broad base, 
lineal-lanceolate, strongly undulate, coarsely serrate at margin and in 
two rows at back of nerve. Caps, aggregate, oblongo-cylindric, 
arcuate ; lid with a long subulate beak. 

SYN. Dicranum undulahim EHRH. PL crypt, exsicc. n. 271 (1792). STURM. Deutsch. Fl. II. 
10. VOIT Muse. herb. 87 (1812). MART. Fl. cr. erl. 97 (1817). HUEBEN. Muse, 
germ. 239 (1833). DE NOT. Syllab. 211 (1838), Epil. bri. ital. 615 (1869). BR. SCH, 
Bry. eur. fasc. 37-40, p. t. 34-35 (1847). RABENH. Deutsch. kr. fl. ii, S. 3, 148 (1848). 
C. MUELL. Synops. i, 355 (1849). SCHIMP. Synops. 94 (1860), 2 ed. 97. MILDE Bry. 
siles. 74 (1869). HUSN. Mouss. nord-ouest, 55 (1873). JURATZ. Laubm. oesterr.-ung. 
50 (1882). LESQ. JAMES Mosses N. Amer. 76 (1884). LIMPR. in RABENH. kr. fl. 2 ed. 
346 (1887). 

Bryum rugosum HOFFM. Deutsch fl. ii, 39 (1795). 

Dicranum rugosum BRID. Sp. muse. I, 175 (1806), Mant. 57 (1819), Bry. univ. i, 414(1826). 
ROEHL. Deutsch. fl. iii, 67 (1813). 

Dicranum poly setum SWARTZ Muse. suec. 34 and 87, t. 3, f. 5 (1799). SCHWAEG. Suppl. I, 
P. I, 165, t. 41 (1811). 

Dioicous ; loosely tufted, ascending, glossy, bright green above, 
pale fuscous below. Stems 2 10 in. high, coated nearly to apex with 
dense pale rufous tomentum ; branches few, dichotomous. Stem leaves 
squarroso-patulous, the terminal erect, falcato-secund, from a broad 
oblong base, narrowly lineal-lane., more or less plicate, strongly undulate 
transversely, complicato-concave, the margin revolute below, coarsely 
and sharply serrate above, nerve narrow, flattened, vanishing in the 
attenuated apex, bilamellate at back, the upper f with two divergent 
rows of coarse teeth ; the basal angular cells large, orange, quadrato- 
hexagonal, upper linear, narrow, elongated. Perich. bracts very broad, 
convolute in a lax cylinder, prolonged into a ligulate flexuose subula, 
coarsely serrate above, the nerve obsolete. Caps, on a pale red seta, 
2 6 aggregated in one perichaetium, oblongo-cylindric, arcuate, lid 
long as caps, conic with a long pale subulate beak ; annulus simple, 
teeth large, deep red. Male gemmaceous, nestling in the tomentum. 

HAB. Shady sandy woods and turfy heaths. F. 7 8. 

Moorland near Wolford, Stour valley, Warwick, sterile (Bagnall, May 3Oth, 1887) ! ! 

It is with great pleasure that at the last moment I am able to insert this 
interesting discovery by my valued friend, Mr. Bagnall, for it seemed strange 
indeed that a plant common through all Eiirope and N. America should be 


wanting here, yet its rarity with us is certain, or so conspicuous a plant 
would before this have rewarded our numerous collectors. The strongly 
undulated leaves, and serrate, bilamellate nerve at once distinguish it. I 
hope to give the figure of it in the Supplement to the next volume. 


Var. y. strictum Braithw. 

Stems elongated, densely tufted, straight, slender, fastigiate. i in. high. 
Leaves distant, very short, at the middle suddenly narrowing with incurved 
margins, and tapering upward into an obtuse scarcely denticulate point. 
(T. XLV, F.) 

HAB. Among short grass, Blorenge mountain, near Abergavennv (Mitten 
1883) ! ! 

The short leaves and close straight stems give this moss an aspect widely 
different from that of the type, with which however it quite agrees in cell 


Autoicous ; in taller lax soft tufts. Leaves patent, ligulate, obtuse, 
crenulato-serrate in upper half, nerve vanishing at apex, upper cells 
lax, subquadrate, Caps. oval. (T. XLV, E.) 

SYN. Rhabdoweissia denticulata WILS. in Kew Journ. Bot. ix, 293 (1857). 
Didymodon crenulatus MITT. Journ. Linn. Soc. i, Suppl. 23 (1859). 

Autoicous; loosely caespitose, more robust than One. crispatus, 
k i in. high, dull green, dichotomous. Leaves lax patent, flaccid, 
ligulate, obtuse or pointed, flattish, recurved at apex, crenulato-serrate 
from middle to apex, nerve vanishing below the point, basal cells hyaline, 
elongated, upper rounded-quadrate, sub-obscure with the primordial 
utricle. Perich. bracts similar. Caps, on a short yellow seta, rufous ? 
oval, sulcate when old, lid rostrate, teeth red, narrow, erect when dry. 

HAB. Wet rocks. Fr. 67. 

Lochgoil head and Ben Voirlich (Hunt 1865) ! ! Beddgelert (Hunt 1865) ! ! Abergynalwyn 
(Rogers 1879) ! ! Pont Aberglaslyn (Mitten). Cwm Bychan and Tyn-y-Groes (Holt 
1883)! ! 

This was confused with O. crispatus both in description and figure, the 
leaves are much broader than in that species, and the upper cells half as 
large again. The figures O. c. are drawn from O. crispatus. 



Autoicous ; resembling A. muticum, but more slender, inner perich. 
bract very large, convolute, entire. Caps, minutely apiculate, spores 
nearly smooth. (T. XII,* I.) 

SYN. Acaulon mediterraneum LIMPR. in RABENH. krypt.-fl. von Deutschl. 4 Band, 180 (1886). 

Autoicous ; pale yellowish green, in caespitose patches ; plants 
more slender and conical. Leaves short broad, entire, nerved to apex, 
upper cells smaller, rhombic. Perich. bracts two, unequal, innermost 
very large, oblong, convolute and enfolding the fruit, with a short flat 
acute point, quite entire or with 2 3 short irregular teeth, nerved to 
apex ; outer f as long, obovate, acute, the margins involute. Caps, 
erect, reaching to middle of inner bract, globose, leptodermous, cas- 
taneous, minutely apiculate ; spores nearly smooth. 

HAB. Top of a hedge-bank at Douglas, I. of Man. (Holt Oct. 1886) ! ! 

Although very close to A. minus, this little moss has a different aspect, 
from the longer inner bract, completely wrapped round the fruit, and 
narrowing upward, the plants also are somewhat glossy and curve to one 
side and are taller than those of A . muticum. 


Var. y. elata (Scliimp.) 

Elongated, densely tufted ; caps, minute, subglobose, not reaching the 
tops of the innovations. 

Svx.Hymenostomum microstomum c. datum BR. SCH. Bry. eur. SCHIMP. Synops. 2 ed. 34. 
HAB. Wet rocks. Janets cave, Malham (Holt 1885) ! ! Settle (Burgess 

1886) ! ! 

Sterile tufts i* in. high, apparently referable to this variety, though 
it is difficult without fruit to distinguish from M. viridnla var. densifolia. 


A. Polytrichum gracile. B. Leucobryum minus (New Forest, Piffard). C. Trematodon 
ambiguus (Tummel Bridge, Braithwaite). D. Blindia trichodes (Bolton, Schole -field) . 
E. Oncophorus crenulatns (Loch Goil, Hunt). F. Dichodontium pellucidum var. strictum 
(Abergavenny, Mitten). 

a. Fertile. c. sterile plant. i. leaf. laa. Areolation of apex. jab. Do. of base. 
2. Perich. bracts. 3. male infl. 4. bract and antheridia. 5. capsule. 6. calyptra. 
8. peristome. 10. annulus. 




Treina-todcm. ambig-gns 

Onecrphorus crenula,tu.s. 

tuL lUtJ,, del JT. Carter sc. 


Andrecea Rothii. Isle of Man (Holt 1881). Macgillicuddy's reeks (Stewart and Holt 1885). 
Var. hamata. Injebreck, I. of Man (Holt 1881). 

crassinervis. Cromaglown (Stewart and Holt 1885). 

Bnxbanmia aphylla. Ogden Clough (Hanna, Wood and Whitehead). P. 28 and 29. For 
paroicous read autoicous. 

Georgia Brownii. Rocks by R. Aray, Inverary (Borrer 1810). Ben Laoigh (Holt 1880). Hagg 
beck, Kilton and Saltburn (R. Barnes 1886). 

Catharinea crispa. Staley brushes (Whitehead 1859). 

angustata. Wickham Bishops, Essex (Dixon 1884, St.). 

Polytrichum aloides var. Dicksoni. Lound and Fritton, Suffolk (Rev. E. N. Bloomfield). Dela- 
mere, Cheshire (Holt 1880). 

Polytrichum strictum. Kinder Scout (Whitehead and Holt). Hutchmere, Cheshire, I. of Man 
and Cwm Bychan (Holt). 

commune var. fastigiatum. I. of Man and Delamere (Holt). Harleston firs, 
Northants (Dixon). 

var. minus. I. of Man, Delamere and Hale moss (Holt). 

P. 77, for T. XI, D. read T. XII, A. 

Pleurldium alternifoliinn . Barmouth (Whitehead). Hatherley, Cheshire (Whitehead and 

Ditrichumhomonialluin. Joyden's wood, Kent (George). Halstead (Holmes). Strome ferry 
(Dixon 1883). Carlingford Mtn. Down (Holt). 

P. 100, Weissia zonata add NEES HORNSCH. Bry. germ, ii, P. II, 123, t. 35, f. 33. 
Ditrichum subulatum. Bickleigh Vale and Tamerton Ffolliot, Devon (Holmes). 
Dicranella crispa. Ashley mill (Holt 1884). 

curvata. I. of Man (Boyd 1886). 

heteromalla ft, stricta. Anglesey Mtn. Co. Louth (Rev. C. Waddell 1883). 
sectmda. Trecrobleen hill, W. Cornwall (Marquand 1880) ! ! 

Anisothecium rubrum ft. tenuifolinm. Larne, Antrim (Stewart 1876). Ryde (Cockshoft). 

Ashley mill (Holt 1883). Nassington, Northants (Dixon 1885). 
. callistomnm. Ashley mill and by R. Bollen, Manchester (Holt 

1884) ! ! Ashwood dale (Holt). 
crispum ft, datum. Stirrup wood, c. fr. (Whitehead 1859). Kersal moor 

(Wild 1879). Bamford wood (Holt 1881). Cotterall (Holt 1882). Hagg beck and 

Guisbro' beck, Cleveland (R. Barnes 1886). 

Seligeria Donii. Ashwood dale, Ravensdale and Monsal dale (Holt 1880). 

acutifolia ft. loiigiseta. Ravensdale and Taddington dale (Holt 1884). 

trifaria. Castleton, Derby (Rogers and Cunliffe 1881). 

paucifolia. Tunnel wood, Watford (Holmes 1883)! ! Morants Court hill (Jenner). 

Kemsing and Boxley hill, Maidstone (Holmes). Between Dartford and Darenth wood 
- (Holmes): Undercliff, Folkestone (Holmes.) 

calcarea. Taddington dale, Derby (Holt 1882). 

ADDENDA.] . 304 

Brachydontium trichodes. Clogwyn-du-Arrdu (Holt 1883). Kilton woods and Raltburn, 

Cleveland (R. Barnes 1886) ! I 

Didymodon demidatus, c. fr. Tyn-y-groes (Holt 1885) ! ! 
Campylopjis Schwarzii. Cader Idris (Holt 1882). Adara, Donegal (Holt). 

setifolius. Monk's dale, Derby c. fr. (Prof. Barker 1883). Tyn-y-groes (Holt 

1885). Benan, Galway (Holt). Slieve Snacht west (Moore). 

introflexus. Gap of Dunloe (Stewart and Holt 1885). 

atrovirens ft.falcatus. Loch Coruisk, Skye (Dixon 1883). 

flcxnosus ft. paludosus. Boswarva moor, Penzance (Marquand 

Dicranum molle. Ben Laoigh, Perth (Ewittg 1885) ! ! Ben Challum (Binstead 1885). 

Bergeri. Graden moss, Roxburgh (Boyd 1872) ! ! 

spurium. Roborough down, Devon (Holmes). 

Dicranum fuscescens ft. falcifolium. Staley brushes (Whitehead). 

elongatum. Summit of Hedgehope, Cheviots (Hardy), Ben Attow, Ross (Dixon, 1883). 

Scottii. Chiddingstone and Fisher's Castle, Kent (Holmes). Mangerton and Tore 

cascade (Holt and Stewart, 1885) ' 

Dichodontium flavescens. R. Avon below Diptford (Holmes). Lydford cascade (Marquand). 

Hagg beck, Kilton and Liverton; Cleveland (R. Barnes, 1886). 
Oncophorus polycarpus. Dartmoor. 
Bruntoni. Rusthall common and near Tunbridge Wells (Holmes). Buckland 

beacon, Lustleigh and Pew Tor (Marquand). Braid woods, Edinburgh (Lawson). 

I. of Man (Holt). 

Ceratodon conicus. North wall and Howth, Dublin c. fr. (Lindberg. 1873) ! ! Dalwhinnie, 
Inverness, c. fr. (Dixon, 1883) ! ! Duston and Kingsthorpe, Northants, c. fr. (Dixon, 
1885) ! ! 

Ephemerum stenophyllum. Limpricht in Rabenh. krypt. fl. 2 ed. p. 169, points out that this 
moss must stand as Eph. sessile, the Phascum stenophyllum of Voit and of the Bryologia 
germanica really belonging to Eph. recurvifolium ( DICKS.). BOULAY muse, de Pest 694 

Phascum Floerkei. Morant's court hill (Holmes, 1886) ! ! Cambridge (Dixon). 

curvicolle. Morant's court hill and Westerham (Jenner). Greenhithe (George). 

Folkestone (Holmes). Gogmagogs, Cambridge (Dixon). 
Pottia Starkei. Pembury Road, Tunbridge (Jenner, 1848). Greenhithe (George). Ryde 

(Cockshott, 1885). 

ccespitosa. Between Otford and Kemsing (Holmes). 

latifolia. Glen Beg, Perth (Swing, 1886). 

crinita. Southwold, Suffolk (Dixon). 

Tortula stellata. Boxley hill, Kent (Holmes.) Hyde, Cheshire (Scholejield). Romiley 

ericcefolia. Greenhithe and Dunton Green, Kent (Holmes). Northampton and 

Kingsthorpe (Dixon). 

aloides. Tunbridge. Greenhithe (George). Folkestone, Otford and Maidstone 

(Holmes). Saltburn and near Marske mill, Cleveland (R. Barnes 1886). Kingsthorpe 
and Wansford, Northants (Rogers). 

cuneifolia. Hopton and Belton common, Suffolk (Eagle). 

canescens. Radnorshire (Rev. J. Fergusson, April 1882) ! ! Glen Shee, Clova (Rev. 

y. Fergusson, March 1883) ! ! Turfy wall-top, Penlee, E. Cornwall (Rev. A. Ley 1887). 

angustata. Naseby and Sibbertoft, Northants (H. V. Dixon 1880) ! ! 

papillosa. Hothfield Park, Postling and Lympne, Kent (Holmes). Wickham and 

Witham, Essex (Dixon). 
ruralis ft. arenicola. Barbula ruraliformis BESCH. BOULAY Muse, de Test 404. 

HUSN. Muscol. gall. 115,^.33. North wall, Dublin and Ventry (Lindbcrg 1873)!! 

Penzance (Curnow). 
rinceps. Ben Evenagh, Derry (Stewart 1885). 

Pleurochate squarrosa. Deal (Mitten). Sandwich and New Romney, Kent (Holmes). Carbi? 
bay, Cornwall (Marquand 1883). 

ADDENDA.] 305 

Mollia turtilis. Lindberg points out that Gymnostomum condensnm of Voit, published 

the same year as G. tortile of Schwaegrichen, must truly have priority, as the latter 

author cites Voit's name as a synonym. The beautiful figure of Voit is also far better 

than that of Schwaegrichen. 
tennis. Duston, Northants (Dixon). Kilton, Liverton and Hagg beck (R. Barnes 1886). 

viridula <5. dcnsifolia. Tyn-y-groes (Holt 1885). 

crispula c). nigro-viridis. Monk's dale (Holt 1886). 

litoralis. Hagg beck wood, Kilton and Easington, Cleveland (R. Barnes 1887). 

tenuirostris. Kintail, Ross, c. fr. (Dixon 1883). 

flavo-vircns. Dover cliff (Howse). Deal and Romney marsh (Holmes). 

inclinata. Newlyn cliff and Lamarna (Curnow 1872). Staddon heights (Holmes 1867). 

Peel, I. of Man (Holt 1884). 
Barbnla brevifolia. Lane near Rusthall common and Romney marsh (Holmes). Rochester 

(Howse). Bullingdon bog, Witney (Boswell). Northampton (Dixon). 
fallax y. brevifolia. Kemsing and Wye, Kent (Holmes). Duston, Northants 

(Dixon}. Pepperstock, Beds. (Saunders). 
cylindrica. Great Glemham, Suffolk (Eagle). Tring and Greenhithe (Holmes). 

Lydford (Marquand). 

sinuosa. Sevenoaks, Brastead, Otford and Hythe (Holmes). Bush mills, Naseby 

Croughton and Houghton, Northampton (Dixon). 




Acaulon C.M 


fallax Hedw. 



mediterraneum Limpr. . . T. XII.* 


Var. brevicaulis 


muticum (Schreb.) C. M. . XXVII. 


brevifolia . . 

Var. minus. 


Hornschuchii Schultz. . 



triquetrum (Spruce) C. M. . 

1 88 

lurida (Hsch.) Lindb. . 



Andreaea Ehrh 


mucronata Brid. . 



alpina Sm I. 


reflexa Brid. 


Var. compacta . 


Var. robusta 


flavicans . 


revoluta (Schrad.) Brid. 



crassinervis Bruch. 

rigidula (Hedw.) Mitt. 



Var. Huntii. 


rubella (Hoffm.) Mitt. 



nivalis Hook. ... II. 


Var. dentata 


Var. fuscescens . 


ruberrima . 


petrophila Ehrh. ... I. 


sinuosa (Wils ) 



Var. homomalla 


spadicea Mitt. 



acuminata . 

unguiculata (Huds.) Hedw. 




Var. cuspidata . 


sylvicola . 

apiculata . 







alpestris . 


sparsifolia . 

fastigiata . 

Rothii W. M. . . . II. 


Blindia Br. Sch. 


Var. frigida 

I 3 

acuta (Huds.) B. S. 

. XVII. 



I 4 

caespiticia (Schw.) Lindb. 




trichodes (Wils.) Lindb. 



Anisothecium Mitt. 


Brachydontium Bruch 



crispum (Schreb.) Lindb. . XVI. 
Var. elatum 



trichodes (W. M.) Fucrn. 
Buxbaumia Hall. 



Grevillei (B. S.) Lindb. . XVI. 
rubrum (Huds.) Lindb. 
Var. tenuifolium 


aphylla L. . 
indusiata Brid. 
Campylopus Brid. 




tenellum . 

atrovirens De Not. 




Var. falcatus . 

rufescens (Dicks.) Lindb. 
squarrosum (Starke) Lindb. 
Arcbidium Brid 
alternifolium (Dicks.)Schimp. XIV. 

II 4 

9 2 

epilosus . 
brevipilus B. S. . 
flexuosus (L.) Brid. 
Var. paludosus. 
fragilis (Dicks.) B. S. . 





Barbula Hedw 


introflexus (Hedw.) Brid. 



acuta Brid XL. 


paradoxus Wils. . 



brevifolia (Dicks.) Lindb. . XXXIX. 


pyriformis (Schultt) Brid. 

. XVII. 


Var. acutlfolia . 


Schimperi Milde. 



convoluta Hedw. . . . XLI. 


Schwarzii Sch. 



Var. Sardoa 


setifolius Wils. 



curvirostris (Ehrh.) Lindb. XXXVII. 


Shawii Wils. 



Var. commutata 

Var. hamatus. . 


cylindrica (Tayl.) Sch. . . XL. 

26 9 

subulatus Sch. 



Var. vinealis 

2 7 

Var. elongatus. 




Catharinea Ehrh. 

angustata Brid. . 
crispa (James) 

Var. densifolia . 
undulata (L.) W. M. . 

Var. minor 

Ceratodon Brid 

conicus (Hampe) Lindb. 
purpureus (L.) Brid. . 

Cinclidotus P. B. 

fontinaloides (Hedw.) P. B. 


flavescens (Dicks.) Lindb. . 
pellucidum (L.) Sch. . 

Var. fagimontanum . 


Dicranella Sch. . . ..*' . 
cerviculata (Hedw.) Scfi. 

Var. pusilla 
crispa (Ehrh.) Sch. 
curvata (Hedw.) Sch. . 
heteromalla (Dill.) Sch. 

Var. stricta 



secunda (Swartz) Lindb. 
Dicranoweissia .... 
cirrata (L.) Lindb. 
crispula (Hedw.) Lindb. 
Dicramun Hedw. 
asperulum Mitt. 
Bergeri Bland. 
Bonjeani De Not. 

Var. juniperifolium . 


congestum Brid. 

Var. flexicaule . 
elongatum Schleich. 
falcatum Hedw. 
flagellare Hedw. 
fulvellum (Dicks.) Sm. 
fuscescens Turn. . 

Var. falcifolium 
longifolium Ehrh. 

majus Sm 

molle Wils 

montanum Hedw. . 
Sauteri B. S. 

Var. curvulum . 
schisti (Gunn.) Lindb. . 
scoparium (L.) Hedw. . 

Var. alpestre . . 


turfosum . 

orthophyllum . 

paludosum , i 






Scottii Turn. 





Starkei W. M . . 




spurium Hedw. 




uncinatum (Harv.) C. M. 




undulatum Ehrh. . 



viride (Sull. Lesq.) Lindb. . 




Didymodon (Hediv.) . . ~>. 




denudatus (Brid.) Lindb. 



Var. alpinus . . . 



Ditrichum Timm. 



flexicaule (Schleich.) Hampe. 



Var. densum . . 



homomallum (Hedw.) Hampe. 
Var. zonatum . . . 





subulatum (Bruch) Hampe . 


tenuifolium (Schrad.) Lindb. 



tortile (Schrad.) Hampe 



Var. pusillum . . 



Ephemerum Hampe 



cohaerens (Hedw.) Hampe . 



\V . 


intermedium Mitt. 



minutissimum Lindb. . 


recurvifolium (Dicks.) Bonlay 



serratum (Schrcb.) Hampe . 


stenophyllum (Voit) Sch. 


Var. brevifolium . . 

1 86 


Fissidens Hcdiv. 


adiantoides (L.) Hedw. 





Var. collinus. . . . 

8 4 A 


bryoides (L.) Hedw. 


7 1 


Var. intermedius 




cristatus Wils. 

8 4 A 


I 5 

Var. brevifolius . 



Curnowii Mitt. 


decipiens De Not . 









exiguus Sull. 



fontanus Schimp. . 



J 54 

incurvus Starke . 





Var. tamarindifolius . 



minutulus Sull. . 





Orrii Lindb. . . 




osmundoides (Swartz) Hedw. 


polyphyllus Wils. 





rivularis Spruce 




rufulus Br. Sch. 




serrulatus Brid. . . 




taxifolius (L.) Hedw. . 





Tequendamensis Mitt. 


viridulus (Swartz) Wahlen. . 





Georgia Ehrh 




Brownii (Dicks.) C. M. 



pellucida (L.) Rabenh. 



alpina (Sm.) Lindb. 



Var imberbis. . . . 

contorta (Wulf.) Lindb. 




exstinctoria (L.) Leyss. 

Var. pilifera. . . 


laciniata Hedw. . 
rhabdocarpa (Schw.) Lindb 

Leptodontium Hampe. 

flexifolium (Dicks.) Hampe 
gemmascens (Mitt.) Braithw 
recurvifolium (Tayl.) Hampe 

Leucobryum Hampe . 
glaucum (L.) Sch. 
minus Hampe 

Mollia Schrank. . . ' . 
asruginosa (Sw.) Lindb. 

Var. ramosissima 
brachydontia (Bnich) Lindb 

Var. cophocarpa. 
calcarea (N. H.) Lindb. 

Var. viridula. 
crispa (Hedw.) Lindb. 

Var. aciculata. . 
crispula (Brtich) Lindb. 

Var. viridula 



flavovirens (Bruch) Lindb. 
fragilis (Drum.) Lindb. 
hibernica (Mitt.) Lindb. 
inclinata (Hed.f.) Lindb. 
litoralis (Mitt.) Lindb. 

Var. angustifolia. 
lutescens Lindb. . 
microstoma (Hed.) Lindb. 

Var. obliqua. 


Mittenii (B. S.) Braithw. 
multicapsulare (Sm.) Lindb. 
nitida Lindb. 
rostellata (Brid.) Lindb. 
rutilans (Hed.) Lindb. 
squarrosa (N. H.) Lindb. 
tenuirostris (H . T.) Lindb. 

Var. Daldinii. . 


tenuis (Schrad.) Lindb. 
tortilis (Schwg.) . 
tortuosa (L.) Schrk. 
Var. dicranoidea 


verticillata (L.) Lindb. 
viridula (L.) Lindb. 
Var. amblyodon. 

densifolia . 


. XLII. 28l 

- 284 


.XXXVIII. 256 

- 257 


. XIII. 86 
. XLV. 295 


. XXXV. 240 
* 241 

.XXXVI. 245 

. XXXV. 239 


.XXXIII. 231 
. XXXV. 243 


.XXXVI. 249 

.XXXVII. 254 

. XXXVI. 248 

.XXXVII. 251 

. XXXV. 244 


.XXXVIII. 246 
.XXXIV. 234 


.XXXIII. 232 

.XXXVII. 250 
. XXXIV. 233 

- 238 

- 235 

. XXXVI. 247 

. ' 248 

. XXXIV. 239 


.XXXVII. 252 



. XXXV. 241 
. XXXIV. 236 



Oligotrichum Lam. D. C. . 
incurvum (Huds.) Lindb. 

Var. laxum. . * ' v 
Oncophorus Brid. 

Bruntoni (Sw.) Lindb. 
crispatus (Dicks.) Lindb. 
crenulatus (Mitt.) Braithw 
gracilescens (W. M.) Lindb 
polycarpus (Ehrh.) Brid. 
striatus (Schrad.) Lindb. 
strumifer (Ehrh.) Brid. 
virens (Sw.) Brid. 

Var. serratus 
Wahlenbergii Brid. 

Var. compactus 

Phascum L. . . . , 
acaulon L 

Var. piliferum . f 

Schreberi . , , 

curvicolle Ehrh. . 
Floerkei W. M. . 

Var. badium . . 
Pleuridium Brid. 

alternifolium (Kaulf.) B. S. 
axillare (Dicks.) Lindb. 

Var. strictum 
subulatum (L.) Rabenh. 
Pleurochsete Lindb. 

squarrosa (Brid.) Lindb. 
Polytrichum Dill. 
aloides Hedw. 

Var. Dicksoni. . 
alpinum L. 
attenuatum Menz. 
commune L. 
Var. perigoniale 

gracile Dicks. 
juniperinum Willd. 
piliferum Schreb. . 
sexangulare Floerke 
strictum Banks 
subrotundum Huds. 

Var. longisetum. 
urnigerum L. 

Var. humile. 
Pottia Ehrh. 

asperula Mitt. 
bryoides (Dicks.) Mitt. . 

Var. Thornhillii 
caespitosa (Bruch) C. M. 
crinita Wils. 
Heimii (Hedw.) Fuern. . 
intermedia (Turn.) Fucrn. 
lanceolata (Hed.) C. M. 






.' XXVI. 




;. XLV. 


>. XXV. 




. XXVI. 


. XXV. 















'. XIV. 





















. VIII. 


. VIII. 




. VIII. 






4 8 



. XXIX. 




. XXIX. 


. XXX. 






. XXIX. 







latifolia (Schw.) C. M. 

. XXX. 


canescens Mont. . 

. XXXI. 


litoralis AIM. 



cuneifolia (Dicks.) Roth. 



recta (With.) Mitt. 



ericcefolia (NeeJt.) Lindb. 

. XXX. 


Starkei (Hed.) C. M'. . 

. XXIX. 


la^vipila (Brid.) Schw. 



Var. affinis. 


lamellata Lindb. . 

. XXX. 


Davallii. . 

marginata (B. S.) Spruce 

. XXXI. 


truncatula (L.) Lindb. . 



montana (Nees) Lindb. 



viridifolia Mitt. . 

. XXIX. 


muralis (L.) Hedw. 

. XXXI. 


Wilson! (Hook.) C. M. . 


Var. rupestris 


Saelania Lindb. 





cassia (Vill.) Lindb. . 

. XXVI. 


mutica Lindb. 



Seligeria B. S. . 


papillosa Wils. 


acutifolia Lindb. . 



princeps De Not. . 



Var. longiseta . 


pusilla (Hedw.) Mitt. . 

. XXX. 


calcarea (Dicks.) B. S. . 
Donii (Sm.) C. MuelL . 
paucifolia (Dicks.) Carruth. 
pusilla (Ehrh.) B. S. . 
setacea (Wulf.) Lindb. . 
trifaria (Brid.) Lindb. . 

. XVII. 
. XVII. 
. XVII. 







Var. incana 
ruralis (L.) Ehrh. 
Var. arenicola . 
stellata (Schreb.) Lindb. 
suberecta (Drumm.) Lindb. 
subulata (L.) Hedw. 


. XXX. 




Var. subinermis . 

2 2O 

Swartzia Ehrh. . 


Vahlii (Schultz) Wils. . 

. XXXI. 


inclinata Ehrh. 



Var. subflaccida . 

montana (Lamk.) Lindb. 



Var. compacta . 


Trematodon Michx. 



Tortilla Hedw. . 


ambiguus (Hedw.) Hornsch 

aloides (Koch) De Not. 

. XXXI. 


angustata Wils. . . 



Webera Ehrh. 

atrovirens (Sm.) Lindb. 

. XXXI. 


sessilis (Schmid.) Lindb. 



brevirostris (Hk. Grev.) 

. XXX. 


Var. acutifolia . 


The index to the whole synonymy will be given at the end of the work. 




Fam. i. ANDRE^EACEjE. 


i. Euandreaa. 

1. A. petrophila Ehrh. 

ft. homomalla Schp. 

y. acuminata 

8. flaccida 

. sylvicola 

s- gracilis 

i]. alpestris Theden. 

$. sparsifolia (Zetterst.) 

2. A. alpina (Dill.} Sm. 

ft' compacta Hook, 
y. flavicans 

3. A. crassinervis Bnich. 

ft. Huntii (Limpr.) 

4. A. Rothii W. M. 

ft. frigida (Hueb.) 
y. hamata Lindb. 
(L falcata (Schimp.) 
2.. Chasmocalyx. 

5. A. nivalis Hook. 

ft. fuscescens Hook. 


A . A narthrodontei. 



1. B. aphylla L. 

2. B. indusiata Brid. 

Fam. 3. GEORGIACE^. 


1. G. pellucida(L.)-R0foA. 

2. G. Brownii (Dicks.) C. M. 



1. C. angustata Brid. 

2. C. undulata (L.) Web. Mohv. 

ft. minor (Hedw.) 

3. C. crispa (James). 

ft. densifolia Lindb. 


I. - incur vam(Huds.) Lindb. 

ft. laxum Braithw. 


i. Aloiddla. 

1. P. subrotundum ffrfs. 

ft. longisetum (Hampe). 

2. P. aloides Hedw. 

ft. Dicksoni (Turn.) 

2.. Pogonatum. 

3. P. urnigerum L. 

ft. humile Wahlenb. 

4. P. alpinum L. 

3. Eupolytrichum. 

5. P. sexangulare Floerke. 

6. P. gracile Dtcfo. 

7. P. attenuatum MM^. 

8. P. piliferum Schreb. 

9. P. juniperimim Willd. 
10. P. strictum Banks. 

II. P. commune L. 

/3. perigoniale (Michx.) 

y. minus Weiss. 

8. fastigiatum (Ly/t). 


t Gamophyllea . 


1. F. exilis 

2. F. exiguus SM. 

3. F. minutulus S//. 

3 I2 

4. F. viridulus (Swartz) Wahl. 

5. F. incurvus Starke. 

ft. tamarindifolius. (Don). 

6. F. Tequendamensis Mitt. 

7. F. bryoides (L.) Hedw. 

ft. intermedius Ruthe. 

8. F. Curnowii Mitt. 

9. F. fontanus S chimp. 

10. F. rivularis Spruce. 

11. F. rufulus Br. Sch. 

12. F. osmundoides (Swartz) Hedw. 

13. F. serrulatus Brid. 

14. F. taxifolius(L. )#*. 

15. F. cristatus Wils. 

/3. brevifolius Lindb. 

16. F. adiantoides (L.) Hedw. 

ft. collinus Jlfttf. 

17. F. polyphyllus Wils. 

I f Eleutherophyllea. 



1. L. glaucum (L.) Schimp. 

2. L. minus Hampe. 

Fam. 7. DICRANACE^;. 
i. Ditrichea. 

1. A, alternifolium (Dicks.) Sch. ' 


1. P. axillare (Dicks.) Lindb. 

ft. strictum (Dicks.) 

2. P. subulatum (L.) Rabenh. 

3. P. alternifolium (Kaulf.) Rabenh. 

i. Trichodon. 

1. D. tenuifolium (Schrad.) Lindb. 

2. Euditrichum. 

2. D. tortile (Schrad.} Hampe. 

ft. pusillum (Hedw.) 

3. D. homomallum (Hedw.) Hampe. 

ft. zonatum (Funck). 

4. D. subulatum (Bruch.) Hampe. 

5. D. flexicaule (Schlcich.) Hampe. 

ft. densum (Br. Sch.) 

1. S. montana (Latnk.) Lindb. 

ft. compacta (Hueben.) 

2. S. inclinata Ehrh. 

2. Trematodontces. 
1. T. ambiguus (Hedw.) Hornsch. 

3. DicvanellecE. 

DlCRANELLA Schlttlp. 

1. D. crispa (EArA.) 5^A. 

2. D. secunda (Swartz} Lindb. 

3. D. curvata (Hedw.} Sch. 

4. D. heteromalla (Dill.) Sch. 

ft. stricta Sch. 

y. interrupta (Hedw.) 

o. sericea Sch. 

5. D. cerviculata (Hedw.) Sch. 

ft. pusilla (Hedw.) 



A. rubrum (Huds.) Lindb. 
ft. tenuifolium (Bruch). 
y. tenellum (Sch.) 
3. callistomum (Dicks.) 

2. A. rufescens (Dicks.) Lindb. 

3. A. GreviUei (Br. Sch.) Lindb. 

4. A. crispum (Schreb.) Lindb. 

ft. elatum (Sch.) 

5. A. squarrosum (Starke) Lindb. 

4. Seligeriece. 

1. S. Donii (S;.) C. M. 

2. S. pusiUa (Ehrh.) Br. Sch. 

3. S. acutifolia Lindb. 

ft. longiseta Lindb. 

4. S. trifaria (Brid.) Lindb. 

5. S. paucifolia (Dicks.) Carnith. 

6. S. calcarea (Dicks.) Br. Sch. 

7. S. setacea (Wulf.) Lindb. 

1. B. trichodes(Ptoi. Mohr} Fuern. 

BLINDIA B. and S. 

1. B. caespiticia (Schwaeg.) Lindb. 

2. B. trichodes (Wils.) Lindb. 

3. B. acuta (Huds.) Br. Sch. 

DIDYMODON (Hedw.) W. M. 
1. D. denudatus (Brid.) Lindb. 
ft. alpinus (Sch.) 

1. C. pyriformis (Schultz) Brid. 

2. C. fragilis (Dicks.) Br. Sch. 

3. C. Schimperi Milde. 


543 Braithwaite 
1QQ7 moss-flora.